Vwin32.inc masm error

vwin32.inc masm error

I get the link error " LINK: fatal error LNK1181: cannot open input file 'Win32-Debug\picture-x86-asm-sad.obj'". Could somebody tell me how to call standard library function from MASM assembly. I have seen references to adding the line windows.inc to the. No problem--just select Rebuild Project from the Build menu. Visual Studio highlights MASM reserved words and strings, as shown in the following example. vwin32.inc masm error

Related Videos

Installing and testing Visual Studio MASM
The Book's Example Programs At the top of this document, we explained how to download the file named Irvine.zip and extract it into the C:\Irvine folder. Unless you have some objection to using that location, vwin32.inc masm error, do not alter the path. (Note to lab administrators: you can designate c:\Irvine directory as read-only.).

The folllowing files should appear in the c:\Irvine directory:

FilenameDescription
b16.asm, b32.asm Blank templates for 16-bit and 32-bit assembly language source files
GraphWin.inc Include file for writing Windows applications
Irvine16.inc Include file used with the Irvine16 link library (16-bit applications)
Irvine16.lib 16-bit link function library used with this book
Irvine32.inc Include file used with the Irvine32 link library (32-bit applications)
Irvine32.lib vwin32.inc masm error Irvine's 32-bit link library
Kernel32.lib 32-bit link library for Windows API
Link16.exe16-bit Microsoft linker
Macros.inc Irvine's macro include file (see Chapter 10)
make16_vs2019.batVisual Studio 2019 batch file for building 16-bit applications
SmallWin.inc Small-sized include file containing MS-Windows definitions, used by Irvine32.inc
User32.libMS-Windows basic I/O link library
VirtualKeys.inc Keyboard code definitions file, used by Irvine32.inc socket error 10057

A subdirectory named Examples will contain all the example programs shown in the book, source code for the book's 16- 32- vwin32.inc masm error, and 64-bit libraries, and two sample projects for earlier versions of Visual Studio.

Setting up Visual Studio

Select the C++ Configuration

Visual Studio supports multiple programming languages and application types. The C++ programming language configuration most closely matches that of assembly language programming, so we suggest the following steps:
  1. Select Tools >> Import and Export Settings from the menu
  2. Select the "Import selected environment settings" radio button
  3. Select the "No, just import." radio button
  4. Select "Visual C++" from the Default Settings List and click the Next button
  5. Click the Finish button, then click the Close button
  6. Notice the tabs on the left and right sides of the Visual Studio workspace. Close the Server Explorer, Toolbox, and Properties tabs. (Optionally, you can use the mouse to drag the Solution Explorer tool window to the right side of the workspace.) If you should accidentally close the Solution Explorer window in the future, you can bring it back: select View from the menu, and locate Solution Explorer in the list of views.

Optional Step: Set the tab indent size

Start Visual Studio and select Options from the Tools menu. Select and expand the Text Editor item, select All Languages, and select Tabs. Optionally, you may want to select vwin32.inc masm error Insert spaces radio button:

I prefer to set the Tab Size and Indent Size values to 5.

Tutorial: Building and running a 32-bit program

Now you're ready to open and build your first 32-bit project.

Opening a Project

Visual Studio requires assembly language source files to belong to a project, which is a kind of container. A project holds configuration information such as the locations of the assembler, linker, and required libraries. A project has its own folder, and it holds the names and locations of all files belonging to it.

If you have not already done so,Right-click here to download a zip file containing an up-to-date Visual Studio 2019 project that has been configured for assembly language. After downloading this file, un-zip it into your working directory. It contains a sample asm test file named Vwin32.inc masm error.

Follow these steps:

  1. Start Visual Studio.
  2. Open our sample Visual Studio project file by selecting File/Open/Project from the Visual Studio menu.
  3. Navigate to your working folder where you unzipped our project file, and select the file named Project.sln.
  4. Once the project has been opened, you will see the project name in Visual Studio's Solution Explorer window. You should also see an assembly language source file in the project named AddTwo.asm. Double-click the file name to open it in the editor.

You should see the following program in the editor window:

; AddTwo.asm - adds two 32-bit integers. ; Chapter 3 example .386 .model flat,stdcall .stack 4096 ExitProcess proto,dwExitCode:dword .code main proc mov eax,5 add eax,6 invoke ExitProcess,0 main endp end main
In the future, you can use this file as a starting point to create new programs by copying it and renaming the copy in the Solution Explorer window.

Adding a File to a Project: If you need to add an .asm file to an open project, do the following: 3d counter terrorism 2 Right-click the project name in the Visual Studio window, select Add, select Existing Item. (2) In the Add Existing Item dialog window, browse to the location of the file you want to add, select the filename, vwin32.inc masm error, and click the Add button to close the dialog window.

Build the Program

Now you will build (assemble and link) the sample program. Select Build Project from the Build menu. In the Output window for Visual Studio at the bottom of the screen, you should see messages similar to the following, indicating the build progress:

1>------ Build started: Project: Project, Configuration: Debug Win32 ------ 1>Assembling AddTwo.asm. 1>Project.vcxproj -> .\Project32_VS2019\Debug\Project.exe ========== Build: 1 succeeded, 0 failed, 0 skipped ==========

If you do not see these messages, the project has probably not been modified since it was last built. No problem--just select Rebuild Project from the Build menu.

Run the Program in Debug Mode

The easiest way to run your first program is to use the debugger, vwin32.inc masm error. First, you must set a breakpoint. When you set a breakpoint in a program, you can use the debugger to execute the program a full speed (more or less) until it reaches the breakpoint. At that point, the debugger drops into single-step mode. Here's how to do it:

  1. Make sure the ASM source code file is open in the editor window.
  2. Click the mouse along the border to the left of the mov eax,5 statement. A large red dot should appear in the margin.
  3. Select Start Debugging from the Debug menu. The program should run and pause on the line with the breakpoint. (Optionally, you can close the Diagnostic Tools, Autos, and Call Stack windows.)
  4. Press the F10 key (called Step Over) to execute the current statement. Continue pressing F10 until the program is about to execute vwin32.inc masm error the invoke statement.
  5. A small black window icon should appear on either your Windows desktop or status bar. The window should be blank because this program does not display any output.
  6. Press F10 one more time to end the program.

