Phoenix slic error 13

phoenix slic error 13

Hello Boost, I have replaced the previous example BIOS with an updated image. It now contains the "Penryn CPU Control Sub-Menu" "ICH. MF61754 6299 04/13/16 LIC-INCORROUT HyperSwap error handling MF99212 MF62055 6299 05/27/16 OSP-DB SLIC DB Maintenance for IPL/VaryOn MF69639. moonlightknighthk.wordpress.com › 2015/03/09 › how-to-mod-asus-uefi-. phoenix slic error 13

Phoenix slic error 13 - think

Moonlight Knight

Flashing a modified BIOS is really dangerous.  If you brick your PC by following what I wrote here, I am not responsible and I cannot help you.  Even though this procedure worked for Asus H81M-E and B85 Pro Gamer, there is NO guarantee that it will work for other Asus UEFI BIOS.  If you are not using an Asus UEFI desktop motherboard, you should not try what I wrote here at all.  This procedure does NOT work for Asus laptops, do not try it on Asus laptop.

I need to add SLIC 2.1 to an Asus H81M-E motherboard.  Performing the same steps I did in the past for older (non-UEFI) Asus and Gigabyte motherboards did not work.  I experienced the following difficulties:

  • andyp’s AMI BIOS mod tool does not recognize the AMI BIOS of H81M-E.  This turns out to be easily solved – use andyp’s Phoenix / Insyde / EFI BIOS mod tool instead.
  • The real problem is that after creating a modded BIOS, it cannot be flashed due to “Security Verification Failed” error.  While different solutions exist, I believe I have identified the simplest one for my situation.  This was not immediately obvious to me, it toke me considerable time to read different forum threads and articles before coming to this conclusion.  So I write this article in order to help other Asus UEFI motherboards users.

(Note 1: By the way, I feel that Asus H81M-E is a really nice motherboard for its ultra low price as of March 2015 – in my geographic area it costs less than 8GB DDR3, and less than one third of the price of i5-4460.  Originally I feared that it might come with an old BIOS that does not allow booting up of a Haswell Refresh CPU to perform necessary BIOS upgrade, but my 2015 February-imported board came with BIOS 2105, which is far more up-to-date than I hoped.  Reportedly this board can also overclock Pentium 20th Anniversary G3258 CPU, creating a combination with super price-performance.)

(Note 2: Two weeks later I bought Asus B85 Pro Gamer – the standard ATX version, not the micro-ATX version – for another PC intending to overclock it with Devil’s Canyon i5 4690K.  This March 2015 imported board came with BIOS 2103, i.e. already latest.  It is beyond nice – it is really impressive.  At a reasonable cost it comes with visibly higher quality components, Intel LAN, shielded audio, and has 8-phase VRM that should be good for overclocking.  Although some people believe motherboard VRM phases do not matter for Haswell overclocking, I think it matters, otherwise there should not be high end Z97 motherboards with 12 phases VRM.)

Note:

  • There is potentially an even simpler method than what I will describe below – some people suggested the use of Asus USB BIOS Flashback to avoid the Security Verification Failed error.  However, only some Asus motherboards have this feature.  Besides, I read some reports of this method not working.
  • For those who want to understand more, I highly recommend reading the whole thread of “How to permanently add SLIC in (newer) ASUS EFI“.
  • For the purpose of this article, only the “New Module method (Guide by akcent)” is used.
  • This method is permanent – SLIC remains even after BIOS update.  For most people this is a very good thing, however, if some people want this removed later it is not as easy.

Procedure:

  • Download the correct model and version of BIOS of the desktop motherboard from Asus web site and unzip it to get a .cap BIOS image file
  • Download MMTool and run it
  • In MMTool, click Load Image, change file type to .cap, then load the .cap BIOS image
  • In the bottom table inside MMTool, look at the FileName column and find DummyMSOA or MSOA
  • If you can find either of them, close MMTool and continue with this procedure.  If you cannot find any DummyMSOA or MSOA, stop here – this procedure is not meant for you.
  • Take a moment and watch this excellent animated guide by akcent carefully:
  • Run the latest version of Phoenix / Insyde / EFI BIOS mod tool and select the .cap BIOS image (Note: especially for new chipset such as Z170, make sure you use the latest version.  For X99, you must not use any version earlier than 2.58)
  • After a little processing it may show one or more Recovery Filenames – choose one that is closest to the actual model name of the motherboard and remember it (or write it down, or even take a screen capture)
  • Manufacturer: choose ASUS
  • SLIC File: Since I need SLIC 2.1, I simply choose ASUS.BIN from the supplied SLIC21 folder
  • SLP File: keep this blank
  • Key File: although the tool came with a key file containing WUJYN1EF3JJRWYVX9ATP6HRBD , I created (via Notepad) and used a key file containing 9C134SIMF51GYI8HEDJ2F47ZW instead
  • R/W File: keep this blank
  • Certificate: keep this blank
  • Method: choose “New Module” (not simply “Module”)
  • [For Asus X99 only, click Advanced and tick “Allow FV selection with Module methods”]
  • Click “Go”
  • [For Asus X99, when the tool shows a list of several entries, choose the second “File Volume”]
  • Find the output file, then rename it to the shorter Recovery Filename shown earlier [Note: do not skip this rename operation]
  • This procedure is really for Asus UEFI desktop motherboard – if you are not using one, do not attempt to flash it!!!  This does NOT work for Asus laptop!!!
  • Experts say to use a DOS-based flashing utility, but I was a little lazy and just used the EZ Flash 2 from within BIOS, then access a USB flash drive containing the renamed output file  (Note: If you still get a Security Verification Failed error, try the other key, and make sure you’re using the latest version of the tool, version 2.63 or later, and make sure you use the correct recovery name.)
  • After BIOS flashing, load optimize defaults and reconfigure the settings if necessary
  • Save settings and exit
  • For those who are looking for Asus H81M-E BIOS 2107 with permanent SLIC 2.1, try this at your own risk.
  • For those who are looking for Asus B85 Pro Gamer BIOS 2103 with permanent SLIC 2.1, try this at your own risk.  (Important: this is NOT for the micro-ATX B85M Gamer.)

Other better written articles can be found on this subject, so I just summarize the key steps:

  • Boot up Windows 7 Ultimate
  • Download a copy of ASUS21.xrm-ms and save it to somewhere, e.g. D:\
  • run cmd as Administrator
  • slmgr.vbs -ilc D:\ASUS21.xrm-ms
  • slmgr.vbs -ipk 2Y4WT-DHTBF-Q6MMK-KYK6X-VKM6G  (for Asus only.  If you need other keys, try google)
  • Then check activation status by
  • slmgr.vbs -dli

*** If anyone followed the procedure I wrote here, please leave a comment indicating the motherboard, BIOS version, which SLIC, which KEY, and your results.  Thank you.

*** BIOS mod requests should be posted to this forum, not here.

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Using the frame averaging of aS500 EPID for IMRT verification

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J. Chang

1 Medical Physics Department, Memorial Sloan‐Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, New York, 10021

Find articles by J. Chang

C. C. Ling

1 Medical Physics Department, Memorial Sloan‐Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, New York, 10021

Find articles by C. C. Ling

Author informationArticle notesCopyright and License informationDisclaimer

1 Medical Physics Department, Memorial Sloan‐Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, New York, 10021

J. Chang, Email: [email protected]

corresponding authorCorresponding author.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; email address: [email protected]

Received 2003 May 13; Accepted 2003 Aug 13.

Copyright © 2003 The Authors.

This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

In this study, we evaluated the use of aS500 EPID for the verification of IMRT beam delivery, using the synchronous, frame‐averaging acquisition. In this approach, an EPID continuously integrates frames while irradiated by an IMRT field; the averaged image is then converted to a dose profile using a linear calibration curve, and is compared with the planned profiles using a linear‐regression model, which returns an index σ (root mean squared error) for the goodness of fit. We identified several potential errors in this acquisition mode: missing data between the start of irradiation and imaging, and from the last (incomplete) frame, which we proved are insignificant for IMRT fields; and EPID dead time during irradiation stemming from data transfer, which we successfully corrected for clinical MU ( > 100). We compared the measured relative profiles and central axis dose of 25 prostate fields with the planned ones. Applying our correction methods, very good agreement was obtained between the measured and planned profiles with a mean a of 1.9% and a standard deviation of 0.5%; for central‐axis dose the agreement was better than 2.0%. We conclude that the aS500 is an effective tool for verification of IM beam delivery in the range of clinical MU ( > 100) settings. Although the vender is developing an upgrade to fix similar problems, our results demonstrate that the current configuration with simple correction schemes can achieve satisfactory results.

PACS number(s): 87.53.Oq, 87.53.Xd

Keywords: amorphous silicon, EPID, IMRT, IMRT treatment plan verification

INTRODUCTION

The application of electronic portal‐imaging device (EPID) for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) 1 , 2 verification has been studied by us 3 5 and many others. 6 10 With the use of a scanning liquid‐filled ionization chamber (SLIC) or charge‐coupled device (CCD) camera based EPID, typically accuracy of 3% in central axis dose can be achieved, better than the 5% requirement recommended by the Task Group 40 report 11 of the American Association of Physicist in Medicine (AAPM) for independent verification of the dose at the isocenter or at a point. We also showed 3 that the root mean‐squared difference between the planned and measured profiles for the in‐field region was within 5%. We note that there is as yet no AAPM recommendation for the accuracy of relative profile verification.

Although this is sufficiently accurate for clinical quality assurance (QA), the slow response, detector memory effects, and beam hold‐off problem make it impractical for routine IMRT verification using the SLIC EPID. 5 The camera‐based EPIDs suffer from low light collection efficient; 12 optical glaring errors 13 , 14 also complicates the use of these devices for dosimetry verification. Recent development in amorphous‐silicon EPID has made it a device of choice for radiotherapy. Its imaging speed can be as high as ten frames per second. When operating at the clinical dose rate, the detector has a linear response as a charge accumulation device; therefore, dose integration can be provided by the frame‐averaging. By setting a large number of frame averages, all acquired frames are summed, and an averaged image is sent to the console computer upon completion of radiation delivery. Without network overhead, the maximum image speed is available for verification purposes. Munro and Bouius also demonstrate that this EPID does not suffer from the glare phenomenon associated with the camera‐based EPID. 15

In the future, there will be two versions of software available to control the image acquisition. The “current” version, e.g., the PortalVision system release 6.0.56 used in this study, is used by existing aS500 EPID; however, when it is used for IMRT verification, a number of frames are lost due to detector dead time, leading to artifacts and an underestimate of measured dose. The manufacturer is developing an upgrade 16 to fix these problems, though it is still in the beta testing stage and is not available for most users, including us. In this study, we only used the current version and developed schemes to correct the problems encountered during IMRT verification. As we will show in this paper, the methods that we have developed are immediately applicable to the many aS500 EPIDs that are in clinical implementation. Our methods should also work for the upgraded EPIDs, and thus provide an alternative approach different from that of the vendor.

In this study, we evaluate the use of aS500 EPID for verifying the relative profile and central‐axis (CAX) dose of IM beams without phantom, and assess the effects of these errors on the verification results. We investigate the dose integration approaches for converting the averaged reading to dose and identify correction factors that are required. We test the proposed integration approaches and the correction factors by verifying the relative profiles and absolute doses of 25 IMRT fields.

METHODS

A. aS500 EPID

Varian's aS500 EPID consists of a buildup layer, an amorphous‐silicon detector panel, readout electronics, and a PortalVision workstation. The buildup layer consists of a 1‐mm copper plate for electron production, and a scintillating phosphor screen (0.34‐mm Gd2O2S:Tb, 0.52‐mm for the entire screen) for conversion to visible light. The detector panel is a matrix (512 × 384) of individual light‐sensitive photodiodes for integrating the light, and a thin‐film transistor, the switch to the readout electronics. The sensitive area of the detector panel is 40 × 30 cm2, corresponding to a pixel size of 0.78 mm. Each row of the detector matrix is sequentially scanned by the readout electronics.

