Visual studia code error

visual studia code error

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Make code work in Visual Studio

  • Article
  • 10 minutes to read

Applies to:yesVisual Studio noVisual Studio for Mac noVisual Studio Code

Visual Studio provides a powerful integrated set of project build and debugging tools. In this article, find out how Visual Studio can help you find problems in your code using build output, code analysis, debugging tools, and unit tests.

You've figured out the editor and created some code. Now, you want to make sure the code works properly. In Visual Studio, as with most IDEs, there are two phases to making code work: building the code to catch and resolve project and compiler errors, and running the code to find run-time and dynamic errors.

Build your code

There are two basic types of build configuration: Debug and Release. The Debug configuration produces a slower, larger executable that allows for a richer interactive run-time debugging experience. The Debug executable should never be shipped. The Release configuration builds a faster, optimized executable that's appropriate to ship (at least from the perspective of the compiler). The default build configuration is Debug.

The easiest way to build your project is to press F7, but you can also start the build by selecting Build > Build Solution from the main menu.

Screenshot of the Build menu in the Visual Studio IDE.

You can observe the build process in the Output window at the bottom of the Visual Studio UI. Errors, warnings, and build operations are displayed here. If you have errors (or if you have warnings above a configured level), your build fails. You can click on the errors and warnings to go to the line where they occurred. Rebuild your project by either pressing F7 again (to recompile only the files with errors) or Ctrl+Alt+F7 (for a clean and complete rebuild).

There are two tabbed windows in the results window below the editor: the Output window, which contains the raw compiler output (including error messages); and the Error List window, which provides a sortable and filterable list of all errors and warnings.

When build succeeds, you see results like this in the Output window:

Screenshot of a Visual Studio successful build output.

Review the Error List

Unless you've made no modifications to code you've previously and successfully compiled, you probably have an error. If you're new to coding, you probably have lots of them. Errors are sometimes obvious, such as a simple syntax error or incorrect variable name, and sometimes they are difficult to understand, with only a cryptic code to guide you. For a cleaner view of the issues, navigate to the bottom of the build Output window, and click the Error List tab. This takes you to a more organized view of the errors and warnings for your project, and gives you some extra options as well.

Screenshot of the Visual Studio Output and Error List.

Click on the error line in the Error List window to jump to the line the error occurs in. (Or turn on line numbers by pressing Ctrl+Q, typing line numbers, and then choosing Turn line numbers on or off from the results. This is the fastest way to get to the Options dialog where you can turn on line numbers.)

Screenshot of the Visual Studio editor with line numbers.

Screenshot of the Visual Studio line numbers option.

Press Ctrl+G to quickly jump to the line number where the error occurred.

The error is identified by a red "squiggle" underscore. Hover over it for additional details. Make the fix and it will go away, although you may introduce a new error with the correction. (This is called a "regression".)

Screenshot of the Visual Studio error hover action.

Walk through the error list and address all the errors in your code.

Screenshot of the Visual Studio Debug errors window.

Review errors in detail

Many errors may make no sense to you, phrased as they are in the terms of the compiler. In those cases, you'll need additional information. From the Error List window, you can do an automatic Bing search for more information on the error or warning. Right-click on the corresponding entry line and select Show Error Help from the context menu, or click on the hyperlinked error code value in the Code column of the Error List.

Screenshot of the Visual Studio error list Bing search.

Depending on your settings, either your web browser displays the search results for the error code and text, or a tab opens inside Visual Studio and shows the results of the Bing search. The results are from many different sources on the Internet, and not all may be helpful.

Use code analysis

Code analyzers look for common code problems that can lead to run-time errors or problems in code management.

C# and Visual Basic code analysis

Visual Studio includes a built-in set of .NET Compiler Platform analyzers that examine C# and Visual Basic code as you type. You can install additional analyzers as a Visual Studio extension, or as a NuGet package. If rule violations are found, they are reported both in the Error List and in the code editor as a squiggle under the offending code.