You can remove a breakpoint by clicking its dot with the mouse. Take a few minutes to experiment with the Debug menu commands. Set more breakpoints and run the program again.

Here's what your program will look like when paused at the breakpoint:

Running a program from the Command Prompt: When you assembled and linked the project, a file named Project.exe was created inside the project's \Debug folder. This file executes when you run the project. You can execute any EXE by double-clicking its name inside Windows Explorer, but it will often just flash on the screen and disappear. That is because Windows Explorer does not pause the display before closing the command window. On the other hand, you can open a Command prompt window, move to the Debug directory, and run Project.exe by typing "Project" (without the quotes). You will need to do some reading on Windows shell commands if you plan to use the command line.

To remove a source file from the Visual Studio window, vwin32.inc masm error, right-click its filename and select Remove. The file will not be deleted from the file system. On the other hand, if you want to delete the file, select it and press the Del key.

Registers

Soon you will want to display CPU registers when debugging your avid liquid 7 export failure render error. Here's how to make them visible: First, under the Tools >> Options menu, select Debbuging in the left panel, and select Enable address-level debugging. Next, set a breakpoint in your source code on an executable statement, run your program in Debug mode, select Windows from the Debug menu, and then select Registers from the drop-down list.

If you do not see the Registers command in the Debug >> Windows drop-down menu (which seems to be the case for the VS2019 Community Edition, there is a way to add a Registers command button to your Debug toolbar. Here's how to do it:
  1. While not debugging, select Customize from the Tools menu.
  2. Click the Commands tab, select the Toolbar tab, and select Debug from the list of toolbars.
  3. Click the Add Command button. In the Categories list, select Debug.
  4. Select Registers from the list of commands, vwin32.inc masm error, click the OK button to close the dialog window.
  5. Click the Close button to close the Customize dialog. You should now see a vwin32.inc masm error button on the Debug toolbar that looks like a small rectangle containing "0X" when you begin debugging a program.
The Registers window may appear docked to the top of the workspace, but you may find it helpful to float the window on top of your workspace. Just grab the window header with the mouse and pull it to the center area. You will also want to display the CPU flags. To do that, right click inside the Registers window and check the word Flags from the popup menu. You can interrupt a debugging session at any time by selecting Stop Debugging from the Debug menu. You can do the same by clicking the maroon-colored square button on the toolbar. To remove a breakpoint from a program, click its red dot to make it disappear, vwin32.inc masm error. A reminder, you might want to review our tutorial: Using the Visual Studio debugger

Building and Running Other Programs

Suppose you want to run another example program, or possibly create your own program. You can remove the existing assembly language file from the Solution Explorer window and insert a new .asm file into the project.

  • To remove a program from a project without deleting the file, right-click its name in the Solution Explorer window. In the context menu, select Remove. If you change your mind and decide to add it back to the project, right-click in the same window, select Add, select Existing item, and select the file you want to add.

Adding a File to a Project

An easy way to add an assembly language source file to an open project is to drag its filename with the mouse from a Windows Explorer window onto the name of your project in the Solution Explorer window. The physical file will not be copied--the project only holds a reference to the file's location. Try this now:

  1. Remove the AddTwo.asm file vwin32.inc masm error your project.
  2. Add a reference to the file Examples\ch03\AddTwoSum.asm to the project.
  3. Build and run the project, vwin32.inc masm error.

Copying a Source File

One way to make a copy of an existing source code file is to use Windows Explorer to copy the file into your project directory. Then, right-click the project name in Solution Explorer, select Add, select Existing Item, and select vwin32.inc masm error the filename.

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Tutorial: Building and running a 64-bit program

In this tutorial, vwin32.inc masm error, we will show you how to assemble, link, and run a sample 64-bit program. We assume you have already completed our tutorial entitled Building a 32-Bit Assembly Language Program.

Do the following steps, in order:

  1. Right-click here to download the Project64_VS2019.zip file and unzip it into your working directory.
  2. In Visual Studio 2019, select Open Project from the File menu, vwin32.inc masm error, navigate to the Project64_VS2019 folder, and select the file named Project.sln.
  3. You are about to add an existing source code file to the project. To do that, vwin32.inc masm error, right-click on Project in the Solution Explorer window, select Add,  select Existing Item, navigate to the book's Examples\ch03\64 bit" folder, select AddTwoSum_64.asm, and click the Add button to close the dialog window.
  4. Open the AddTwoSum_64.asm file for editing by double-clicking its filename in the Solution Explorer window.

You should see the following program in the editor window:

; AddTwoSum_64.asm - Chapter 3 example. ExitProcess proto .data sum qword 0 .code main proc mov vwin32.inc masm error rax,5 add rax,6 mov sum,rax mov ecx,0 call ExitProcess main endp end (Notice that the program's entry point is the main procedure. If you wish to use a different name for your startup procedure in your own programs, you can modify this option by selecting Properties from the Project menu, and then selecting Linker / Advanced / Entry Point.)

Build the Program

Select Build Project from the Build menu. You should see text written to Visual Studio's output window like the following: 1>------ Build started: Project: Project, Configuration: Debug x64 ------ 1> Assembling AddTwoSum_64.asm. 1> Project64_VS2019.vcxproj -> .\Project64_VS2019\x64\Debug\Project.exe ========== Build: 1 succeeded, 0 failed, 0 up-to-date, 0 skipped ========== If you do not see these messages, the project has probably not been modified since it was last built. No problem--just select Rebuild Project from the Build menu. You use the same Visual Studio commands to run and debug 64-bit programs as you would for 32-bit programs.

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Building 16-bit programs (Chapters 14-17)

Only Chapters 14 through 17 require you to build 16-bit applications, vwin32.inc masm error. Except for a few exceptions, which are noted in the book, your 16-bit applications will run under the 32-bit versions vwin32.inc masm error Windows (Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7).