There are two modes to read out the detector signals. In the synchronous mode, the detectors are read out in sequence during the time intervals between the radiation pulses; in the asynchronous mode, the readout is controlled by an internal clock. In either case, the entire matrix can be scanned in ~0.111 s. The asynchronous acquisition is intended for a continuous radiation source that has no beam pulse to clock the scanning; when used with a pulsed radiation source, streak artifact is observed because the radiation pulse adversely affects the readout electronics. The synchronous acquisition minimizes this artifact by scanning each row at fixed time after a pulse, and by applying the flood image correction. Given the fact that synchronous acquisition can achieve the same high imaging speed without significant streak artifacts, and is the default acquisition mode in aS500, we use the synchronous mode only in this study.

We define a complete read‐out of the matrix as a frame, which can be immediately exported or stored in a buffer for integration with the next frame. In routine operation such as port filming, a number of (e.g., five) frames are averaged to improve the image quality.

B. Frame averaging

Frame averaging (Fig. ​1) is an acquisition configuration of aS500 by which “complete” frames are continuously acquired from the start of the irradiation till the end, integrated in a buffer, and then averaged. A frame is “complete” if every pixel is exposed to the radiation for the same amount of time between two scans. Note that the initial delay in Fig. ​1 includes two adjustable EPID settings: the “Start Delay” and the “Number of Reset Frames.” Although both can be set to zero, at least one reset frame is needed to clear the buffer before image acquisition; otherwise, the first frame is not complete. For better image quality in routine portal imaging, one sets either a “Start Delay” of a few tenths of 1 s followed by one reset frame, or several (e.g., three to five) reset frames with a zero “Start Delay.” The imager also discards the last incomplete frame, of which the irradiation ends in the middle.

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Figure 1

Illustration of the timing and detector‐dead time for image acquisition using the frame‐averaging mode. Frames are sequentially acquired every 0.111 s, and are integrated in the frame buffer; the integrated reading is divided by the number of complete frames, K, to obtain the averaged reading. To avoid saturation, data in the frame buffer are exported every 64 frames, followed by a reset frame, both of which are not averaged. The total detector‐dead time includes the initial delay, time to clear the frame buffer and following reset frames, and the last incomplete frame. Initial delay, the time between switching the beam on and starting image acquisition (Tstart), includes the start delay and the reset frames before the first frame. Tend is the finishing time for the last complete frame. The last incomplete frame is not included in the frame averaging.

Since the frame buffer can only integrate up to 64 frames before saturation, the integrated data need to be transferred periodically to another storage area. As shown in Fig. ​1, it takes ~0.164 s for the transfer and another 0.111 s for reset. Thus, there is a dead time of 0.275 s every 7.10 s (the time for acquiring 64 frames). We note that with the upgrade version the EPID can scan the charges accumulated in the last incomplete frame and capture the information during the clearing of the frame buffer, which is not feasible with the current version.

C. Converting the frame‐averaged reading to dose

The number of complete frames (K), from which the average EPID reading was obtained, is returned with the averaged image, and can be used to convert the averaged EPID reading to the accumulated dose. Theoretically, the total dose, D, is the integration of the dose rate, D(t):

(1)

where Tk is the starting imaging time for frame k, DB represents the “missed” doses delivered during the buffer clearing, and DSE is the sum of doses delivered before Tstart and after Tend. Since the dose between Tk and Tk+1 is integrated by frame k, we can rewrite Eq. (1) as

(2)

where is the dose for frame k, and Davg is the averaged dose converted from Ravg using RaD, the linear dose calibration curve characterized by the coefficient a.

D. Correction for the missing dose during buffer clearing

As we shall prove later, DSE is insignificant for IMRT fields; DB, on the other hand, accounts for ~4% of the delivered dose and needs to be corrected. For a given K, the recorded imaging time is 0.275 × ⌊(K − 1)/64⌋ s, longer than the actual imaging time, K × 0.111, where “⌊⌋” is the floor function. To correct for this loss of the dose, a correction factor CFfb is added to Eq. (2),

(3)

where

CFfb = 1 + [⌊(K − 1)/64⌋ × 0.275]/(K × 0.111), 

(4)

or if K/64 ≫ 1, can be approximated as

CFfb ≈ 1 + 0.275/(64 × 0.111) = 1.039.

(5)

Although DB can be easily corrected for static fields using Eq. 4(a), it cannot be totally removed for IMRT fields, because all pixels are not irradiated at the same time, resulting in an uncertainty in the number of buffer clearances a pixel has experienced when it is in the open part of the field. However, as shown later, the MU numbers are high enough for clinical IMRT field so that Eq. 4(b) can be safely used. For the “upgrade” configuration, CFfb is reduced to unity because the dose is collected during the buffer clearing.

E. Relative profile and absolute dose verification

We have previously developed a QA method 3 using a SLIC EPID for verifying the relative profile of the in‐field region and absolute dose of IMRT fields. In this method, additional buildup is placed on the EPID for higher (e.g., 15 MV) energy, in order to achieve the electron equilibrium for dose measurement. The measured dose profile M[i,j] is compared with the planned dose profile I[i,j]:

M[ij] = c × I[ij] + sE[ij], 

(6)

where s is a correction factor for phantom (or patient) scatter, c is a normalization constant, and E[i,j] is the error matrix. Using the linear regression 17 , 18 approach, we optimize s and c to minimize the mean square error σ2 = ∑i,jE[i,j]2/(N − 1) where N is the total number of pixels. The minimized σ is a measure of the goodness of fit between the planned and measured dose profiles. For absolute dose verification, the dose at the prescription depth is calculated using the pencil beam convolution 19 and TMR ratio:

Dd[ij] = MSAD[ij] ⊗ κd[ij] × [TMR(drp,SAD)/TMR(d, 10 × 10)], 

(7)

where Dd[ij] is the dose map at depth d, MSAD[ij] the measured profile at SAD, κd[ij] the convolution kernel for depth d, and rp,SAD the equivalent square field size at SAD. MSAD[ij] is derived from M(i,j] using back‐projection, corrected for inverse square and EPID phantom scatter factor (Spe) (3) : MSAD[ij] = BP(MSDD[ij]) × (SDD/SAD)2/Spe(rp,SDD), where BP is the back projection operator, and rp,SDD the equivalent square field size at the source to detector distance, SDD.

EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENTS

All experiments were conducted at a SDD of 150 cm and using a 15 MV beam at a dose rate of 300 monitor units (MUs) per minute. We adopted the “regular quality scanning mode” used for port filming −0.111 s per frames, 0 ms for “Start Delay,” and five reset frames before acquiring the first frame, corresponding to an initial delay of 0.555 s; and set the number of frames averages to 5000. Note that it will take ~550 s to acquire 5000 frames, longer than the time required for irradiation; however, the frame average stops when the beam is turned off; thus,  < 5000 frames were averaged. The first experiment was to determine the additional buildup layer needed to achieve the electron equilibrium for the 15 MV beam. Subsequently, this additional buildup of a 1.5 cm thick polystyrene plate was always added to the EPID.

We then determined the calibration curves and the phantom scatter factor of the EPID, Spe, for different field sizes. Definition and measurement of Spe are described in details in Ref. 4. For each field size, we manually acquired images (0.111 s per frame, five frame averages) every 10 s after the dose rate of the LINAC was stabilized, for six images. Spe of a given field size was the ratio of the averaged reading of the central 1 × 1‐cm2, to that of the 10 × 10‐cm2 field, divided by the collimator scatter factor. For comparison, the phantom scatter factors of a full water phantom, Sp, and of a slab water phantom (with full build up and no backup), Sps, were also measured for different field sizes, using a pancake ionization chamber. We used Khan's formalism 20 for the definition of phantom scatter factor.

For the dose calibration curve, the EPID was irradiated with various radiation intensities achieved using different SDD (every 10 cm from 100 cm to 160 cm) or different amount of lead attenuation (every 6.3 mm from no lead to 70‐mm lead); the averaged CAX readings of the acquired images were obtained using the procedure described above. The dose rate for each radiation intensity was measured using a Spokas ionization chamber in a mini‐phantom (3‐mm copper), multiplied by Spe of the corresponding field size. The calibration curve was determined by plotting the averaged CAX reading against the measured dose rate multiplied by 0.111 s.

To illustrate the effect of buffer clearing, we irradiated the EPID with two IM fields: a 10‐mm sliding window IMRT field and a prostate IMRT field, with different (from 5 to 1000) MU settings. The number of frames (K) and imaging time (Timg) were recorded for each irradiation; and the dose profiles converted from the EPID readings were compared with the planned profile. For the prostate IM field, an initial delay of 0.111 s (one reset frame before acquiring the first frame) was also tested for comparison.

We also used 25 prostate IMRT fields from five treatment plans (five fields for each plan) to evaluate the EPID's capability for verifying the IM profiles. We acquired the frame‐averaged images of these IMRT fields, and converted them to dose profiles using the calibration curve. Three (100, 130, and 350) MU settings were tested for each field. The 100 and 130 MU settings correspond to the lower and average MU settings of the 25 fields. Because significant beam hold‐off (the withholding of LINAC beam pulses when MLC leaves are not in the correct positions) was observed for both 100 and 130 MU settings, the 350 MU setting was added to study the effect of beam hold off.

The in‐air fluence profiles for the same IM fields were calculated using the treatment planning system, and were convolved with a Gaussian kernel (2.3‐mm full width at half maximum) to obtain the planned dose profiles at the dose max (dmax) of the EPID. The kernel was experimentally determined by iteratively adjusting its size to optimize the fit between the measured and planned dose profiles of a pre‐selected IMRT field. The measured and planned profiles were then compared using the method previously described. The measured CAX dose, the sum from the five IM fields weighted by planned beam‐on time and TMR at the treatment depth, was also compared with the planned dose.

RESULTS

Figure ​2 shows the phantom scatter factor of the EPID, Spe, which is more pronounced than those of a full water phantom (Sp) and a slab phantom (Sps).

We show in Fig. ​3 the imaging time per frame (Timg/K) as a function of MU for an IMRT field, with/without using Eq. (4a) to correct for the missing frames. Without correction, Timg/K varies significantly (up 2%), especially at small MU settings, due to data transfer from the frame buffer every sixty‐four frames. The uncorrected Timg/K approaches an asymptotic value of 0.115 s/frame, higher than the corrected value of 0.111 s/frame by ~3.6%, similar to the predicted 3.9% in Eq. (4b). Notice that, during the image acquisition, the dose rate of the LINAC is 274 MU/min somewhat (~8%) lower than the nominal dose rate of 300 MU/min because the EPID regulates the LINAC dose rate to optimize image quality.

Figure ​4 shows selected images of the 10‐mm sliding window IMRT field for six different MUs. This IMRT field is intended to produce a spatially uniform fluence. Since the total imaging time (6.6 s) for the 30‐MU case is less than 7.1 s, no detector dead time is observed in panel (A). The detector dead time produces white‐and‐dark vertical band artifacts for larger MU settings, as shown from panels (B)‐(E), with higher MU setting for more bands; no significant band patterns are observed for MU > 400, as shown in panel (F).

Figure ​5 shows the images of a prostate IMRT field for four different MU settings −5, 50, 100, and 1000. The band pattern is clearly observed for the 5‐MU image, but only barely for the 50‐MU case; when the MU is higher than 100, no significant artifacts are observed.

The effect of higher MU is further demonstrated in Figs. 6(a) and 6(b), where the measured transverse dose profiles for (a) 5 and 25 MU, and (b) 100, 130, and 350 MU, of the prostate field in Fig. ​5 are plotted. Although significant deviation from the planned dose profile is observed for the 5‐MU case in Fig. 6(a), the 50‐MU curve is reasonably close to the planned; there are essentially no differences between the planned and the measured profiles for all MU settings in Fig. 6(b).