C++ code analysis

To analyze C++ code, run static code analysis. Get in the habit of running it once you've cleaned up the obvious errors that prevent a successful build, and take some time to address the warnings it may produce. You'll save yourself some headaches down the road, and you may learn a few code style techniques.

Press Alt+F11 (or select Analyze > Run Code Analysis on Solution from the top menu) to start static code analysis.

Screenshot of the Visual Studio Code Analysis menu item.

Any new or updated warnings appear in the Error List tab at the bottom of the IDE. Click on the warnings to jump to them in code.

Screenshot of the Visual Studio Error List with Warnings.

Use Quick Actions to fix or refactor code

Quick Actions, available from the light bulb or screwdriver icon, let you refactor code inline. They are an easy way to fix common warnings quickly and effectively in C#, C++, and Visual Basic code. To access them, right-click on a warning squiggle and select Quick Actions and refactorings. Or, when your cursor is on the line with the colored squiggle, press Ctrl+. or select the light bulb, error light bulb, or screwdriver icon in the margin. You'll see a list of possible fixes or refactorings you can apply to that line of code.

Screenshot of the Visual Studio light bulb preview.

Quick Actions can be used wherever code analyzers determine there's an opportunity to fix, refactor, or improve your code. Click on any line of code, right-click to open the context menu, and select Quick Actions and refactorings. If refactoring or improvement options are available, they are displayed. Otherwise, the message No quick actions available here displays in the lower-left corner of the IDE.

Screenshot of the 'No quick actions available' text.

With experience, you can quickly use the arrow keys and Ctrl+. to check for easy refactoring opportunities and clean up your code!

Run Code Cleanup

Visual Studio provides on-demand formatting of your C# code file, including code style preferences, through the Code Cleanup button at the bottom of the editor.

Screenshot of Code Cleanup button.

In addition to formatting your file for spaces, indents, et cetera, Code Cleanup also applies a set of code style conventions that you define. Your preferences for each code style are read from the EditorConfig file, if you have one for the project, or from the code style settings in the Options dialog box.

Debug your running code

Now that you've successfully built your code and performed a little clean up, run it by pressing F5 or selecting Debug > Start Debugging. This starts your app in a debug environment so you can observe its behavior in detail. The Visual Studio IDE changes while your app is running: the Output window is replaced by two new ones (in the default window configuration), the Autos/Locals/Watch tabbed window and the Call Stack/Breakpoints/Exception Settings/Output tabbed window. These windows have multiple tabs that allow you to inspect and evaluate your app's variables, threads, call stacks, and various other behaviors as it runs.

Screenshot of the Visual Studio Autos and Call Stack windows.

Stop your app by pressing Shift+F5 or by clicking the Stop button. Or, you can just close the app's main window (or command-line dialog).

If your code ran perfectly and exactly as expected, congratulations! However, if it stops responding, or crashed, or gave you some strange results, you'll need to find the source of those problems and fix the bugs.

Set simple breakpoints

Breakpoints are the most basic and essential feature of reliable debugging. A breakpoint indicates where Visual Studio should suspend your running code so you can take a look at the values of variables, or the behavior of memory, or whether or not a branch of code is getting run. You don't need to rebuild a project after setting and removing breakpoints.

Set a breakpoint by clicking in the far margin of the line where you want the break to occur, or press F9 to set a breakpoint on the current line of code. When you run your code, it will pause (or break) before the instructions for this line of code are executed.

Screenshot of a Visual Studio breakpoint.

Common uses for breakpoints include:

  • To narrow down the source of a crash or unresponsive program, scatter breakpoints throughout and around the code of the method call you think is causing the failure. As you run code in the debugger, remove and then reset the breakpoints closer together until you find the offending line of code. See the next section to learn how to run code in the debugger.

  • When you introduce new code, set a breakpoint at the beginning of it, and run the code to make sure it is behaving as expected.

  • If you've implemented a complicated behavior, set breakpoints for the algorithmic code so you can inspect the values of the variables and data when the program breaks.