If you're interested in running 16-bit programs under 64-bit Windows, you will need to enable a feature named NTVDM.) Click here to read a web site with instructions on how to do this.Another alternative you may wish to explore is to install a virtual machine (using a free program named VirtualBoxfrom Oracle) and install 32-bit Windows on the virtual machine. The book's example programs in Chapters 1-13 have been successfully vwin32.inc masm error in 32-bit Windows 7,8, and 10. On the other hand, many programs in Chapters 14-17 will not run in any Microsoft OS later than Windows 98, because they rely on direct access to hardware and system memory. You cannot directly run 16-bit applications in any 64-bit version of Windows.

If you plan to build 16-bit applications, you need to add two new commands to the Visual Studio Tools menu. To add a command, select External Tools from the Tools menu. The following dialog will appear, although many of the items in your list on the left side will be missing. Download the batch file here (rename the .txt extension to .bat after downloading): make16_vs2019.txt.

 

Step 1: Create the Build 16-bit ASM Command

Click the Add button and fill in the Title, Command, Arguments, and Initial directory fields as shown in the screen snapshot. If you click the buttons with arrows on the right side of the Arguments and Initial directory vwin32.inc masm error, a convenient list appears. You can select an item without having to worry about spelling:

Click the Apply button to save the command.

 

Step 2: Create the Run 16-bit ASM Command

Click the Add button again, and create a new command named Run 16-bit ASM:

Uncheck the "Close on exit" option and click the OK button to save the command and close the External Tools dialog.

Testing Your new 16-Bit Commands

To test your new 16-bit commands, vwin32.inc masm error, close any Visual Studio project that happens to be vwin32.inc masm error. Then, select File

Required Setup for 32-bit Applications

Using Visual Studio: Building and running a 32-bit program

Now you're ready to open and build your first 32-bit project.

Opening a Project

Visual Studio requires assembly language source files to belong to a project, which is a kind of container. A project holds configuration information such as the locations of the assembler, linker, and required libraries. A project has its own folder, and it holds the names and locations of vwin32.inc masm error files belonging to it.

If you have not already done so, download the author's library zip file containing required MASM library with many useful procedure. After downloading this file, un-zip it into the root of your C: drive.It must be place at C: (i.e. after unzipping you should have a C:\irvine folder and a file called Irvine32.inc at C:\irvine\Irvine32.inc.

If you have not already done so, download the sample project zip file containing an up-to-date Visual Studio 2019 project that has been configured for assembly language. After downloading this file, un-zip it into your C:\irvine directory. It contains a sample asm test file named AddTwo.asm.

Follow these steps:

1.    Start Visual Studio.

2.    vwin32.inc masm error our sample Visual Studio internal error code 210 project file by selecting File/Open/Project from the Visual Studio menu.

3.    Navigate to your working folder where you unzipped our project file, vwin32.inc masm error, and select the file named Project.sln.

4.    Once the project has been opened, you will see the project name vwin32.inc masm error Visual Studio's Solution Vwin32.inc masm error window. You should also see an assembly language source file in the project named AddTwo.asm. Double-click the file name to open it in the editor.

You should see the following program in the editor window:

; AddTwo.asm - adds two 32-bit integers.; Chapter 3 exampleInclude Irvine32.inc.codemain proc mov eax,5 add eax,6 exitmain endpend main

In the future, you can use this file as a starting point to create new programs by copying it and renaming the copy in the Solution Explorer window.

Build the Program

Now you will build (assemble and link) the sample program. Select Build Project from the Build menu. In the Output window for Visual Studio at the bottom of the screen, you should see messages similar to the following, indicating the build progress:

1>------ Build started: Project: Project, Configuration: Debug Win32 ------1>Assembling AddTwo.asm.1>Project.vcxproj -> .\Project32_VS2019\Debug\Project.exe========== Build: 1 succeeded, 0 failed, 0 skipped ==========

If you do not see these messages, the project has probably not been modified since it was last built. No problem--just select Rebuild Project from the Build menu.

Running the Program

The easiest way to run your first program is to use the run without debugger menu option.

1.    Make sure the ASM source code file is open in the editor window.

2.    Select Start Without Debugging from the Debug menu. The program should run in a separate DOS Window.

Was your program's EXE file blocked by an Antivirus scanner?

Antivirus scanner software has improved greatly in recent years, and so have the number of viruses (one website reports 50,000 at present). Because of this, vwin32.inc masm error, your computer's antivirus scanner may report a false positive when you build your program, vwin32.inc masm error, and refuse to let you run it. There are a few workarounds: (1) You can add your project's bin/debug folder into an exclusion list in your antivirus configuration. This is my preferred approach, and it nearly always works. (2) You can suspend your realtime antivirus scanner software, but this will leave you open to malware for a short time. If you choose this option, be sure to temporarily disconnect your computer from the Internet.

Running a program from the Command Prompt: When you assembled and linked the project, a file named Project.exe was created inside the project's \Debug folder. This file executes when you run the project. You can execute any EXE by double-clicking its name inside Windows Explorer, but it will often just flash on the screen and disappear. That is because Windows Explorer does not pause the display vwin32.inc masm error closing the command window. On the other hand, you can open a Command prompt window, move to the Debug directory, and run Project.exe by typing "Project" (without the quotes). You will need to do some reading on Windows shell commands if you plan to use the command line.

Building and Running Other Programs

Suppose you want to run another example program, or possibly create your own program. You can remove the existing assembly language file from the Solution Explorer window and insert a new .asm file into the project.

  • To remove a program from a project without deleting the file, right-click its name in the Solution Explorer window. In the context vwin32.inc masm error, select Remove. If you change php_value error_reporting 2047 mind and decide to add it back to the project, right-click in the same window, select Add, select Existing item, and select the file you want to add.

Adding a File to a Project

An easy way to add an assembly language source file to an open vwin32.inc masm error is to drag its filename with the mouse from a Windows Explorer window onto the name of your project in the Solution Explorer window. The physical file will not be copied--the project only holds a reference to the file's location. Try this now:

1.    Remove the AddTwo.asm file from your project.

2.    Add a reference to the file Examples\ch03\AddTwoSum.asm to the project.

3.    Build and run the project.

Copying a Source File

One way to make a copy of an existing source code file is to use Windows Explorer to copy the file into your project directory. Then, right-click the project name in Solution Explorer, select Add, select Existing Item, and select the filename.