Figure ​7 shows the transverse beam profiles of the in‐field region for another field of the same plan used in Fig. ​5, not corrected using the regression coefficient [Eq. (5)]. The doses of all the pixels are with 3% difference or with 3 mm (isodose shift line).

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Figure 7

(Color) Transverse beam profiles for another field for the same plan as used in not corrected using the regression coefficients (Eq. 5); the difference (measure–planned) profile is also plotted. The average difference is 1.78% (normalized to the average measured dose of the in‐field region). Twenty‐five percent of the pixels are more than 3% difference in dose; however, they are all within 3 mm (isodose shift).

In Fig. 8(a) we show the measured dose [corrected using Eq. (4a)] versus the planned dose for the prostate IMRT field in Fig. ​5 with two different initial delays (0.111 s and 0.555 s). No significant differences are observed between these two curves acquired with different initial delays. Figure 8(b) plots the results for profile verification, σ versus MU of the IMRT field for the same initial delay settings; the σ values of both curves drop to ~2.1% for MU > 200. The good agreement between these two initial delays indicates that DSE is insignificant for the tested IMRT fields.

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Figure 8

(A) Measured vs planned CAX dose for the IMRT field shown in Fig. ​5 corrected using Eq. (4a), for different initial delay settings −0.111 s and 0.555 s. Only results for the low dose settings are shown although dose settings ranging from a few cGy to a few hundred cGy were tested. The best linear fits are y = 0.997x − 0.016 and y = 0.997x − 0.042 for “0.111 s” and “0.555 s,” respectively. (B) The results of relative profile verification, σ vs MU, of the same IM field.

Figure ​9 compares the results for verifying the relative profiles, and isocenter dose corrected using Eq. (4b), of the twenty‐five IM fields, for 100, 130, and 350 MUs. It is observed that the mean σSD in Fig. 9(a) is ~2.5%, much lower than the 5% QA tolerance.

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Figure 9

(Color) Comparison of IMRT verification results for 100, 130, and 350 MUs, using the aS500 EPID for 25 prostate fields. (A) Relative profile verification: mean σ vs MU, with the horizontal line indicating the accepTable 5% QA tolerance. (B) Mean measured/planned vs MU, i.e., ratio of dose from EPID measurements to that calculated from the treatment planning, corrected using Eq. (4b), with the horizontal line being the ideal ratio (1.0). The error bar is one standard deviation of the averaged σ for measured/planned dose.

DISCUSSION

Although the buildup materials are different for the Mark 2 (Plastoferrite) and the aS500 (Copper) EPIDs, both devices are designed for portal imaging with 6 MV photons (buildup = 14 mm polystyrene). Thus, the additional ~15 mm polystyrene buildup for the aS500 to achieve electron equilibrium for the 15 MV x‐ray (buildup = 31 mm polystyrene), is the same as that required for the Mark 2 SLIC EPID. 3

Although the lead attenuator may change the beam quality, the effect is of negligible consequence relative to calibration curves of the 15 MV beam as the same slope was obtained for the calibration curve either using lead sheets and inverse square to attenuate the beam. For the 6 MV beam, however, up to 10% difference in slope was observed for the calibration curves obtained using lead sheets and inverse square to attenuate the beam. This is expected because the phosphor screen of aS500 EPID is more responsive to low energy photons, thus more sensitive to the beam hardening effect of the 6 MV beam. The higher phantom scatter factors for the aS500 EPID in Fig. ​2 may be due to increased scatter from the buildup, higher detector sensitivity to the low‐energy incident or scattered photons, or the spreading of optical photons created in the phosphor layer. In any case, the field size dependence factor Spe account for all possible contributions, and Eq. (6) can be used to convert the EPID dose to phantom dose.

The identified sources of error (sampling error, beam hold‐off, and detector memory) for the SLIC EPID 3 , 5 are not as serious for the aS500 EPID. Although we did not thoroughly test the detector memory, we did not observe any significant detector memory effects in the experiments, as we did in Ref. 5. The detector memory effect was observable when the aS500 EPID was irradiated for a large number of MU (a few hundreds); however, the effect was so small ( < 0.5%) that any attempt to correct it wasn't justified. The beam hold‐off also has a negligible effect on the verification results; as shown in Figs. 9(a) and 9(b), results of relative profile and CAX dose verifications are similar for the beams with significant (on average 18% of the segments) hold off (the 100 and 130 MU settings), and without any hold off (the 350 MU setting).

There is essentially no sampling error, except for the missing 0.275 s of every 64 frames, because the detector actually integrates all doses between two scans. As shown in Figs. ​4 and ​5, the missing 0.275 s of every 64 frames due to buffer clearing poses a serious problem only for lower MU settings. For higher MU number, the introduced artifacts can be safely ignored for the relative profile verification, as shown in Fig. 8(b); or can be corrected using Eq. (4b) for CAX dose, as shown in Fig. 8(a).

Since the initial delay is usually set to more than one reset frame for other clinical use of the EPID (e.g., portal filming), this parameter will need to be constantly altered if set to a different value for IMRT verification, which may lead to confusion and errors in a busy clinical environment. As shown in Fig. ​8, the error from initial delay is insignificant for clinical IMRT fields. Thus, we can use the same configuration setting as other applications and avoid the confusion.

Together with the similar mean σ, mean measured/planned dose and SD for all three MU settings shown in Fig. ​9, we can safely infer that, for clinical prostate IMRT fields using 100–150 MU per field, this artifact doesn't significantly distort the measured dose profile, and can be accurately corrected using Eq 4(b). We note that the experience with our prostate IMRT field may not be directly applicable to other IMRT fields; for IMRT fields of other sites, similar tests should be performed.

McCurdy et al. 21 used Monte Carlo simulation to calculate the dose kernel of aS500 EPID, and suggested that the tail of the point spread function needs to incorporate an exponential component arising from optical photon glare. In their study, portal dose images in the phosphor and coupled to the glare model generally allowed prediction to within 5% in low‐dose gradient regions, and to within 5 mm in high‐dose gradient regions of the measured images. The use of experimentally determined Gaussian kernel (2.3‐mm full width at half maximum) in this and previous35 studies to calculate the planned distribution is simpler and equally effective, although the tail of a Gaussian kernel is different from that of an exponential function. It is illustrated in Fig. ​7 that the dose differences of all pixels in the in‐field region of the studied IMRT field are within 3% or 3 mm. Analysis of the global data in Fig. ​9 also indicates that, 96% of the pixels in the planned profile are within 3% [mean + 2 S.D. of Fig. 9(a)] of the measured, and the CAX dose of the planned profile is within 2% of the measured [Fig. 9(b)]. Thus, in the worse case scenario, most of the pixel of the planned profile is within 5%(2% + 3%) of the measured profile, regardless of the gradient.

CONCLUSION

In this study we tested the use of EPID in the regular frame averaging configuration, and demonstrated satisfactory results for verification of IMRT delivery. Although the upgrade being developed by the vender will account for the charges unaccounted by the current configuration, our results indicate that, for clinical IMRT fields, the errors are either insignificant, or can be easily corrected without the upgrade. Thus, the use of the current frame averaging configuration is quite acceptable in the clinical environment; the vender's upgrade, on the other hand, is not absolutely necessary and may be cost ineffective.

References

1. Burman C., Chui C. S., Kutcher G., Leibel S., Zelefsky M., LoSasso T., Spirou S., Wu Q., Yang J., Stein J., Mohan R., Fuks Z., and Ling C. C., “Planning, delivery, and quality assurance of intensity‐modulated radiotherapy using dynamic multileaf collimator: a strategy for large‐scale implementation for the treatment of carcinoma of the prostate,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol., Biol., Phys.39, 863–873 (1996). [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

2. Ling C. C., Burman C., Chui C. S., Kutcher G. J., Leibel S. A., LoSasso T., Mohan R., Bortfeld T., Reinstein L., Spirou S., Wang X.‐H., Wu Q., Zelefsky M., and Fuks Z., “Conformal radiation treatment of prostate cancer using inversely‐planned intensity‐modulated photon beams produced with dynamic multileaf collimation,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol., Biol., Phys.35, 721–730 (1996). [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

3. Chang J., Mageras G., Chui C. S., Ling C. C., and Lutz W., “Relative profile and dose verification of intensity modulated radiation therapy,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol., Biol., Phys.47, 231–240 (2000). [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

4. Chang J., Mageras G., Ling C. C., and Lutz W., “An Iterative EPID calibration procedure for dosimetric verification that considers the EPID scattering factor,” Med. Phys.28, 2247–2257 (2001). [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

5. Chang J., Mageras G., and Ling C. C., “Evaluation of rapid dose map acquisition of a scanning liquid‐filled ionization chamber electronic portal imaging device,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol., Biol., Phys.55, 1432–1445 (2003). [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

6. Boellaard R., van Herk M., Uiterwaal H., and Mijnheer B., “First clinical tests using a liquid‐filled electronic portal imaging device and a convolution model for the verification of the midplane dose,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol., Biol., Phys.47, 303–312 (1998). [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

7. Partridge M., Evans P. M., Mosleh‐Shirazi A., and Convery D., “Independent verification using portal imaging of intensity‐modulated beam delivery by the dynamic MLC technique,” Med. Phys.25, 1872–1879 (1998). [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

8. Curtin‐Savard J. and Podgorsak E. B., “Verification of segmented beam delivery using a commercial electronic portal imaging device,” Med. Phys.26, 737–742 (1999). [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

9. Pasma K. L., Dirkx M. L. P., Kroonwijk M., Visser A. G., and Heijmen B. J. M., “Dosimetric verification of intensity modulated beams produced with dynamic multileaf collimator using an electronic portal imaging device,” Med. Phys.26, 2373–2378 (1999). [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

10. James H. V., Atherton S., Budgell G. J., Kirby M. C., and Williams P. C., “Verification of dynamic multileaf collimation using an electronic portal imaging device,” Phys. Med. Biol.45, 495–509 (2000). [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

11. Kutcher G. J., Coia L., Gillin M., Hanson W. F., Leibel S., Morton R. J., Palta J. R., Purdy J. A., Reinstein L. E., Svensson G. K., Weller M., and Wingfield L., “Comprehensive QA, for radiation oncology: Report of AAPM Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group 40,” Med. Phys.21, 581–618 (1994). [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

12. Munro P., “Portal imaging technology: past, present, and future,” Semin Radiat. Oncol.5, 115–133 (1995). [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

13. Munro P., Bouius D. C., Moseley J., Martin L., Zhang Y., and Jaffray D. A., “Glaring errors in transit dosimetry,” Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Electronic Poral Imaging, Phoenix, AZ, 29–31 October 1998, pp. 128–129. [Google Scholar]

14. Patridge M., Evans P. M., and Symonds‐Tayler J. R. N., “Optical scattering in camera‐based electronic portal imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.44, 2381–2396 (1999). [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

15. Munro P. and Bouius D. C., “X‐ray quantum limited portal imaging using amorphous silicon flat‐panel arrays,” Med. Phys.25, 689–702 (1998). [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

16. Manser P., Treier R., Riem H., Fix M. K., Vetterli D., Mini R., and Röegsegger P., “Dose response of an A‐Si:H EPID on static and dynamic photon beams,” Med. Phys.29, 1269 (2002). [Google Scholar]

17. Mood A. M., Graybill F. A., and Boes D. C., Introduction to the Theory of Statistics, 3rd ed. (McGraw‐Hill, New York, 1974), Chap. X. [Google Scholar]

18. Press W. H., Teukolsky S. A., Vetterling W. T., and Flannery B. P., Numerical recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1992), Chap. 15. [Google Scholar]

19. Mohan R. and Chui C. S., “Use of fast Fourier transforms in calculating dose distributions for irregularly shaped fields for three‐dimensional treatment planning,” Med. Phys.14, 70–77 (1987). [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

20. Khan F. M., The Physics of Radiation Therapy, 2nd ed. (Williams & Williams, Baltimore, MA, 1994), Chap. 10. [Google Scholar]

21. McCurdy B. M. C., Luchka K., and Pistorius S., “Dosimetric investigation and portal dose image prediction using an amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device,” Med. Phys.28, 911–924 (2001). [PubMed] [Google Scholar]


Articles from Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics are provided here courtesy of Wiley-Blackwell


[2016] Lenovo G470 (Brazil) - Unlock and Remove Whitelist

September 15, 2016, 6:13 pm

Next [Request] Lenovo E545 Whitelist Removal

Previous [REQUEST] BIOS WHITELIST REMOVAL FOR THINKPAT EDGE E430

Hi!