  • If you're writing C or C++ code, use breakpoints to stop the code so you can inspect address values (look for NULL) and reference counts when debugging for memory-related failures.

For more information about using breakpoints, read Using breakpoints.

Inspect your code at run-time

When your running code hits a breakpoint and pauses, the line of code marked in yellow (the current statement) has not executed yet. At this point, you may want to execute the current statement and then inspect the changed values. You can use several step commands to execute code in the debugger. If the marked code is a method call, you can step into it by pressing F11. You can also step over the line of code by pressing F10. For additional commands and details on how to step through code, read Navigate code with the debugger.

Screenshot of the Visual Studio code window. A red dot in the left gutter indicates a breakpoint at the line of code marked in yellow.

In the preceding illustration, you can advance the debugger one statement by pressing either F10 or F11 (since there is no method call here, both commands have the same result).

While the debugger is paused, you can inspect your variables and call stacks to determine what is going on. Are the values in the ranges you expect to see? Are calls being made in the right order?

Screenshot of the Visual Studio code window. At the line of code marked in yellow, a variable is selected and a dropdown shows its current value and references.

Hover over a variable to see its current value and references. If you see a value you didn't expect, you probably have a bug in the preceding or calling code. For more in-depth debugging information, learn more about using the debugger.

Additionally, Visual Studio displays the Diagnostic Tools window, where you can observe your app's CPU and memory usage over time. Later in your app development, you can use these tools to look for unanticipated heavy CPU usage or memory allocation. Use it in conjunction with the Watch window and breakpoints to determine what's causing unexpected heavy usage or unreleased resources. For more information, see Profiling feature tour.

Run unit tests

Unit tests are your first line of defense against code bugs because, when done correctly, they test a single "unit" of code, typically a single function, and are easier to debug than your full program. Visual Studio installs the Microsoft unit testing frameworks for both managed and native code. Use a unit testing framework to create unit tests, run them, and report the results of these tests. Rerun unit tests when you make changes, to test that your code is still working correctly. With Visual Studio Enterprise edition, you can run tests automatically after every build.

To get started, read Generate unit tests for your code with IntelliTest.

To learn more about unit tests in Visual Studio and how they can help you create better quality code, read Unit test basics.

See also

Sudden Build Errors in Visual Studio Code

Hello,

Apologies for the late response, I was pulled away to other projects. I have re-installed the intel build of visual studio code, and let Toolchain Manager (v0.10.3) install all of the recommended plugins. Toolchain manager continues to just sit at "Checking if VS Code and dependencies are installed." and never open VS code. I opened VS code manually and generated support information for you.

The resulting information is:

{ "platform": { "os": "darwin", "osVersion": "Darwin Kernel Version 21.2.0: Sun Nov 28 20:29:10 PST 2021; root:xnu-8019.61.5~1/RELEASE_ARM64_T8101", "osKernel": "21.2.0", "vscode": "1.64.0", "electron": "13.5.2", "node": "v14.16.0" }, "system": { "date": "2022-02-07T18:20:42.575Z", "vscodeRoot": "/Applications/Visual Studio Code.app/Contents/Resources/app", "nrfConnectForDesktopInstalled": true, "vscodeUptime": "00:01:53", "osUptime": "121:21:00", "cpu": { "model": "Apple M1", "speed": "24 MHz", "count": 4 }, "memory": { "total": "16.00 GB", "free": "0.02 GB" } }, "workspace": { "name": "firmware", "workspaceFile": null, "folders": [ "/Users/griffinmeyer/Desktop/JBC/X3F/firmware" ] }, "extensions": { "internal": { "nordic-semiconductor.nrf-connect": { "version": "2022.1.192", "path": "/Users/griffinmeyer/.vscode/extensions/nordic-semiconductor.nrf-connect-2022.1.192", "isActive": true }, "nordic-semiconductor.nrf-terminal": { "version": "2022.1.30", "path": "/Users/griffinmeyer/.vscode/extensions/nordic-semiconductor.nrf-terminal-2022.1.30", "isActive": true }, "nordic-semiconductor.devicetree": null, "nordic-semiconductor.kconfig": null }, "external": { "marus25.cortex-debug": "1.2.2", "ms-vscode.cpptools": "1.8.2", "ms-vscode.js-debug": "1.64.2", "ms-vscode.js-debug-companion": "1.0.15", "ms-vscode.references-view": "0.0.81", "ms-vscode.vscode-js-profile-table": "0.0.18", "trond-snekvik.gnu-mapfiles": "1.1.0", "twxs.cmake": "0.0.17" } }, "tools": { "/Applications/SEGGER/JLink/JLinkExe": "7.58b", "/usr/local/bin/nrfjprog": "10.15.2", "/opt/nordic/ncs/v1.8.0/toolchain/bin/cmake": "3.21.1", "/opt/nordic/ncs/v1.8.0/toolchain/bin/west": "0.12.0", "/opt/nordic/ncs/v1.8.0/toolchain/bin/python3": "3.9.6", "/opt/nordic/ncs/v1.8.0/toolchain/bin/ninja": "1.10.2", "/opt/nordic/ncs/v1.8.0/toolchain/bin/gperf": "3.1", "/opt/nordic/ncs/v1.8.0/toolchain/bin/dtc": "1.6.1", "/opt/nordic/ncs/v1.8.0/toolchain/bin/arm-none-eabi-gcc": "9-2019-q4-major", "/opt/nordic/ncs/v1.8.0/toolchain/bin/gn": "1961", "/opt/nordic/ncs/v1.8.0/toolchain/bin/git": "2.32.0" }, "connectedDevices": [], "config": { "nordic-semiconductor.nrf-connect": { "topdir": "${nrf-connect.sdk:1.8.0}", "toolchain": { "path": "${nrf-connect.toolchain:1.8.0}" }, "ozonePath": "", "applications": [ "${workspaceFolder}" ], "jlink": { "rtosPlugin": "" }, "kconfig": { "interface": "kconfig" }, "welcome": { "showOnStartup": false }, "west": { "env": { "$base": "terminal" } }, "boardRoots": [], "enableTelemetry": true }, "nordic-semiconductor.nrf-terminal": { "terminalMode": "character" }, "nordic-semiconductor.devicetree": { "modules": [ "${zephyrBase}", "${zephyrBase}/../nrf", "." ], "zephyr": "", "ctxFile": "", "defaultBoard": "" }, "nordic-semiconductor.kconfig": { "root": "", "env": {}, "cfiles": true, "disable": false, "zephyr": { "base": "" }, "python": "", "liveValue": true }, "marus25.cortex-debug": { "armToolchainPath": null, "armToolchainPrefix": "arm-none-eabi", "gdbPath": null, "objdumpPath": null, "JLinkGDBServerPath": null, "openocdPath": null, "pyocdPath": null, "PEGDBServerPath": null, "stutilPath": null, "stlinkPath": null, "stm32cubeprogrammer": null, "enableTelemetry": true, "flattenAnonymous": false, "registerUseNaturalFormat": true, "variableUseNaturalFormat": true, "dbgServerLogfile": null, "showDevDebugOutput": "none" } }, "environment": { "westExe": "/opt/nordic/ncs/v1.8.0/toolchain/bin/west", "westEnv": { "ELECTRON_RUN_AS_NODE": "1", "GIT_EXEC_PATH": "/opt/nordic/ncs/v1.8.0/toolchain/Cellar/git/2.32.0_1/libexec/git-core", "HOME": "/Users/griffinmeyer", "PATH": "/opt/nordic/ncs/v1.8.0/toolchain/bin:/Users/griffinmeyer/go/bin:/Users/griffinmeyer/.pyenv/shims:/opt/homebrew/bin:/opt/homebrew/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/sbin:/usr/local/go/bin:~/.dotnet/tools:/Library/Apple/usr/bin:/Library/Frameworks/Mono.framework/Versions/Current/Commands", "ZEPHYR_BASE": "/opt/nordic/ncs/v1.8.0/zephyr", "GNUARMEMB_TOOLCHAIN_PATH": "/opt/nordic/ncs/v1.8.0/toolchain", "ZEPHYR_TOOLCHAIN_VARIANT": "gnuarmemb", "USER": "griffinmeyer" }, "toolchainPath": "/opt/nordic/ncs/v1.8.0/toolchain", "toolchainBinPath": "/opt/nordic/ncs/v1.8.0/toolchain/bin", "toolchainVersion": "1.8.0" }, "terminal": { "shell": null, "defaultProfile": null } }