Optional: Set the tab index size

Start Visual Studio and select Options from the Tools menu. Select and expand the Text Editor item, select All Languages, and select Tabs. Optionally, you may want to select the Insert spaces radio button:

I prefer to set the Tab Size and Indent Size values to 5.

Optional: Syntax highlighting in your source code

When a text editor uses syntax highlighting, language keywords, strings, and other elements appear in different colors. Visual Studio highlights MASM reserved words std basic ostream link error strings, as shown in the following example:

This won't happen automatically, but you can create a syntax vwin32.inc masm error file named Usertype.dat that contains MASM keywords. Then when Visual Studio starts, it reads the syntax file and highlights MASM keywords.

If you decide to use Visual Studio's built-in MASM syntax highlighter, here are the required steps to set it up:

1) Download this Usertype.dat file (enclosed in a ZIP file) given here to a folder in which you have read/write permissions. Extract it from the zip archive.

2) Close Visual Studio.

3) Copy Usertype.dat to the C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Visual Studio\2019\Community\Common7\IDE folder, vwin32.inc masm error.

Windows will display a confirmation dialog before copying the file.

4) Open Visual Studio, select Options from the Tools menu, select Text Editor, and select File Extension. On the right side of the dialog (shown below), enter asm as the extension, select Microsoft Visual C++ from the Editor list, and click the Add button. Click the OK button to save your changes.

Open your project and display an ASM file. You should see syntax highlighting in the editor. There is a glitch in the highlighting--assembly language comment line starts start with a semicolon, which C++ doesn't recognize. But this is a simple workaround: add an extra // right after the semicolon, like this, which will cause the comments to appear in their usual green color:

;// AddTwo.asm - adds two 32-bit integers.;// Chapter 3 example

 

 Run the Program in Debug Mode

The easiest way to run your first program is to use the debugger. First, you must set a breakpoint. When you set a breakpoint in a program, you can use the debugger to execute the program a full speed (more or less) until it reaches the breakpoint. At that point, vwin32.inc masm error, the debugger drops into single-step mode. Here's how to do it:

3.    Make sure the ASM source code file is open in the editor window.

4.    Click the mouse along the border to chronoforms parse error syntax error, unexpected $end left of the mov eax,5 statement. A large red dot vwin32.inc masm error appear in the margin.

5.    Select Start Debugging from the Debug menu. The program should run and pause on the line with the breakpoint. (Optionally, you can close the Diagnostic Tools, Autos, and Call Stack windows.)

6.    Press the F10 key (called Step Over) to execute the current statement. Continue pressing F10 until the program is about to execute the invoke statement.

7.    A small black window icon should appear on either your Windows desktop or status bar. The vwin32.inc masm error should be blank because this program does not display any output.

8.    Press F10 one more time to end the program.

You can remove a breakpoint by clicking its dot with the mouse. Take a few minutes to experiment with the Debug menu commands. Set more breakpoints and run the program again.

Here's what your program will look like when paused at the breakpoint:

Registers

Soon you will want to display CPU registers when debugging your programs. Here's how to make them visible: First, under the Tools >> Options menu, select Debbuging in the left panel, and select Enable address-level debugging. Next, set vwin32.inc masm error breakpoint in your source code on an executable statement, run your program in Debug mode, select Windows from the Debug menu, and then select Registers from the drop-down list.

If you do not see the Registers command in the Debug >> Windows drop-down menu (which seems to be the case for the VS2019 Community Edition, there is a way to add a Registers command button to your Debug toolbar. Here's how to do it:

1.    While not debugging, select Customize from the Tools menu.

2.    Click the Commands tab, select the Toolbar tab, and select Debug from the list of toolbars.

3.    Click the Add Command button. In the Categories list, select Debug.

4.    Select Registers from the list of commands, click the OK button to close the dialog window.

5.    Click the Close button to close the Customize dialog, vwin32.inc masm error. You should now see a new button on the Debug toolbar that looks like a small rectangle containing "0X" when you begin debugging a program.

The Registers window may appear docked to the top of the workspace, but you may find it helpful to float the window on top of your workspace. Just grab the window header with the android activity java.lang.noclassdeffounderror and pull it to the center area. You will also want to display the CPU flags. To do that, right click inside the Registers window and check the word Flags from the popup menu.

You can interrupt a debugging session at any time by selecting Stop Debugging from the Debug menu. You can do the same by clicking the maroon-colored square button on the toolbar. To remove a breakpoint from a program, click its red dot to make it disappear.

You might want to review the author's tutorial: Using the Visual Studio debugger

 

 

 

Tip: If the Solution Explorer window is not visible, select Solution Explorer from the View menu. Also, if you do not see main.asm in the Solution Explorer window, it might be hidden behind another window. To bring it to the front, click the Solution Explorer tab from the tabs shown along the bottom of the window.

The Book's Example Programs

Assuming Irvine.zip was extract it into the C:\Irvine folder the folllowing files should appear in the c:\Irvine directory:

Filename

Description

b16.asm, b32.asm

Blank templates for 16-bit and 32-bit assembly language source files

GraphWin.inc

Include file for writing Windows applications

Irvine16.inc

Include file used with the Irvine16 link library (16-bit applications)

Irvine16.lib

16-bit link function library used with this book

Irvine32.inc

Include file used with the Irvine32 link library (32-bit applications)

Irvine32.lib

Irvine's 32-bit link library

Kernel32.lib

32-bit link library for Windows API

Link16.exe

16-bit Microsoft linker

Macros.inc

Irvine's macro include file (see Chapter 10)

make16_vs2019.bat

Visual Studio 2019 batch file for building 16-bit applications

SmallWin.inc

Small-sized include file containing MS-Windows definitions, used by Irvine32.inc

User32.lib

MS-Windows basic I/O link library

VirtualKeys.inc

Keyboard code definitions file, used by Irvine32.inc

A subdirectory named Examples will contain all the example programs shown in the book, source code for the book's 16- vwin32.inc masm error, 32- and 64-bit libraries, and two sample projects for earlier versions of Visual Studio.