Is the BIOS of my Lenovo G470 (Bought in Brazil, came with the Ralink RT3090. So it must be different from the one in the other posts) compatible with the update you or the other guy posted (https://app.box.com/s/j24k9gym27l29e5j3vt1oumqet5gvj38)?

Can it be applied to this motherboard (model/number/revision/version) without corrupting the BIOS?

[Image: x6qqoci.jpg]

[Image: 9uc24NY.jpg]

If so, what would be the preferred way of achieving this?
And if I come to mess this up and the BIOS ends up getting corrupted, is there any chance to recover it?

This laptop is, obviously, not under the warranty anymore (2012 ~ 2016).

My intentions here are to remove the white-list and also showing new menus/features in the BIOS.

Is it possible?

September 15, 2016, 8:07 pm

Next [2016] Lenovo Essential G470 (Brazil)

Previous [2016] Lenovo G470 (Brazil) - Unlock and Remove Whitelist

Hello all,

BIOS Version: HRET24WW (1.12) - http://download.lenovo.com/ibmdl/pub/pc/...uj24ww.exe
Current Card: RTL8188EE Wireless Network Adapter
PCI ID:
PCI\VEN_10EC&DEV_8179&SUBSYS_017917AA&REV_01
PCI\VEN_10EC&DEV_8179&SUBSYS_017917AA
PCI\VEN_10EC&DEV_8179&CC_028000
PCI\VEN_10EC&DEV_8179&CC_0280

New Card: Intel 7260.HMWG AC+Bluetooth


Here is BIOS dump from Universal Backup BIOS - https://www.sendspace.com/file/pvvlc0

Here are the results from BACKUP_Tools12 - https://www.sendspace.com/file/yb500r

Please let me know if I need to provide anything else.  Thanks you for your help in advance!

September 15, 2016, 9:46 pm

Next Lenovo B590 unlock

Previous [Request] Lenovo E545 Whitelist Removal

LenovoEssentialG470 (59-066925):

[Image: lenovo-g470-59-066925-core-i3-2nd-gen-2-...arge-1.jpg]

BIOS40CN33WW V2.19
BOARD 3000472301929
CPUIntel i3-2310M
VGAIntel HD 3000 (8086 0116)
AUDIOIntel HDAC / Conexant CX20590 (8086 1C20)
WIFIRalink RT3090 (1814 3090)
LAN Qualcomm Atheros AR8152 v2.0 (1969 2062)

DSDTextracted from MacOS10.11.6 (El Capitan/ Hackintosh) with Clover(F4 option at boot)

I want to remove all errors, make sleep, battery, audio (audio in/out + onboard mic), WiFi and screen brightness work.

-----

I'm also including all files I think might help, including:


.zipDSDT_SSDT_RAW_CLOVER_F4.zip (Size: 23.72 KB / Downloads: 0) :
RAW ACPI Tables from Clover (extracted using F4 key at boot) (Raw/Unedited files);


.zipDSDT_SSDT_MOD_OSX86.zip (Size: 17.9 KB / Downloads: 0) :
DSDT/SSDT I found at osx86 site made by another user, same notebook.
Batterypercentage works fine;
Speedstepmight be working as well (not sure how to verify this);
Screen brightnessworks partially (shortcut keys on keyboard (fn+Up/Down) don't work and doesn't remember last position after reboot;
Audiooutworks (speakers/phone jack), audio inputsdon't (on-board mic / mic-in jack) (using All in One Audio Solution 2 from hackintosh.zone);
Card readerdoesn't work;
Bluetooth/WiFiboth don't work;
Sleepdoesn't work. As soon as I close the lid or manually force it, the laptops wakes up instantly after that;


.zipLenovoG470_IOReg.zip (Size: 354 KB / Downloads: 1) :
IOReg extracted using the IORegistryExplorer-SLRID_v10.6.3 app;


.zipLenovoG470_SystemInformation.zip (Size: 245.09 KB / Downloads: 0) :
System Information Log/Report generated from the System Information app;


.zipLenovoG470.acpi.zip (Size: 19.33 KB / Downloads: 1) :
Complete ACPI dump in a single file (made with DPCI Manager) (Compatible with MaciASL)

config.plist:
Clover config.plist file (based on RehabMan's config_HD3000_1366x768.plist file from his GitHub repository)

September 15, 2016, 11:25 pm

Next REQUEST>HP DV7 6055ef insydeh20

Previous [2016] Lenovo Essential G470 (Brazil)

hello,
ı want to reach to the advanced settings on bios, can you unlock this ?

MOTHERBOARD : Lenovo 20208

BIOS : H1ET84WW(1.22)

LİNK : https://drive.google.com/open?id=0Bxk0Wk...2hSWWVYTHc

September 16, 2016, 2:01 am

Next Request toshiba l50-a bios unlock

Previous Lenovo B590 unlock

i want to unlock my bios. thx. i can donate !!
i dont have rom for my bios is just find on hp driver bios instal from win7
http://support.hp.com/us-en/drivers/self...el/5075678

foto bios
https://postimg.org/image/lfh02ri47/

September 16, 2016, 3:14 am

Next please help me

Previous REQUEST>HP DV7 6055ef insydeh20

Hello.

I'm trying to learn how to mod my own bios, so please can explain me how to proceed?

I have actually this bios:
http://support1.toshiba-tro.de/tedd-file...153531.zip

Can you unlock as much as possible of this one?

How can I read the bin file that is provided with the download from the official site? Every tool I tried wants a rom file.

Thank you!

September 16, 2016, 6:19 am

Next SLIC table to BIOS Phoenix Lenovo Flex 2 14

Previous Request toshiba l50-a bios unlock

i want a modded version for my notebook,i searched throught a lot of forums but it seems i can't get to it
my model is : acer aspire v3 371 34sq the link to my bios is : this
i am currently running the latest bios after updating to the version 1.29 from their official website
i would like to be able to access the advanced tab settins as well as being able to allocate more ram to my integrated gpu
thanks in advance and all my respect to the developers of this forum for their hard work

September 16, 2016, 7:30 am

Next [REQUEST] Unlock Advanced BIOS options for Lenovo G50-80

Previous please help me

[size=small]Hi everyone. I have very hard problem. I try to load SLIC 2.1 table to BIOS (I use Phoenix Slic Modetool), but receive error: "Unable to add SLIC Code"

-Model & Machine Type: Flex 2-14 Laptop (Lenovo)
-Bios Revision : A0CN37WW
-Bios Type : Phoenix
-Bios SLIC : 2.1
-Bios Link : https://download.lenovo.com/consumer...s/a0cn37ww.exe
-RW-Everything: https://www.dropbox.com/s/dyj2kbl31z...piTbls.rw?dl=0


September 16, 2016, 8:48 am

Next [Request] Lenovo Yoga 2 11 Whitelist Removal

Previous SLIC table to BIOS Phoenix Lenovo Flex 2 14

Hi everyone. Been messing with this for a long time but with 0 results. I want to unhide the advanced bios options in order to add some more VRAM for gaming and maybe tweak some of my system performance (i'll take full responsibility if something goes wrong, please no warning comments). Thanks a lot

Additional info: Bios is InsydeH20 Rev 5.0
(EDIT: more info about my device: Lenovo G50-80 S/N: PF0ANXJ0)

.jpgplshelp.jpg(Size: 36.36 KB / Downloads: 2)

September 16, 2016, 12:41 pm

Next [REQUEST] Lenovo y50-70 bios mod

Previous [REQUEST] Unlock Advanced BIOS options for Lenovo G50-80

Name: Lenovo Yoga 2 11
Model: 20428
BIOS: AACN94WW (Haswell) 
New wifi card: Intel 7260 ac

I have read the BIOS using Universal BIOS Backup ToolKit 2.0 which shows that the bios is 5120k.

http://rgho.st/6Vc65xvjC

I loaded the above .rom file into Insyde EZh2o and I am instantly greeted with this message regarding FD Information:



http://rgho.st/8My6Qpv2s


I am able to see a number of modules but this is where I am stuck. I downloaded the latest bios from Lenovo and the .fd file there is 8845kb. That file cannot be read into ezH20, but i can be read into Andy P (MDL) Phoenix-Insyde-EFI SLIC Tool. 


I have read a few of the the other threads. From what I have read those bios chips are 8192k whereas the the one I read is only 5120k. I can change the setting in Universal Bios Backup Toolkit to read out 8192k. I am also prepared to purchase a SPI reader/writer and clips if need be. I am not familiar with how to use the hardware, but with clear instructions  I should have no problems.

Thanks in advance for any and all help!

September 16, 2016, 12:46 pm

Next [REQUEST] Fixing the error 280 on flashing modded bios

Previous [Request] Lenovo Yoga 2 11 Whitelist Removal

Hi everyone ! is there a good man that could mod my bios ? i have lenovo y50-70 and i need andvanced tab menu ( to overclock gpu ) and whitelist removing ( to change the wifi card ).

Here is my bios backup 

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0BxcfMf1...RVLXc/view

I will donate you ! thank you very much !

Federico

September 16, 2016, 1:12 pm

Next [REQUEST] BIOS Wireless Whitelist Removal Lenovo N581

Previous [REQUEST] Lenovo y50-70 bios mod

Hello again, i had posted a few hours ago and a guy named Dudu2002 helped me, big thanks to him, but i came up with an error 280. Is this fixable without buying any external devices? just by actions in windows? found a solution but i dont know how to figure it out. thanks

.jpgerror280.jpg(Size: 77.83 KB / Downloads: 3)

.jpgmethod.jpg(Size: 169.71 KB / Downloads: 2)

September 16, 2016, 1:45 pm

Next [REQUEST] Lenovo Yoga 710-15ISK unlock

Previous [REQUEST] Fixing the error 280 on flashing modded bios

BIOS: 5ECN96WW
VER: 9.01
DOWNLOAD LINK: https://download.lenovo.com/consumer/mob...cn96ww.exe
BACKUP: https://1drv.ms/u/s!AhEzVEnIKO5bn_YOTDRadvEkJfAchQ

Desperate need of this to allow me to add another wifi card as mine got trashed. Hope this is all ya need. I deeply appreciate the work done by you smart fellows. Let me know if anything else is needed.

Thanks

September 16, 2016, 4:04 pm

Next [Request] HP 9470m whitelist removal or add wwan card

Previous [REQUEST] BIOS Wireless Whitelist Removal Lenovo N581

September 17, 2016, 3:29 am

Next Whitelist removal for Lenovo Z50-70

Previous [REQUEST] Lenovo Yoga 710-15ISK unlock

HP 9470m removal whitelist.
Or add
 Sierra Wireless MC5725 1xEV-DO Network Adapter 
SWMUXBUS\SW_NET_0_VID_1199&PID_0017

i only know that 
HP un2430 Mobile Broadband Module Network Device
USB\VID_03F0&PID_371D&MI_03
allowed in whitelist


68IBD Ver. 62  - System Bios Version
Bios Date - 10/22/2015
Bios name: sp74061
Bios link: http://rgho.st/82BP64pJb (downloaded from HP site)


September 17, 2016, 5:09 am

Next Acer Predator G5910 ivy bridge support

Previous [Request] HP 9470m whitelist removal or add wwan card

Hi to all!! Can you remove the wireless whitelist from this bios version?