It should be of note that I am now seeing "A request has failed. See the output for more information." Source: nRF Kconfig (Extension) errors constantly.

The output of that error is:

[Info - 12:18:56 PM] Parsing... [Info - 12:18:56 PM] Status: False [Info - 12:18:56 PM] Parsing... [Info - 12:18:56 PM] Reloading Zephyr python modules... [Info - 12:18:56 PM] Reloading scripts/dts/python-devicetree/src/devicetree/__init__.py [Info - 12:18:56 PM] Status: False [Error - 12:18:56 PM] Request textDocument/documentSymbol failed. Message: Exception: "'NoneType' object has no attribute 'lines'" Code: -32001 Traceback (most recent call last): File "/Users/griffinmeyer/.vscode/extensions/nordic-semiconductor.nrf-kconfig-2022.1.78/srv/rpc.py", line 413, in handle result = self.handlers[msg.method](self, msg.params) File "/Users/griffinmeyer/.vscode/extensions/nordic-semiconductor.nrf-kconfig-2022.1.78/srv/kconfiglsp.py", line 1906, in handle_doc_symbols self.refresh_ctx(ctx) File "/Users/griffinmeyer/.vscode/extensions/nordic-semiconductor.nrf-kconfig-2022.1.78/srv/kconfiglsp.py", line 1474, in refresh_ctx self.notify_changed_values(ctx) File "/Users/griffinmeyer/.vscode/extensions/nordic-semiconductor.nrf-kconfig-2022.1.78/srv/kconfiglsp.py", line 1484, in notify_changed_values for e in conf_file.entries(): File "/Users/griffinmeyer/.vscode/extensions/nordic-semiconductor.nrf-kconfig-2022.1.78/srv/kconfiglsp.py", line 613, in entries for linenr, line in enumerate(self.doc.lines): AttributeError: 'NoneType' object has no attribute 'lines'
visual-studio-code-binAUR, visual-studio-code-insiders-binAUR
  • VSCodium — Community open-source release. Nullifies telemetry in the source code [1], also ships configuration with Open VSX.
https://vscodium.com/

Error Debugging in C++ with VS Code

Debugging can be a life-saver when it comes to discovering bugs or errors in your code. In this article you will learn how to debug using the C/C++ extension for VS Code, including advanced features like breakpoints, tracking variable values, and stepping.

 

The Code We’ll Debug

Throughout this tutorial, the following C++ class is used as an example (vector.h):

This class is being called by the following main function (pathfinder.cpp):

 

How to Setup C++ Error Debugging in VS Code

Visual Studio Code (VS Code) is a source code editor by Microsoft that supports debugging. VS Code does not come prepackaged with a C++ debugger, however, so one needs to be added. VS Code will normally prompt the user to add the C/C++ support extension when starting a new C++ project. However, if this prompt is missed or doesn't appear, the extension can be found by selecting extensions on the left toolbar and searching for "C/C++". The project may need to be reloaded after doing so to ensure the extension is enabled.

Once an application has been created, select the “Run and Debug” icon on the left toolbar to initialize debug mode.

You will be prompted to create a file. This file will hold configurations that instruct the debugger how to operate.