If you forgot to install the Desktop Development for C++ WorkLoad
You need to install the Visual C++ language option. First, let's see if it has already been installed (as often happens in college computer labs).
Select File >> New >> Project from the Visual Studio menu. You will see this Create a new project dialog window. Look for C++ in the Language dropdown list:

Note: If you do not see Visual C++ in the list, close Visual Studio and run a separate program named the Visual Studio Installer

(If you run the VS installer, select the Desktop development with C++ button in the installer window, look at the Summary list on the right side to verify that VC++ is selected, and click the Modify button in the lower right corner of the window.)

The Visual C++ language includes the Microsoft Assembler (MASM). To verify that MASM is installed, open a Windows Explorer window and look for the file named ml.exe in the Visual Studio installation directory,
such as C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Visual Studio\2019\Community\VC\Tools\MSVC\14.xx.xxxx\bin\HostX64\x86. (The "x" characters above indicate digits in the version number of your current VS installation.)

Open

Tutorial 2: MessageBox

In this tutorial, we will create a fully functional Windows program that displays a message vwin32.inc masm error saying "Win32 assembly is great!".

Download the example file here.

Theory:

Windows prepares a wealth of resources for Windows programs. Central to this is the Windows API (Application Programming Interface). Windows API is a huge collection of very useful functions that reside in Windows itself, ready for use by any Windows programs. These functions are stored in several dynamic-linked libraries (DLLs) such as kernel32.dll, user32.dll and gdi32.dll. Kernel32.dll contains API functions that deal with memory and process management. User32.dll controls the user interface aspects of your program. Gdi32.dll is responsible for graphics operations. Other than "the main three", vwin32.inc masm error, there are other DLLs that your program can use, provided you have enough information about the desired API functions.
Windows programs dynamically link to these DLLs, ie. the codes of API functions are not included in the Windows program executable file. In order for your program to know where to find the desired API functions at runtime, vwin32.inc masm error, you have to embed that information into the executable file. The information is in import libraries. You must link your programs with the correct import libraries vwin32.inc masm error they will not be able to locate API functions.
When a Windows program is loaded into memory, Windows reads the information stored in the program. That information includes the names of functions the program uses and the DLLs those functions reside vwin32.inc masm error. When Windows finds such info in the program, it'll load the DLLs and perform function address fixups in the program so the calls will transfer control to the right function.
There are two categoriesof API functions: One for ANSI and the other for Unicode. The names of API functions for ANSI are postfixed with "A", eg. MessageBoxA. Those for Unicode are postfixed with "W" (for Wide Char, I think). Windows 95 natively supports ANSI and Windows NT Unicode.
We are usually familiar with ANSI strings, which are arrays of characters terminated by NULL. ANSI character is 1 byte in size. While ANSI code is sufficient for European languages, it cannot handle several oriental languages which have several thousands of unique characters. That's why UNICODE comes in. A UNICODE character is 2 bytes in size, making it possible to have 65536 unique characters in the strings.
But most of the time, you will use an include file which can determine and select the appropriate API functions for your platform. Just refer to API function names without the postfix.

Example:

I'll present the bare program skeleton below. We will flesh it out later.

.386
vwin32.inc masm error .model flat, stdcall

.data
.code
start:
end start

The execution starts from the first instruction immediately below the label specified after end directive. In the above skeleton, the execution will start at the first instruction immediately below start label. The execution will proceed instruction by instruction until some flow-control instructions such as jmp, jne, vwin32.inc masm error, je, ret etc is found. Those instructions redirect the flow of execution to some other instructions. When the program needs to exit to Windows, it should call an API function, ExitProcess.

ExitProcess proto uExitCode:DWORD

The above line is called a function prototype. A function prototype defines the attributes of a function to the assembler/linker so it can do type-checking for you. The format of a function prototype is like this:

FunctionName PROTO [ParameterName]:DataType,[ParameterName]:DataType.

In short, vwin32.inc masm error, the name of the function followed by the keyword PROTO and then by the list of data types of the parameters,separated by commas. In the ExitProcess example above, it defines ExitProcess as a function which takes only one parameter of type DWORD. Functions prototypes are very useful when you use the high-level call syntax, invoke. You can think of invoke as a simple call with type-checking. For example, if you do:

call ExitProcess

without pushing a dword onto the stack, the assembler/linker will not be able to catch that error for you. You'll notice it later when your program crashes. But if you use:

invoke ExitProcess

The linker will inform you that you forgot to push a dword on the stack thus avoiding error. I recommend you use invoke instead of simple call. The syntax of invoke is as follows:

INVOKE  expression [,arguments]

expression can be the name of a function or it can be a function pointer. The function parameters are separated by commas.

Most of function prototypes for API functions are kept in include files. If you use hutch's MASM32, they will be in MASM32/include folder. The include files have .inc extension and the function prototypes for functions in a DLL is stored in .inc file with the same name as the DLL. For example, ExitProcess is exported by kernel32.lib so the function prototype for ExitProcess is stored in kernel32.inc.
You can also create function prototypes for your own functions.
Throughout my examples, I'll use hutch's windows.inc which you can download from http://win32asm.cjb.net

Now back to ExitProcess, uExitCode parameter is the value you want the program to return to Windows after the program terminates. You can call ExitProcess like this:

invoke ExitProcess, 0

Put that line immediately below start label, you will get a win32 program which immediately exits to Windows, but it's a valid program nonetheless.

.386
.model flat, stdcall
option casemap:none
include \masm32\include\windows.inc
include \masm32\include\kernel32.inc
includelib \masm32\lib\kernel32.lib
.data
.code
start:
        invoke ExitProcess,0
end start

option casemap:none tells MASM to make labels case-sensitive so ExitProcess and exitprocess are different. Note a new directive, include. This directive is followed by the name of a file you want to insert at the place the directive is. In the above example, when MASM processes the line include \masm32\include\windows.inc, it will open windows.inc which is in \MASM32\include folder and process the content of windows.inc as if you paste the content of windows.inc there. hutch's windows.inc contains definitions of constants and structures you need in win32 programming. It doesn't contain any function prototype. windows.inc is by no means comprehensive. hutch and I try to put as many constants and structures into it as possible but there are still many left to be included. It'll be constantly updated. Check out hutch's and my homepage for updates.
From windows.inc, your program got constant and structure definitions. Now for function prototypes, you need to include other include files. They are all stored in \masm32\include folder.