Notebook Model: Lenovo Z50-70
Bios Version: 9BCN91WW
New card:  BCM94352Z

At the moment I'm on verision 26 already whitelisted removed by me, but I need to upgrade again to version 91 due to some performance issues and to try and see if the Bluetooth works with the new card  (BCM94352Z) works in this version.

Do you need a dump of version 91? for that I need to reflash to version 91 first, do the dump, and reflash back to 26?

Cheers!

September 17, 2016, 5:37 am

Next Lenovo G710 Whitelist removal

Previous Whitelist removal for Lenovo Z50-70

Hello, i have a motherboard of a Acer Predator G5910 but it's only support 2° intel processor, If somebody could make compatible bios with 3 ° generation, it would do a favor to me. Thank you.
(I give you the bios file)

.zipBIOS_Acer_P01.A4_A_A.zip(Size: 5.33 MB / Downloads: 1)

September 17, 2016, 8:28 am

Next N501VW.204 Asus Zenbook Pro UX501VW Bios Unlock Will Donate.

Previous Acer Predator G5910 ivy bridge support

Manufacturer: Lenovo
Model: G710 core i3 4000u
Bios revision: 8ecn95ww
EC version: 8eec18ww
Bios Type: UEFI
Lenovo BIOS download link - https://download.lenovo.com/consumer/mob...cn95ww.exe

September 17, 2016, 10:15 am

Next P5LD2-X/1333 SLIC 2.1

Previous Lenovo G710 Whitelist removal

Hi, first time unlocking bios and everything, but if anyone can help me with a bios unlock that'd be great. Goal is to unlock any hidden menus and enable my dedicated graphics card as the primary gpu/disable nvidia optimus if at all possible, and maybe overclock. Currently on Bios Version 208, but the latest is 301.

Asus Zenbook Pro UX501VW Laptop
AMI EFI
Version: 208
GOP version 9.0.1035
EC version FOSL0900
Link to latest Bios Version http://dlcdnet.asus.com/pub/ASUS/nb/N501...1473304806
Will be donating if I can get an unlock and possible mods for this.

Link to what my Bios looks like https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B_FmUh...JRazZReVJn

September 17, 2016, 11:12 am

Next [request] Dell Optiplex FX 160 Bluetooth (for combo wifi/bt) unlock.

Previous N501VW.204 Asus Zenbook Pro UX501VW Bios Unlock Will Donate.


More Pages to Explore .....


How Do You Feel About Windows 8 Slic Bios Mod?

Don't suffer from PC errors any longer.

  • 1. Download and install the ASR Pro software
  • 2. Launch the software and select your language
  • 3. Follow the on-screen instructions to start a scan of your PC
  • Get this complimentary download to improve your computer's performance.

    Recently, some users came across an error message with Windows 8 Slic Bios Mod. This problem can arise for several reasons. Let’s discuss this below.

    Employee

    10.09.2010, 23:04 Post(Last modified: 10/09/2010, 11:05 pm by 1234s282.)

    Recently, we have received quite a few responses to confirmed SLIC modifications in the following directions:

    Quote: “Could you re-edit this with ??? – Slic instead of something like that ??? ”

    I am making this post to inform you that it doesn’t matter which SLIC we use to change as long as a reasonable key is installed (keys are independent of the organization) and fix that there is currently a SLIC compliant certificate installed – Bed adapts to bios.

    windows 8 slic bios mod

    If we follow this example, we will all save valuable time instead of re-modifying the bios that are already working. Although the renovation only takes 5 minutes, the number of requests people have seen for these remodels in a short period of time does increase over time.nor!

    1) User holds an Asus motherboard and requests a specific mod.

    2) For the sake of clarity, we are trying to match the manufacturers making the card with SLIC so that we can modify it with the Asus 2.1 SLIC.

    3) The original poster is returned, confirming that the mod has a job. You also have this motherboard, but you have Windows 7 OEM installation CDs from different manufacturers (like Dell), so you want to use Dell 2.1 SLIC.

    4) Do we have to provide the results of the SLIC verification requested by you and your family, even if a verified pass-through has already been made for this motherboard.

    Follow these instructions instead. Let’s take an example: –

    1) Download modified verified BIOS created with Asus 2.1 SLIC.Flash

    2) also and confirm with the SLIC Dump Toolkit that your bio now contains some kind of valid SLIC 2.1 table. You can download it here:

    3) Install Windows 7 from Dell OEM media. Since this is an OEM disc, the Dell certificate and valid OEM disc are automatically inserted during installation.sheep. If you are prompted for a key, proceed with the installation without the key.

    windows 8 slic bios mod

    4) After completing this installation, your computer will not stay activated automatically because you saved the asus slice in BIOS and also installed the Dell certificate. As mentioned, the installed key is not important, although it is specific to the version only, not the manufacturer. Dell Home Premium key works for SLICs as long as you install Home Premium.

    Don't suffer from PC errors any longer.

    It�s no secret that computers slow down over time. ASR Pro will fix common computer errors, protect you from file loss, malware and hardware failure. This software can easily and quickly recognize any Windows related issues and problems. The application will also detect files and applications that are crashing frequently, and allow you to fix their problems with a single click. Your computer is going to feel faster than ever before! Click here now for a free download of the latest version of our software:

  • 1. Download and install the ASR Pro software
  • 2. Launch the software and select your language
  • 3. Follow the on-screen instructions to start a scan of your PC

  • 5) Copy the certificate data (for Asus) that is in the organization that contained the modified BIOS to actually copy the C: drive

    6) After inserting this key information file into the Go c drive, go to START – ALL PROGRAMS – ACCESSORIES – REQUEST. Right click the command to request and RUN AS ADMINISTRATOR.

    7) When Command Prompt opens, on each command prompt enter: slmgr.vbs -ilc c: ********. Xrm-ms and press Enter. Wait for the Script host to respond with a message that the license was successfully installed … This may take a few minutes, so please be patient. This will overwrite the Dell certificate whichwas automatically inserted during installation.

    8) Restart your computer and check the system properties (right click on our own computer) to make sure you are initialized with the OEM product ID.

    Since each of our SLIC tables in your Asus Bios implies that the certificate you exactly set was Asus and Vital is independent of the manufacturer, you should now be successfully activated, which in most cases saves us the hassle of re-modification and yours too. flashes because the new mod has already been confirmed.

    Get this complimentary download to improve your computer's performance.

    Mod De Bios De Windows 8
    윈도우 8 슬라이스 바이오스 모드
    Windows 8 Slic Bios Mod
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    Windows 8 Slic Bios Mod
    Windows 8 Slic Bios Mod
    Bios Di Windows 8 Slic Mod
    Mod Bios Do Windows 8 Slice
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    BIOS

    Firmware for hardware initialization and OS runtime services

    This article is about the BIOS as found in personal computers. For other uses, see Bios (disambiguation).

    A pair of AMDBIOS chips for a Dell310 computer from the 1980s

    In computing, BIOS (, BY-oss, -⁠ohss; Basic Input/Output System (also known as the System BIOS, ROM BIOS, BIOS ROM or PC BIOS) is firmware used to provide runtime services for operating systems and programs and to perform hardware initialization during the booting process (power-on startup).[1] The BIOS firmware comes pre-installed on an IBM PC or IBM PC compatible's system board and exists in UEFI-based systems too.[2][3] The name originates from the Basic Input/Output System used in the CP/M operating system in 1975.[4][5] The BIOS originally proprietary to the IBM PC has been reverse engineered by some companies (such as Phoenix Technologies) looking to create compatible systems. The interface of that original system serves as a de facto standard.

    The BIOS in modern PCs initializes and tests the system hardware components (Power-on self-test), and loads a boot loader from a mass storage device which then initializes a kernel. In the era of DOS, the BIOS provided BIOS interrupt calls for the keyboard, display, storage, and other input/output (I/O) devices that standardized an interface to application programs and the operating system. More recent operating systems do not use the BIOS interrupt calls after startup.

    Most BIOS implementations are specifically designed to work with a particular computer or motherboard model, by interfacing with various devices especially system chipset. Originally, BIOS firmware was stored in a ROM chip on the PC motherboard. In later computer systems, the BIOS contents are stored on flash memory so it can be rewritten without removing the chip from the motherboard. This allows easy, end-user updates to the BIOS firmware so new features can be added or bugs can be fixed, but it also creates a possibility for the computer to become infected with BIOS rootkits. Furthermore, a BIOS upgrade that fails could brick the motherboard. The last version of Microsoft Windows running on PCs which uses BIOS firmware is Windows 10.

    Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) is a successor to the legacy PC BIOS, aiming to address its technical limitations.[7]

    History[edit]

    /* C P / M B A S I C I / O S Y S T E M (B I O S) COPYRIGHT (C) GARY A. KILDALL JUNE, 1975 */ […] /* B A S I C D I S K O P E R A T I N G S Y S T E M (B D O S) COPYRIGHT (C) GARY A. KILDALL JUNE, 1975 */

    — An excerpt from the BDOS.PLM file header in the PL/M source code of CP/M 1.1 or 1.2 for Lawrence Livermore Laboratories (LLL)[4]

    The term BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) was created by Gary Kildall[8][9] and first appeared in the CP/M operating system in 1975,[4][5][9][10][11][12] describing the machine-specific part of CP/M loaded during boot time that interfaces directly with the hardware.[5] (A CP/M machine usually has only a simple boot loader in its ROM.)

    Versions of MS-DOS, PC DOS or DR-DOS contain a file called variously "IO.SYS", "IBMBIO.COM", "IBMBIO.SYS", or "DRBIOS.SYS"; this file is known as the "DOS BIOS" (also known as the "DOS I/O System") and contains the lower-level hardware-specific part of the operating system. Together with the underlying hardware-specific but operating system-independent "System BIOS", which resides in ROM, it represents the analogue to the "CP/M BIOS".

    The BIOS originally proprietary to the IBM PC has been reverse engineered by some companies (such as Phoenix Technologies) looking to create compatible systems.

    With the introduction of PS/2 machines, IBM divided the System BIOS into real- and protected-mode portions. The real-mode portion was meant to provide backward compatibility with existing operating systems such as DOS, and therefore was named "CBIOS" (for "Compatibility BIOS"), whereas the "ABIOS" (for "Advanced BIOS") provided new interfaces specifically suited for multitasking operating systems such as OS/2.[13]

    User interface[edit]

    The BIOS of the original IBM PC and XT had no interactive user interface. Error codes or messages were displayed on the screen, or coded series of sounds were generated to signal errors when the power-on self-test (POST) had not proceeded to the point of successfully initializing a video display adapter. Options on the IBM PC and XT were set by switches and jumpers on the main board and on expansion cards. Starting around the mid-1990s, it became typical for the BIOS ROM to include a "BIOS configuration utility" (BCU[14]) or "BIOS setup utility", accessed at system power-up by a particular key sequence. This program allowed the user to set system configuration options, of the type formerly set using DIP switches, through an interactive menu system controlled through the keyboard. In the interim period, IBM-compatible PCs‍—‌including the IBM AT‍—‌held configuration settings in battery-backed RAM and used a bootable configuration program on floppy disk, not in the ROM, to set the configuration options contained in this memory. The floppy disk was supplied with the computer, and if it was lost the system settings could not be changed. The same applied in general to computers with an EISA bus, for which the configuration program was called an EISA Configuration Utility (ECU).

    A modern Wintel-compatible computer provides a setup routine essentially unchanged in nature from the ROM-resident BIOS setup utilities of the late 1990s; the user can configure hardware options using the keyboard and video display. The modern Wintel machine may store the BIOS configuration settings in flash ROM, perhaps the same flash ROM that holds the BIOS itself.