Once the file is created, select “Add Configuration” to view a list of configurations associated with the C++ compiler (or compilers) installed on the device.

Selecting a configuration will auto-fill in the file. The settings can be left as they are except for the “program” field, which must be modified to point to the program executable.

Configuration File: Note “program” variable must be modified to point towards your programs executable (.exe file)

Finally, compile the program using the desired compiler. With the program compiled, you will be able to select "Run and Debug" from the Debug menu to launch the debugger.

 

General Steps for C++ Error Debugging

 

1. Recognize that an error exists

Bugs and errors can come in all shapes and sizes. Some, like a program crashing during startup, are immediately obvious, while others are more subtle. Typically, thorough testing is necessary to find all problems within an application.

 

2. Isolate the error

Isolating the error means narrowing down the source of the error as much as possible. If there is a specific method or function where the error is occurring, it should be run by itself to save time and complexity.

 

3. Identify the cause of the error

By using breakpoints and stepping, we move slowly through the code and monitor the values stored in memory, the call stack, and other execution details to identify the exact cause of the error.

 

4. Rectify the issue in the code

Once the source of the error is known, the code must be modified to correct it. This will be specific to the exact error cause.

 

 

Specific Steps for Debugging a C++ Application in VS Code

 

1. Setting Breakpoints

Breakpoints are used to pause the flow of your program at a specific point. This allows you to view the details of execution at that point in the program flow. A breakpoint can be added in VS Code either by clicking in the left column of the text editor window or by pressing F9. A breakpoint will appear as a red circle in the left column of the text editor. A list of all breakpoints is also shown in the debugger window when debug mode is active.

 

2. Conditional and Unconditional breakpoints

By default, a breakpoint is unconditional, meaning the breakpoint will pause execution each time the program flow reaches that line. If, however, you need execution to pause only when certain conditions are met, conditional breakpoints can be used.

To add a conditional breakpoint, right-click the left column of the text editor and select "Add Conditional Breakpoint". At this point, you will be able to select from "Expression", which pauses execution when an expression returns true, "Hit Count", which will break when a certain hit count is reached, or "Log Message," which prints a message to the log. In each of these instances, a new line will be added beside the breakpoint where you can enter the details of the condition.

 

3. Inline breakpoints

Inline breakpoints (added with shift+F9) allow you to set multiple breakpoints in a single line of code. This can be useful when multiple conditional breakpoints are needed or when multiple statements are nested in the same line.

 

4. Function breakpoints

Function breakpoints are created by selecting the + sign in the breakpoints section of the debug menu and typing in the function name. This can be very useful if you are calling functions from a source file that is not available.

 

5. Data breakpoints

When supported data breakpoints are added from the variable view in the debug menu, these breakpoints will be triggered when the value of the selected variable changes during execution.

 

6. Starting the program in debug mode

Once configurations and breakpoints have been set up, the debugging process can be started. To run the program in debug mode, press the play button at the top of the debug menu.

 

7. Tracking variable values

While the program is running, information is displayed in the debug menu on the left side of the screen. Of this information, the variables drop down, which is often the most valuable. Selecting this drop down will show the values of all variables currently initialized as well as the registers being used during execution and the values stored in them.

 

8. Utilize Stepping

Once the program is running in debug mode, a set of buttons will appear at the top of your screen. These buttons control the execution of the program. The pause/play toggle will start the program running and continue until the next breakpoint is reached. Step Over and Step Into move one instruction at a time and manage how function calls are dealt with. Step Over will skip over any function calls or methods, while Step Into will follow those calls. The fourth option is Step Out, which will execute all commands within its current function or method and break when returning to the calling function. The last two are Restart and Stop, which are self-explanatory.

 

Track, Analyze and Manage Errors With Rollbar

Managing errors and exceptions in your code is challenging. It can make deploying production code an unnerving experience. Being able to track, analyse, and manage errors in real-time can help you proceed with more confidence. Rollbar automates error monitoring and triaging, making fixing C++ errors easier than ever. Sign Up Today!

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