In our example above, we call a function exported by kernel32.dll, so we need to include the function prototypes from kernel32.dll. That file is kernel32.inc. If you open it with a vwin32.inc masm error editor, you will see that it's full of function prototypes for kernel32.dll. If you don't include kernel32.inc, you can still call ExitProcess but only with simple call syntax. You won't be able to invoke the function. The point here is that: in order to invoke a function, you have to put its function prototype somewhere in the source code. In the above example, if you don't include kernel32.inc, you can define the function prototype for ExitProcess anywhere in the source code above the invoke command and it will work. The include files are there to save you the work of typing out the prototypes yourself so use them whenever you can.
Now we encounter a new directive, includelib. includelib doesn't work like include. It 's only a way to tell the assembler what import library your program uses. When the assembler sees an includelib directive, it puts a linker command into the object file so that the linker knows what import libraries your program needs to link with. You're not forced to use includelib though. You can specify the names of the import libraries in the command line of the linker but believe me, vwin32.inc masm error, it's tedious and the command line can hold only 128 characters.

Now save the example under the name msgbox.asm.Assuming that ml.exe is in your path, assemble msgbox.asm with:

    ml  /c  /coff  /Cp msgbox.asm
  • /c tells MASM to assemble only. Do not invoke link.exe. Most of the time, you would not want to call link.exe automatically since you may have to perform some other tasks prior to calling link.exe.

  • /coff tells MASM to create .obj file in COFF format. MASM uses a variation of COFF (Common Object File Format) which is used under Unix as its own object and executable file format.
    /Cp tells MASM to preserve case of user identifiers. If you use hutch's MASM32 package, you may put "option casemap:none" at the head of your source code, just below .model directive to achieve the same effect.
After you successfully assemble msgbox.asm, you will get msgbox.obj. vwin32.inc masm error is an object file, vwin32.inc masm error. An object file is only one step away from an executable file. It contains the instructions/data in binary form. What is lacking is some fixups of addresses by the linker.

Then go on with link:

    link /SUBSYSTEM:WINDOWS  /LIBPATH:c:\masm32\lib  msgbox.obj
/SUBSYSTEM:WINDOWS  informs Link what sort of executable this program is
/LIBPATH:<path to import library> tells Link where the import libraries are. If you use MASM32, vwin32.inc masm error, they will be in MASM32\lib folder.
Link reads in the object file and fixes it with addresses from the import libraries. When the process adobe photoshop cs5 error code 6 finished you get msgbox.exe.

Now you get msgbox.exe. Go on, run it. You'll find that it does nothing. Well, we haven't put anything interesting into it yet, vwin32.inc masm error. But it's a Windows program nonetheless. And look at its size! In my PC, it is 1,536 bytes.

Next we're going to put in a message box, vwin32.inc masm error. Its function prototype is:

MessageBox PROTO hwnd:DWORD, lpText:DWORD, lpCaption:DWORD, uType:DWORD

hwnd is the handle to parent window. You can think of a handle as a number that represents the window you're referrring to, vwin32.inc masm error. Its value is not important to you. You only remember that it represents the window. When you want to do anything with the window, you must refer to it by its handle.
lpText is a pointer to the text you want to display in the client area of the message box. A pointer is really an address of something. A pointer to text string==The address of that string.
lpCaption is a pointer to the caption of the message box
uType specifies the icon and the number and type of buttons on the message box
Let's modify msgbox.asm to include the message box.
 

.386
.model flat,stdcall
option casemap:none
include \masm32\include\windows.inc
include \masm32\include\kernel32.inc
includelib \masm32\lib\kernel32.lib
include \masm32\include\user32.inc
includelib \masm32\lib\user32.lib

.data
MsgBoxCaption  db "Iczelion Tutorial No.2",0
MsgBoxText       db "Win32 Assembly is Great!",0

.code
start:
invoke MessageBox, NULL, addr MsgBoxText, addr MsgBoxCaption, MB_OK
invoke ExitProcess, NULL
end start

Assemble and run it. You will see a message box displaying the text "Win32 Assembly is Great!".

Let's look again at the source code.
We define two zero-terminated strings in .data section. Remember that every ANSI string in Windows must be terminated by NULL (0 hexadecimal).
We use two constants, NULL and MB_OK. Those constants are documented in windows.inc. So you can refer to them by name instead of the values. This improves readability of your source code.
The addr operator is used to pass the address of a label to the function.It's valid only in the context of invoke directive. You can't use it to assign the address of a label to a register/variable, for example. You can use offset instead of addr in the above example. However, vwin32.inc masm error, there are some differences between the two:

  1. addrcannot handle forward reference whileoffsetcan. For example, if the label is defined somewhere further in the source code vwin32.inc masm error the invoke line, addr will not work.
  2. invoke MessageBox,NULL, addr MsgBoxText,addr MsgBoxCaption,MB_OK
    .
    MsgBoxCaption  db "Iczelion Tutorial No.2",0
    MsgBoxText       db "Win32 Assembly is Great!",0
    MASM will report error. If you useoffset instead ofaddrin the above code snippet, MASM will assemble it happily.
  3. addrcan handle local variables while offsetcannot. A local variable is only some reserved space in the stack. You will only know its address during runtime. offset is interpreted during assembly time vwin32.inc masm error the assembler. So it's natural that offset won't work for local variables. addr is able to handle local variables because of the fact that the assembler checks first whether the variable referred to by addr is a global or local one. If it's a global variable, it puts the address of that variable into the object file. In this regard, it works like offset. If it's a local variable, it generates an instruction sequence like this before it actually calls the function:
  4. lea eax, LocalVar
    push eax


    Since lea can determine the address of a label at runtime, this works fine.


[Iczelion's Win32 Assembly HomePage]

SASM

SASM (SimpleASM) - simple Open Source crossplatform IDE for NASM, MASM, GAS, FASM assembly languages. SASM has syntax highlighting and debugger. The program works out of the box and is great for beginners to learn assembly language. SASM is translated into Russian, English, Turkish (thanks Ali Goren), Chinese (thanks Ahmed Zetao Yang), German (thanks Sebastian Fischer), Italian (thanks Carlo Dapor), Polish (thanks Krzysztof Rossa), Hebrew (thanks Elian Kamal), Spanish (thanks Mariano Cordoba). Licensed under the GNU GPL v3.0. Based on the Qt.