    Operation[edit]

    System startup[edit]

    Early Intel processors started at physical address 000FFFF0h. Systems with later processors provide logic to start running the BIOS from the system ROM. [15]

    If the system has just been powered up or the reset button was pressed ("cold boot"), the full power-on self-test (POST) is run. If Ctrl+Alt+Delete was pressed ("warm boot"), a special flag value stored in nonvolatile BIOS memory ("CMOS") tested by the BIOS allows bypass of the lengthy POST and memory detection.

    The POST identifies, tests and initializes system devices such as the CPU, chipset, RAM, motherboard, video card, keyboard, mouse, hard disk drive, optical disc drive and other hardware, including integrated peripherals.

    Early IBM PCs had a routine in the POST that would download a program into RAM through the keyboard port and run it.[16][17] This feature was intended for factory test or diagnostic purposes.

    Boot process[edit]

    After the option ROM scan is completed and all detected ROM modules with valid checksums have been called, or immediately after POST in a BIOS version that does not scan for option ROMs, the BIOS calls INT 19h to start boot processing. Post-boot, programs loaded can also call INT 19h to reboot the system, but they must be careful to disable interrupts and other asynchronous hardware processes that may interfere with the BIOS rebooting process, or else the system may hang or crash while it is rebooting.

    When INT 19h is called, the BIOS attempts to locate boot loader software on a "boot device", such as a hard disk, a floppy disk, CD, or DVD. It loads and executes the first boot software it finds, giving it control of the PC.[18]

    The BIOS uses the boot devices set in Nonvolatile BIOS memory (CMOS), or, in the earliest PCs, DIP switches. The BIOS checks each device in order to see if it is bootable by attempting to load the first sector (boot sector). If the sector cannot be read, the BIOS proceeds to the next device. If the sector is read successfully, some BIOSes will also check for the boot sector signature 0x55 0xAA in the last two bytes of the sector (which is 512 bytes long), before accepting a boot sector and considering the device bootable.[nb 1]

    When a bootable device is found, the BIOS transfers control to the loaded sector. The BIOS does not interpret the contents of the boot sector other than to possibly check for the boot sector signature in the last two bytes. Interpretation of data structures like partition tables and BIOS Parameter Blocks is done by the boot program in the boot sector itself or by other programs loaded through the boot process.

    A non-disk device such as a network adapter attempts booting by a procedure that is defined by its option ROM or the equivalent integrated into the motherboard BIOS ROM. As such, option ROMs may also influence or supplant the boot process defined by the motherboard BIOS ROM.

    With the El Torito optical media boot standard, the optical drive actually emulates a 3.5" high-density floppy disk to the BIOS for boot purposes. Reading the "first sector" of a CD-ROM or DVD-ROM is not a simply defined operation like it is on a floppy disk or a hard disk. Furthermore, the complexity of the medium makes it difficult to write a useful boot program in one sector. The bootable virtual floppy disk can contain software that provides access to the optical medium in its native format.

    Boot priority[edit]

    The user can select the boot priority implemented by the BIOS. For example, most computers have a hard disk that is bootable, but sometimes there is a removable-media drive that has higher boot priority, so the user can cause a removable disk to be booted.

    In most modern BIOSes, the boot priority order can be configured by the user. In older BIOSes, limited boot priority options are selectable; in the earliest BIOSes, a fixed priority scheme was implemented, with floppy disk drives first, fixed disks (i.e. hard disks) second, and typically no other boot devices supported, subject to modification of these rules by installed option ROMs. The BIOS in an early PC also usually would only boot from the first floppy disk drive or the first hard disk drive, even if there were two drives installed.

    Boot failure[edit]

    On the original IBM PC and XT, if no bootable disk was found, ROM BASIC was started by calling INT 18h. Since few programs used BASIC in ROM, clone PC makers left it out; then a computer that failed to boot from a disk would display "No ROM BASIC" and halt (in response to INT 18h).

    Later computers would display a message like "No bootable disk found"; some would prompt for a disk to be inserted and a key to be pressed to retry the boot process. A modern BIOS may display nothing or may automatically enter the BIOS configuration utility when the boot process fails.

    Boot environment[edit]

    The environment for the boot program is very simple: the CPU is in real mode and the general-purpose and segment registers are undefined, except SS, SP, CS, and DL. CS:IP always points to physical address . What values CS and IP actually have is not well defined. Some BIOSes use a CS:IP of while others may use .[19] Because boot programs are always loaded at this fixed address, there is no need for a boot program to be relocatable. DL may contain the drive number, as used with INT 13h, of the boot device. SS:SP points to a valid stack that is presumably large enough to support hardware interrupts, but otherwise SS and SP are undefined. (A stack must be already set up in order for interrupts to be serviced, and interrupts must be enabled in order for the system timer-tick interrupt, which BIOS always uses at least to maintain the time-of-day count and which it initializes during POST, to be active and for the keyboard to work. The keyboard works even if the BIOS keyboard service is not called; keystrokes are received and placed in the 15-character type-ahead buffer maintained by BIOS.) The boot program must set up its own stack, because the size of the stack set up by BIOS is unknown and its location is likewise variable; although the boot program can investigate the default stack by examining SS:SP, it is easier and shorter to just unconditionally set up a new stack.[20]

    At boot time, all BIOS services are available, and the memory below address contains the interrupt vector table. BIOS POST has initialized the system timers, interrupt controller(s), DMA controller(s), and other motherboard/chipset hardware as necessary to bring all BIOS services to ready status. DRAM refresh for all system DRAM in conventional memory and extended memory, but not necessarily expanded memory, has been set up and is running. The interrupt vectors corresponding to the BIOS interrupts have been set to point at the appropriate entry points in the BIOS, hardware interrupt vectors for devices initialized by the BIOS have been set to point to the BIOS-provided ISRs, and some other interrupts, including ones that BIOS generates for programs to hook, have been set to a default dummy ISR that immediately returns. The BIOS maintains a reserved block of system RAM at addresses with various parameters initialized during the POST. All memory at and above address can be used by the boot program; it may even overwrite itself.[21][22]

    Extensions (option ROMs)[edit]

    See also: Option ROM

    Peripheral cards such as hard disk drive host bus adapters and video cards have their own firmware, and BIOS extension option ROM may be a part of the expansion card firmware, which provide additional functionality to BIOS. Code in option ROMs runs before the BIOS boots the operating system from mass storage. These ROMs typically test and initialize hardware, add new BIOS services, or replace existing BIOS services with their own services. For example, a SCSI controller usually has a BIOS extension ROM that adds support for hard drives connected through that controller. An extension ROM could in principle contain operating system, or it could implement an entirely different boot process such as network booting. Operation of an IBM-compatible computer system can be completely changed by removing or inserting an adapter card (or a ROM chip) that contains a BIOS extension ROM.

    The motherboard BIOS typically contains code for initializing and bootstrapping integrated display and integrated storage. In addition, plug-in adapter cards such as SCSI, RAID, network interface cards, and video cards often include their own BIOS (e.g. Video BIOS), complementing or replacing the system BIOS code for the given component. Even devices built into the motherboard can behave in this way; their option ROMs can be a part of the motherboard BIOS.

    An add-in card requires an option ROM if the card is not supported by the motherboard BIOS and the card needs to be initialized or made accessible through BIOS services before the operating system can be loaded (usually this means it is required in the boot process). An additional advantage of ROM on some early PC systems (notably including the IBM PCjr) was that ROM was faster than main system RAM. (On modern systems, the case is very much the reverse of this, and BIOS ROM code is usually copied ("shadowed") into RAM so it will run faster.)

    Boot procedure[edit]

    If an expansion ROM wishes to change the way the system boots (such as from a network device or a SCSI adapter) in a cooperative way, it can use the BIOS Boot Specification (BBS) API to register its ability to do so. Once the expansion ROMs have registered using the BBS APIs, the user can select among the available boot options from within the BIOS's user interface. This is why most BBS compliant PC BIOS implementations will not allow the user to enter the BIOS's user interface until the expansion ROMs have finished executing and registering themselves with the BBS API.[citation needed]

    Also, if an expansion ROM wishes to change the way the system boots unilaterally, it can simply hook INT 19h or other interrupts normally called from interrupt 19h, such as INT 13h, the BIOS disk service, to intercept the BIOS boot process. Then it can replace the BIOS boot process with one of its own, or it can merely modify the boot sequence by inserting its own boot actions into it, by preventing the BIOS from detecting certain devices as bootable, or both. Before the BIOS Boot Specification was promulgated, this was the only way for expansion ROMs to implement boot capability for devices not supported for booting by the native BIOS of the motherboard.[citation needed]

    Initialization[edit]

    After the motherboard BIOS completes its POST, most BIOS versions search for option ROM modules, also called BIOS extension ROMs, and execute them. The motherboard BIOS scans for extension ROMs in a portion of the "upper memory area" (the part of the x86 real-mode address space at and above address 0xA0000) and runs each ROM found, in order. To discover memory-mapped option ROMs, a BIOS implementation scans the real-mode address space from to on 2 KB (2,048 bytes) boundaries, looking for a two-byte ROM signature: 0x55 followed by 0xAA. In a valid expansion ROM, this signature is followed by a single byte indicating the number of 512-byte blocks the expansion ROM occupies in real memory, and the next byte is the option ROM's entry point (also known as its "entry offset"). If the ROM has a valid checksum, the BIOS transfers control to the entry address, which in a normal BIOS extension ROM should be the beginning of the extension's initialization routine.

    At this point, the extension ROM code takes over, typically testing and initializing the hardware it controls and registering interrupt vectors for use by post-boot applications. It may use BIOS services (including those provided by previously initialized option ROMs) to provide a user configuration interface, to display diagnostic information, or to do anything else that it requires. It is possible that an option ROM will not return to BIOS, pre-empting the BIOS's boot sequence altogether.

    An option ROM should normally return to the BIOS after completing its initialization process. Once (and if) an option ROM returns, the BIOS continues searching for more option ROMs, calling each as it is found, until the entire option ROM area in the memory space has been scanned.

    Physical placement[edit]

    BIOS chips in a Dell 310 that were updated by replacing the chips

    Option ROMs normally reside on adapter cards. However, the original PC, and perhaps also the PC XT, have a spare ROM socket on the motherboard (the "system board" in IBM's terms) into which an option ROM can be inserted, and the four ROMs that contain the BASIC interpreter can also be removed and replaced with custom ROMs which can be option ROMs. The IBM PCjr is unique among PCs in having two ROM cartridge slots on the front. Cartridges in these slots map into the same region of the upper memory area used for option ROMs, and the cartridges can contain option ROM modules that the BIOS would recognize. The cartridges can also contain other types of ROM modules, such as BASIC programs, that are handled differently. One PCjr cartridge can contain several ROM modules of different types, possibly stored together in one ROM chip.

    Operating system services[edit]

    The BIOS ROM is customized to the particular manufacturer's hardware, allowing low-level services (such as reading a keystroke or writing a sector of data to diskette) to be provided in a standardized way to programs, including operating systems. For example, an IBM PC might have either a monochrome or a color display adapter (using different display memory addresses and hardware), but a single, standard, BIOS system call may be invoked to display a character at a specified position on the screen in text mode or graphics mode.

    The BIOS provides a small library of basic input/output functions to operate peripherals (such as the keyboard, rudimentary text and graphics display functions and so forth). When using MS-DOS, BIOS services could be accessed by an application program (or by MS-DOS) by executing an INT 13h interrupt instruction to access disk functions, or by executing one of a number of other documented BIOS interrupt calls to access video display, keyboard, cassette, and other device functions.

    Operating systems and executive software that are designed to supersede this basic firmware functionality provide replacement software interfaces to application software. Applications can also provide these services to themselves. This began even in the 1980s under MS-DOS, when programmers observed that using the BIOS video services for graphics display were very slow. To increase the speed of screen output, many programs bypassed the BIOS and programmed the video display hardware directly. Other graphics programmers, particularly but not exclusively in the demoscene, observed that there were technical capabilities of the PC display adapters that were not supported by the IBM BIOS and could not be taken advantage of without circumventing it. Since the AT-compatible BIOS ran in Intel real mode, operating systems that ran in protected mode on 286 and later processors required hardware device drivers compatible with protected mode operation to replace BIOS services.

    In modern PCs running modern operating systems (such as Windows and Linux) the BIOS interrupt calls is used only during booting and initial loading of operating systems. Before the operating system's first graphical screen is displayed, input and output are typically handled through BIOS. A boot menu such as the textual menu of Windows, which allows users to choose an operating system to boot, to boot into the safe mode, or to use the last known good configuration, is displayed through BIOS and receives keyboard input through BIOS.

    Many modern PCs can still boot and run legacy operating systems such as MS-DOS or DR-DOS that rely heavily on BIOS for their console and disk I/O, providing that the system has a BIOS, or a CSM-capable UEFI firmware.

    Processor microcode updates[edit]

    Intel processors have reprogrammable microcode since the P6 microarchitecture.[23][24][25]AMD processors have reprogrammable microcode since the K7 microarchitecture. The BIOS contain patches to the processor microcode that fix errors in the initial processor microcode; microcode is loaded into processor's SRAM so reprogramming is not persistent, thus loading of microcode updates is performed each time the system is powered up. Without reprogrammable microcode, an expensive processor swap would be required;[26] for example, the Pentium FDIV bug became an expensive fiasco for Intel as it required a product recall because the original Pentium processor's defective microcode could not be reprogrammed. Operating systems can update main processor microcode also.[27][28]

    Identification[edit]

    Some BIOSes contain a software licensing description table (SLIC), a digital signature placed inside the BIOS by the original equipment manufacturer (OEM), for example Dell. The SLIC is inserted into the ACPI data table and contains no active code.[29][30]

    Computer manufacturers that distribute OEM versions of Microsoft Windows and Microsoft application software can use the SLIC to authenticate licensing to the OEM Windows Installation disk and system recovery disc containing Windows software. Systems with a SLIC can be preactivated with an OEM product key, and they verify an XML formatted OEM certificate against the SLIC in the BIOS as a means of self-activating (see System Locked Preinstallation, SLP). If a user performs a fresh install of Windows, they will need to have possession of both the OEM key (either SLP or COA) and the digital certificate for their SLIC in order to bypass activation.[29] This can be achieved if the user performs a restore using a pre-customised image provided by the OEM. Power users can copy the necessary certificate files from the OEM image, decode the SLP product key, then perform SLP activation manually. Cracks for non-genuine Windows distributions usually edit the SLIC or emulate it in order to bypass Windows activation.[citation needed]

    Overclocking[edit]

    Some BIOS implementations allow overclocking, an action in which the CPU is adjusted to a higher clock rate than its manufacturer rating for guaranteed capability. Overclocking may, however, seriously compromise system reliability in insufficiently cooled computers and generally shorten component lifespan. Overclocking, when incorrectly performed, may also cause components to overheat so quickly that they mechanically destroy themselves.[31]

    Modern use[edit]

    Some older operating systems, for example MS-DOS, rely on the BIOS to carry out most input/output tasks within the PC.[32]

    Calling real mode BIOS services directly is inefficient for protected mode (and long mode) operating systems. BIOS interrupt calls are not used by modern multitasking operating systems after they initially load.

    In 1990s, BIOS provided some protected mode interfaces for Microsoft Windows and Unix-like operating systems, such as Advanced Power Management (APM), Plug and Play BIOS, Desktop Management Interface (DMI), VESA BIOS Extensions (VBE), e820 and MultiProcessor Specification (MPS). Starting from the 2000, most BIOSes provide ACPI, SMBIOS, VBE and e820 interfaces for modern operating systems.[33][34][35][36][37]

    After operating systems load, the System Management Mode code is still running in SMRAM. Since 2010, BIOS technology is in a transitional process toward UEFI.[7]

    Configuration[edit]

    Setup utility[edit]

    Historically, the BIOS in the IBM PC and XT had no built-in user interface. The BIOS versions in earlier PCs (XT-class) were not software configurable; instead, users set the options via DIP switches on the motherboard. Later computers, including all IBM-compatibles with 80286 CPUs, had a battery-backed nonvolatile BIOS memory (CMOS RAM chip) that held BIOS settings.[38] These settings, such as video-adapter type, memory size, and hard-disk parameters, could only be configured by running a configuration program from a disk, not built into the ROM. A special "reference diskette" was inserted in an IBM AT to configure settings such as memory size.

    Early BIOS versions did not have passwords or boot-device selection options. The BIOS was hard-coded to boot from the first floppy drive, or, if that failed, the first hard disk. Access control in early AT-class machines was by a physical keylock switch (which was not hard to defeat if the computer case could be opened). Anyone who could switch on the computer could boot it.[citation needed]

    Later, 386-class computers started integrating the BIOS setup utility in the ROM itself, alongside the BIOS code; these computers usually boot into the BIOS setup utility if a certain key or key combination is pressed, otherwise the BIOS POST and boot process are executed.

    Award BIOS setup utility on a standard PC

    A modern BIOS setup utility has a text user interface (TUI) or graphical user interface (GUI) accessed by pressing a certain key on the keyboard when the PC starts. Usually, the key is advertised for short time during the early startup, for example "Press DEL to enter Setup". The actual key depends on specific hardware. Features present in the BIOS setup utility typically include:

    • Configuring, enabling and disabling the hardware components
    • Setting the system time
    • Setting the boot order
    • Setting various passwords, such as a password for securing access to the BIOS user interface and preventing malicious users from booting the system from unauthorized portable storage devices, or a password for booting the system

    Hardware monitoring[edit]

    Main article: Hardware monitoring

    A modern BIOS setup screen often features a PC Health Status or a Hardware Monitoring tab, which directly interfaces with a Hardware Monitor chip of the mainboard.[39] This makes it possible to monitor CPU and chassis temperature, the voltage provided by the power supply unit, as well as monitor and control the speed of the fans connected to the motherboard.

    Once the system is booted, hardware monitoring and computer fan control is normally done directly by the Hardware Monitor chip itself, which can be a separate chip, interfaced through I2C or SMBus, or come as a part of a Super I/O solution, interfaced through Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) or Low Pin Count (LPC).[40] Some operating systems, like NetBSD with envsys and OpenBSD with sysctl hw.sensors, feature integrated interfacing with hardware monitors.

    However, in some circumstances, the BIOS also provides the underlying information about hardware monitoring through ACPI, in which case, the operating system may be using ACPI to perform hardware monitoring.[41][42]

    Reprogramming[edit]

    BIOS replacement kit for a Dell 310 from the late 1980s. Included are two chips, a plastic holder for the chips, and a chip puller.

    In modern PCs the BIOS is stored in rewritable EEPROM or NOR flash memory, allowing the contents to be replaced and modified. This rewriting of the contents is sometimes termed flashing. It can be done by a special program, usually provided by the system's manufacturer, or at POST, with a BIOS image in a hard drive or USB flash drive. A file containing such contents is sometimes termed "a BIOS image". A BIOS might be reflashed in order to upgrade to a newer version to fix bugs or provide improved performance or to support newer hardware.

    Hardware[edit]

    The original IBM PC BIOS (and cassette BASIC) was stored on mask-programmed read-only memory (ROM) chips in sockets on the motherboard. ROMs could be replaced, but not altered, by users. To allow for updates, many compatible computers used re-programmable BIOS memory devices such as EPROM, EEPROM and later flash memory (usually NOR flash) devices. According to Robert Braver, the president of the BIOS manufacturer Micro Firmware, Flash BIOS chips became common around 1995 because the electrically erasable PROM (EEPROM) chips are cheaper and easier to program than standard ultraviolet erasable PROM (EPROM) chips. Flash chips are programmed (and re-programmed) in-circuit, while EPROM chips need to be removed from the motherboard for re-programming.[43] BIOS versions are upgraded to take advantage of newer versions of hardware and to correct bugs in previous revisions of BIOSes.[44]

    Beginning with the IBM AT, PCs supported a hardware clock settable through BIOS. It had a century bit which allowed for manually changing the century when the year 2000 happened. Most BIOS revisions created in 1995 and nearly all BIOS revisions in 1997 supported the year 2000 by setting the century bit automatically when the clock rolled past midnight, 31 December 1999.[45]

    The first flash chips were attached to the ISA bus. Starting in 1998, the BIOS flash moved to the LPC bus, following a new standard implementation known as "firmware hub" (FWH). In 2006, the BIOS flash memory moved to the SPI bus.[46]

    The size of the BIOS, and the capacity of the ROM, EEPROM, or other media it may be stored on, has increased over time as new features have been added to the code; BIOS versions now exist with sizes up to 32 megabytes. For contrast, the original IBM PC BIOS was contained in an 8 KB mask ROM. Some modern motherboards are including even bigger NAND flash memory ICs on board which are capable of storing whole compact operating systems, such as some Linux distributions. For example, some ASUS notebooks included Splashtop OS embedded into their NAND flash memory ICs.[47] However, the idea of including an operating system along with BIOS in the ROM of a PC is not new; in the 1980s, Microsoft offered a ROM option for MS-DOS, and it was included in the ROMs of some PC clones such as the Tandy 1000 HX.

    Another type of firmware chip was found on the IBM PC AT and early compatibles. In the AT, the keyboard interface was controlled by a microcontroller with its own programmable memory. On the IBM AT, that was a 40-pin socketed device, while some manufacturers used an EPROM version of this chip which resembled an EPROM. This controller was also assigned the A20 gate function to manage memory above the one-megabyte range; occasionally an upgrade of this "keyboard BIOS" was necessary to take advantage of software that could use upper memory.[citation needed]

    The BIOS may contain components such as the Memory Reference Code (MRC), which is responsible for the memory initialization (e.g. SPD and memory timings initialization).[48]: 8 [49]

    Modern BIOS[50] includes Intel Management Engine[51] or AMD Platform Security Processor firmware.

    Vendors and products[edit]

    Company AwardBIOSAMIBIOSInsydeSeaBIOS
    License ProprietaryProprietaryProprietaryLGPL v3
    Maintained / developed Terminated Terminated Terminated Yes
    32-bit PCI BIOS calls Yes Yes Yes Yes
    AHCIYes Yes Yes Yes
    APMYes Yes Yes (1.2)Yes (1.2)
    BBSYes Yes Yes Yes
    Boot menu Yes Yes Yes Yes
    Compression Yes (LHA[52])Yes (LHA)Yes (RLE)Yes (LZMA)
    CMOS Yes Yes Yes Yes
    EDDYes Yes Yes Yes
    ESCDYes Yes ? No
    Flash from ROM ? Yes ? No
    Language Assembly Assembly Assembly C
    LBAYes (48)Yes (48)Yes Yes (48)
    MultiProcessor Specification Yes Yes Yes Yes
    Option ROM Yes Yes Yes Yes
    Password Yes Yes Yes No
    PMM? Yes ? Yes
    Setup screen Yes Yes Yes No
    SMBIOSYes Yes Yes Yes
    Splash screen Yes (EPA)[53]Yes (PCX)Yes Yes (BMP, JPG)
    TPMUn­known Un­known Un­known Some
    USB booting Yes Yes Yes Yes
    USB hub ? ? ? Yes
    USB keyboard Yes Yes Yes Yes
    USB mouse Yes Yes Yes Yes

    IBM published the entire listings of the BIOS for its original PC, PC XT, PC AT, and other contemporary PC models, in an appendix of the IBM PC Technical Reference Manual for each machine type. The effect of the publication of the BIOS listings is that anyone can see exactly what a definitive BIOS does and how it does it.