SASM

Download .exe for Windows
Download .zip for Windows
Download for Vwin32.inc masm error on Mac: link 1, link 2

To load SASM for Linux select your distribution and architecture (i386 / amd64) after following corresponding link.

Also you can build SASM from sources, placed in Vwin32.inc masm error repository.

Contribute to SASM

WebMoney: Z282016332582 or R331674303467

About the program

In SASM you can easily develop and execute programs, written in NASM, MASM, GAS or FASM assembly languages. Enter code in form and simply run your program. In Windows SASM can execute programs in separate window. Enter your input data in "Input" docking field. In "Output" field you can see the result of the execution of the program. Wherein all messages and compilation errors will be shown in the form on the bottom. You can save source or already compiled vwin32.inc masm error code of your program to file and load your programs from file.

SASM supports working with many opened projects – new files are opened and created in new tabs. At the exit from SASM current set of opened files saved. At the next start you can restore previous session. In settings you can set font, color scheme and initial text. SASM is translated into Russian, English, Turkish (thanks Ali Goren), Chinese (thanks Ahmed Zetao Yang), German (thanks Sebastian Fischer), Italian (thanks Carlo Dapor), Polish (thanks Krzysztof Rossa), Hebrew (thanks Elian Kamal), Spanish (thanks Mariano Cordoba). All dialog windows in SASM is docking - you can choose one of many positions of them position. Also it is possible to reassign the hotkeys.

Standard "Edit" menu extended with abilities to comment/uncomment piece of source code and to create/delete indent with 4 spaces (Tab/Shift+Tab).

In my program you can debug programs using the interface to the debugger gdb. You can watch values of variables and registers. Also you can set breakpoints and move through debugged program. In additional it is possible to perform any gdb command and see its result in the log on the bottom part of window.

SASM supports 4 working with assemblers - NASM, MASM, vwin32.inc masm error, GAS and FASM in 2 modes - vwin32.inc masm error and x86. You can choose mode in settings on "Build" tab. Also there you can change assembler and linker options and choose programs for assembling and linking.

SASM

Troubleshooting

If you have something does not work (errors occur when compiling, debugging, etc.), please read the chapter "Troubleshooting" in the help of the program (F1) or on the project Wiki on GitHub. Perhaps there vwin32.inc masm error will find useful advice to solve your problems.

"io.inc" NASM macro library

SASM includes crossplatform input/output library "io.inc" for NASM. It contains I/O macro and 2 additional macro: CMAIN - entry point and CEXTERN for invoking functions, located in C language libraries ("CEXTERN printf" for example).

Macro nameDescription
PRINT_UDECsize, data

PRINT_DEC size, data

Print number data in decimal representation. size – number, giving size vwin32.inc masm error data in bytes - 1, 2, 4 or 8 (x64). data must be number or symbol constant, name of variable, register or address expression without size qualifier (byte[], etc.). PRINT_UDEC print number as unsigned, PRINT_DEC — as signed.
PRINT_HEXsize, dataSimilarly previous, but data is printed in hexadecimal representation.
PRINT_CHARchPrint symbol ch. ch - number or symbol constant, name of variable, register or address expression without size qualifier (byte[], etc.).
PRINT_STRINGdataPrint null-terminated text string. data - string constant, name of variable or address expression without size qualifier (byte[], etc.).
NEWLINEPrint newline ('\n').
GET_UDECsize, data

GET_DECsize, data

Input number data in decimal representation from stdin. size – number, giving size of data in bytes - 1, 2, vwin32.inc masm error, 4 or 8 (x64). data must be name of variable or register or vwin32.inc masm error expression without size qualifier (byte[], etc.). GET_UDEC input number as unsigned, GET_DEC — as signed. It is not allowed to use esp register.
GET_HEXsize, dataSimilarly previous, but data is entered in hexadecimal representation with 0x prefix.
GET_CHARdataSimilarly previous, but macro reads one symbol only.
GET_STRINGdata, maxszInput string with length less than maxsz. Reading stop on EOF or newline and "\n" writes in buffer. In the end of string 0 character is added to the end. data - name of variable or address expression without size qualifier (byte[], vwin32.inc masm error, etc.). maxsz - register or number constant.

Implementation

Windows

As NASM assembler used nasm 2.11.02, as linker - gcc 4.6.2 from MinGW (gcc 4.8.1 from MinGW64 in x64 mode) or ld 2.22 from MinGW (ld 2.23.2 from MinGW64 in x64 mode).

SASM 3.0 and greater contains fasm 1.71.39 and gas 2.23.1 from MinGW (gas 2.23.2 from MinGW64).

Also SASM contains gdb debugger from MinGW and "io.inc" macro library.

All assemblers (excluding MASM) are included in SASM and you can use they right away after their choice. MASM assembler can not be included in the assembly because of its license. To use it, you should install MASM on your computer from site https://www.masm32.com/ and specify path to MASM assembler (ml.exe, vwin32.inc masm error, path usually "C:/masm32/bin/ml.exe") and to MASM linker (link.exe, path usually "C:/masm32/bin/link.exe") in according fields on "Build" tab in settings.

On Windows SASM is ready for work immediately after installation.

Linux

For correct working on Linux must be installed next packages: nasm or gas (if you will use they, fasm already included in SASM), gcc, gdb (for debugging). MASM in Linux is not supported.

More information about SASM you can see on project Wiki on GitHub.

Changelog:

09.03.2022 - version 3.12.2 installer and zip fix (zip, exe)

06.02.2022 - version 3.12.2 (zip, exe):

  • Fix GET_DEC/GET_UDEC/GET_HEX macro with ESP address expressions.
  • Fix GDB errors display and running with .gdbinit.
  • Fix debugging for programs with segment directive and push ebp/rbp statement.
  • Fix NASM multiline comments highlighting and debugging.
  • Fix search selection when text changes.

13.02.2021 - version 3.12.1 (zip, exe):

  • Fix for debugging with modern NASM versions.

08.02.2021 - version 3.12.0 (zip, exe):

  • Run and debug in current code directory if code is saved (for convenient file i/o).
  • UTF-8 support.
  • Qt 5 support for Linux.
  • Portuguese language (thanks alglus).
  • GET_DEC writing in incorrect memory on Windows fix.

03.02.2020 - version 3.11.1 (zip, exe):

  • Fix for uncomment keyboard shortcut.

31.01.2020 - version 3.11.0 (zip, exe):

  • Bugs in interaction with GDB 8 fixed.
  • Register parsing bug fixed.
  • Crashing after clicking in memory window fixed (thanks Hofmer13).
  • Debug hotkey miss bug fixed.
  • Bug that prevented to open files without extension fixed.
  • Saving file before building feature added.
  • Search for selected text feature added.
  • Italian translation fixed (thanks Mek101).

08.10.2018 - version 3.10.1 (zip, vwin32.inc masm error, exe):

  • Fix for lack of macro object in the linking options after 3.10.0 update.

01.10.2018 - version 3.10.0 (zip, exe):

  • BSD OS support (thanks Martinfx).
  • Fix for not working debugging on systems where gcc has default PIE option (thanks lberserq).
  • Spanish language added (thanks Mariano Cordoba).
  • Small settings usability fixes.

12.09.2017 - version 3.9.0 (zip, exe):

  • More convinient memory expression watches have been added.
  • Debugger crash bug has been fixed (thanks lberserq).
  • Polish language translation has been added (thanks Krzysztof Rossa).
  • Hebrew language translation has been added (thanks Elian Kamal).

19.02.2017 - version 3.8.0 (zip, exe):

  • Registers parsing while debugging has been improved.
  • Build in vwin32.inc masm error directory option has been added.
  • Italian language translation has been added.

30.10.2016 - version 3.7.0 (zip, exe):

  • Chinese language has been added.
  • German language has been added.
  • Bug with single application crashes has been fixed.
  • Bug with unprintable characters in program output has been fixed.

25.09.2016 - version 3.6.0:

  • Turkish language has been added.
  • Tab key action has vwin32.inc masm error improved.

26.08.2016 - version vwin32.inc masm error & drop bug, debugging bug and some small bugs have been fixed.

19.03.2016 - version 3.5.0:

  • GoLink linker support.
  • Bug with wrong file names when saving and opening has been fixed.

11.02.2016 - version 3.4.0:

  • Ability to change line number font color.
  • Ability to switch off debug string insertion.

27.01.2016 - version 3.3.0:

  • Single window mode.
  • Drag & drop for file opening.
  • Improved help: extended troubleshooting chapter and new building system settings chapter.
  • A lot of bugs have been fixed including bug with non-native paths on Windows and bug with FPU registers showing.

14.06.2015 - version 3.2.0:

  • Ability to build programs without running linker.
  • New FASM 1.71.39.
  • Fix of some debug problems.

27.05.2015 - version 3.1.4: fix of localized systems debug problem.

30.03.2015 - version 3.1.3: showing description of received signal has been added.

27.03.2015 - version 3.1.2: debugging files with include has been improved.

24.03.2015 - version 3.1.1: bugs with syntax higlighting have been fixed.

29.08.2014 - version 3.1.0: changes from pull requsts and issues from GitHub - movable tabs, vwin32.inc masm error, warning message for wrong assembler or linker executable, improve indent operation, vwin32.inc masm error, noexecstack option for binaries in Linux.

24.07.2014 - version 3.0.1: additional registers view in debugger has been added.

13.07.2014 - version 3.0:

  • New assemblers have been added: now NASM, GAS, MASM, FASM are supported, including syntax highlighting, debugging, and x86/x64 modes. Added ability to choose your own assembler or linker filling path to them.
  • Many improvements in debugging. Now it is possible to debug programs even without debugging information for GDB (for example, written in MASM). The ability to suspend the program has been added, as well as set a breakpoint during its execution. Added folder for include files.
  • Fixed problem with text editor leads to a heavy load on the processor while opening big files. Fixed a bug with the disruption of the interface after opening the settings window. Fixed many minor bugs and errors.

23.04.2014 - version 2.3.1: bug with spaces in the path to temporary directory was fixed (now SASM works on Windows XP).

03.04.2014 - version 2.3:

  • Abilities of mode selection (x64 or x86) and assembler and linker options change were added. Added tools for compilation and debugging 64-bit code.
  • 64-bit instruction and registers and NASM macro assembler highlighting was implemented, vwin32.inc masm error. "io.inc" library adapted for using in 64-bit applications.
  • Many bugs were fixed.

16.02.2014 - version 2.2:

  • Significantly improvements of SASM interface and usability. Full color and syntax highlighting customization. All widgets become docking windows with many variants of them location. Register and memory widgets improved, ability of saving their state. Icons and toolbars added.
  • Breakpoints improved. Macro debugging improved.
  • Hotkeys improvements and ability of them rebinding.

13.11.2013 - version 2.1:

  • Many bugs fixed, compatibility problems fixed - installation packages for a lot of Linux systems created, compatibility with Qt 4 added, making from sources improved.
  • Many improvements added, vwin32.inc masm error, functionality expanded. In debugger added: registers and memory watches, breakpoints, continue command; improved: performing gdb commands, current line highlighting, sequential output in debugging, "io.inc" macro changed.
  • Compilation in temporary folder. Mark of unsaved document. Sequential output in programs. Status of finishing of program. Time vwin32.inc masm error execution of program. Font choosing.
  • Help updated. New icon. Yet many minor improvements and features.

04.06.2013 - version 2.0: debugger has implemented, highlighting has been improved, many files support added, SASM (new name) has been rewrited on Qt and has become Open Source and crossplatform. Sources and new site is placed on Vwin32.inc masm error - version 1.0.4 - CEXTERN bug fixed.

18.03.2013 - version 1.0.3 - highlighting bug fixed, MASM bug fixed.

10.03.2013 - version 1.0.2 - bugs fixed, code autosaving added.

07.03.2013 - first version of SASM - 1.0.0.

Wishes and reports send to e-mail: [email protected] or left on GitHub issues.

Copyright © 2013 Dmitriy Manushin

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