    In May 1984 Phoenix Software Associates released its first ROM-BIOS, which enabled OEMs to build essentially fully compatible clones without having to reverse-engineer the IBM PC BIOS themselves, as Compaq had done for the Portable, helping fuel the growth in the PC-compatibles industry and sales of non-IBM versions of DOS.[54] And the first American Megatrends (AMI) BIOS was released on 1986.

    New standards grafted onto the BIOS are usually without complete public documentation or any BIOS listings. As a result, it is not as easy to learn the intimate details about the many non-IBM additions to BIOS as about the core BIOS services.

    Most PC motherboard suppliers licensed a BIOS "core" and toolkit from a commercial third party, known as an "independent BIOS vendor" or IBV. The motherboard manufacturer then customized this BIOS to suit its own hardware. For this reason, updated BIOSes are normally obtained directly from the motherboard manufacturer. Former major BIOS vendors included American Megatrends (AMI), Insyde Software, Phoenix Technologies, Byosoft, Award Software, and Microid Research. Microid Research and Award Software were acquired by Phoenix Technologies in 1998; Phoenix later phased out the Award brand name. General Software, which was also acquired by Phoenix in 2007, sold BIOS for embedded systems based on Intel processors.

    The open-source community increased their effort to develop a replacement for proprietary BIOSes and their future incarnations with an open-sourced counterpart through the libreboot, coreboot and OpenBIOS/Open Firmware projects. AMD provided product specifications for some chipsets, and Google is sponsoring the project. Motherboard manufacturer Tyan offers coreboot next to the standard BIOS with their Opteron line of motherboards.

    Security[edit]

    An American MegatrendsBIOS showing an "IntelCPU uCode Loading Error" after a failed attempt to upload microcode patches into the CPU

    EEPROM and Flash memory chips are advantageous because they can be easily updated by the user; it is customary for hardware manufacturers to issue BIOS updates to upgrade their products, improve compatibility and remove bugs. However, this advantage had the risk that an improperly executed or aborted BIOS update could render the computer or device unusable. To avoid these situations, more recent BIOSes use a "boot block"; a portion of the BIOS which runs first and must be updated separately. This code verifies if the rest of the BIOS is intact (using hashchecksums or other methods) before transferring control to it. If the boot block detects any corruption in the main BIOS, it will typically warn the user that a recovery process must be initiated by booting from removable media (floppy, CD or USB flash drive) so the user can try flashing the BIOS again. Some motherboards have a backup BIOS (sometimes referred to as DualBIOS boards) to recover from BIOS corruptions.

    There are at least five known BIOS attack viruses, two of which were for demonstration purposes. The first one found in the wild was Mebromi, targeting Chinese users.

    The first BIOS virus was BIOS Meningitis, which instead of erasing BIOS chips it infected them. BIOS Meningitis has relatively harmless, compared to a virus like CIH.

    The second BIOS virus was CIH, also known as the "Chernobyl Virus", which was able to erase flash ROM BIOS content on compatible chipsets. CIH appeared in mid-1998 and became active in April 1999. Often, infected computers could no longer boot, and people had to remove the flash ROM IC from the motherboard and reprogram it. CIH targeted the then-widespread Intel i430TX motherboard chipset and took advantage of the fact that the Windows 9x operating systems, also widespread at the time, allowed direct hardware access to all programs.

    Modern systems are not vulnerable to CIH because of a variety of chipsets being used which are incompatible with the Intel i430TX chipset, and also other flash ROM IC types. There is also extra protection from accidental BIOS rewrites in the form of boot blocks which are protected from accidental overwrite or dual and quad BIOS equipped systems which may, in the event of a crash, use a backup BIOS. Also, all modern operating systems such as FreeBSD, Linux, macOS, Windows NT-based Windows OS like Windows 2000, Windows XP and newer, do not allow user-mode programs to have direct hardware access using a hardware abstraction layer.[55]

    As a result, as of 2008, CIH has become essentially harmless, at worst causing annoyance by infecting executable files and triggering antivirus software. Other BIOS viruses remain possible, however;[56] since most Windows home users without Windows Vista/7's UAC run all applications with administrative privileges, a modern CIH-like virus could in principle still gain access to hardware without first using an exploit.[citation needed] The operating system OpenBSD prevents all users from having this access and the grsecurity patch for the Linux kernel also prevents this direct hardware access by default, the difference being an attacker requiring a much more difficult kernel level exploit or reboot of the machine.[citation needed]

    The third BIOS virus was a technique presented by John Heasman, principal security consultant for UK-based Next-Generation Security Software. In 2006, at the Black Hat Security Conference, he showed how to elevate privileges and read physical memory, using malicious procedures that replaced normal ACPI functions stored in flash memory.[57]

    The fourth BIOS virus was a technique called "Persistent BIOS infection." It appeared in 2009 at the CanSecWest Security Conference in Vancouver, and at the SyScan Security Conference in Singapore. Researchers Anibal Sacco[58] and Alfredo Ortega, from Core Security Technologies, demonstrated how to insert malicious code into the decompression routines in the BIOS, allowing for nearly full control of the PC at start-up, even before the operating system is booted. The proof-of-concept does not exploit a flaw in the BIOS implementation, but only involves the normal BIOS flashing procedures. Thus, it requires physical access to the machine, or for the user to be root. Despite these requirements, Ortega underlined the profound implications of his and Sacco's discovery: "We can patch a driver to drop a fully working rootkit. We even have a little code that can remove or disable antivirus."[59]

    Mebromi is a trojan which targets computers with AwardBIOS, Microsoft Windows, and antivirus software from two Chinese companies: Rising Antivirus and Jiangmin KV Antivirus.[60][61][62] Mebromi installs a rootkit which infects the Master boot record.

    In a December 2013 interview with 60 Minutes, Deborah Plunkett, Information Assurance Director for the US National Security Agency claimed the NSA had uncovered and thwarted a possible BIOS attack by a foreign nation state, targeting the US financial system.[63] The program cited anonymous sources alleging it was a Chinese plot.[63] However follow-up articles in The Guardian,[64]The Atlantic,[65]Wired[66] and The Register[67] refuted the NSA's claims.

    Newer Intel platforms have Intel Boot Guard (IBG) technology enabled, this technology will check the BIOS digital signature at startup, and the IBG public key is fused into the PCH. End users can't disable this function.

    Alternatives and successors[edit]

    For comparable software on other computer systems, see booting.

    Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) supplements the BIOS in many new machines. Initially written for the Intel Itanium architecture, UEFI is now available for x86 and ARM architecture platforms; the specification development is driven by the Unified EFI Forum, an industry Special Interest Group. EFI booting has been supported in only Microsoft Windows versions supporting GPT,[68] the Linux kernel 2.6.1 and later, and macOS on Intel-based Macs.[69] As of 2014[update], new PC hardware predominantly ships with UEFI firmware. The architecture of the rootkit safeguard can also prevent the system from running the user's own software changes, which makes UEFI controversial as a legacy BIOS replacement in the open hardware community. Also, Windows 11 requires UEFI to boot.[70]

    Other alternatives to the functionality of the "Legacy BIOS" in the x86 world include coreboot and libreboot.

    Some servers and workstations use a platform-independent Open Firmware (IEEE-1275) based on the Forth programming language; it is included with Sun's SPARC computers, IBM's RS/6000 line, and other PowerPC systems such as the CHRP motherboards, along with the x86-based OLPC XO-1.

    As of at least 2015, Apple has removed legacy BIOS support from MacBook Pro computers. As such the BIOS utility no longer supports the legacy option, and prints "Legacy mode not supported on this system". In 2017, Intel announced that it would remove legacy BIOS support by 2020. Since 2019, new Intel platform OEM PCs no longer support the legacy option.

    See also[edit]

    Notes[edit]

    1. ^The signature at offset in boot sectors is , that is at offset and at offset . Since little-endian representation must be assumed in the context of IBM PC compatible machines, this can be written as 16-bit word in programs for x86 processors (note the swapped order), whereas it would have to be written as in programs for other CPU architectures using a big-endian representation. Since this has been mixed up numerous times in books and even in original Microsoft reference documents, this article uses the offset-based byte-wise on-disk representation to avoid any possible misinterpretation.

    References[edit]

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    55. ^New BIOS Virus Withstands HDD Wipes, 27 March 2009. Marcus Yam. Tom's Hardware US
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    67. ^"Windows and GPT FAQ". microsoft.com. Microsoft. Archived from the original on 2011-02-19. Retrieved 2014-12-06.
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    Further reading[edit]

    • IBM Personal Computer Technical Reference (Revised ed.). IBM Corporation. March 1983.
    • IBM Personal Computer AT Technical Reference. IBM Personal Computer Hardware Reference Library. Vol. 0, 1, 2 (Revised ed.). IBM Corporation. March 1986 [1984-03]. 1502494, 6139362, 6183310, 6183312, 6183355, 6280070, 6280099.
    • Phoenix Technologies, Ltd. (1989) [1987]. System BIOS for IBM PC/XT/AT Computers and Compatibles — The Complete Guide to ROM-Based System Software. Phoenix Technical Reference Series (1st ed.). Addison Wesley Publishing Company, Inc.ISBN .
    • Phoenix Technologies, Ltd. (1989) [1987]. CBIOS for IBM PS/2 Computers and Compatibles — The Complete Guide to ROM-Based System Software for DOS. Phoenix Technical Reference Series (1st ed.). Addison Wesley Publishing Company, Inc.ISBN .
    • Phoenix Technologies, Ltd. (1989) [1987]. ABIOS for IBM PS/2 Computers and Compatibles — The Complete Guide to ROM-Based System Software for OS/2. Phoenix Technical Reference Series (1st ed.). Addison Wesley Publishing Company, Inc.ISBN .
    • Phoenix Technologies, Ltd. (June 1991). System BIOS for IBM PCs, Compatibles, and EISA Computers — The Complete Guide to ROM-Based System Software. Phoenix Technical Reference Series (2nd ed.). Amsterdam: Addison Wesley Publishing Company, Inc.ISBN .
    • BIOS Disassembly Ninjutsu Uncovered, 1st edition, a freely available book in PDF format
    • More Power To Firmware, free bonus chapter to the Mac OS X Internals: A Systems Approach book

    External links[edit]

    Indicators

    Not all malicious and suspicious indicators are displayed. Get your own cloud service or the full version to view all details.

    • Anti-Detection/Stealthyness
    • Anti-Reverse Engineering
    • Environment Awareness
    • Unusual Characteristics
      • Installs hooks/patches the running process
        details
        "PhoenixTool.exe" wrote bytes "db4d4b7400000000" to virtual address "0x00D32000" (part of module "PHOENIXTOOL.EXE")
        "PhoenixTool.exe" wrote bytes "0879f940" to virtual address "0x7330F314" (part of module "CLR.DLL")
        "PhoenixTool.exe" wrote bytes "71117a017a3b7901ab8b02007f950200fc8c0200729602006cc805001ecd76017d267601" to virtual address "0x763B07E4" (part of module "USER32.DLL")
        source
        Hook Detection
        relevance
        10/10
      • Reads information about supported languages
        details
        "PhoenixTool.exe" (Path: "HKLM\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\CONTROL\NLS\LOCALE"; Key: "00000409")
        source
        Registry Access
        relevance
        3/10
    • Hiding 3 Suspicious Indicators
      • All indicators are available only in the private webservice or standalone version
    • Environment Awareness
      • Queries volume information
        details
        "PhoenixTool.exe" queries volume information of "C:\PhoenixTool.exe" at 00090533-00002148-00000046-11937609508
        source
        API Call
        relevance
        2/10
    • External Systems
    • General
      • Contains PDB pathways
        details
        "D:\My Documents\Visual Studio 2017\Projects\Phoenix\Phoenix\obj\Release\PhoenixTool.pdb"
        source
        String
        relevance
        1/10
      • Loads the .NET runtime environment
        details
        "PhoenixTool.exe" loaded module "%WINDIR%\assembly\NativeImages_v4.0.30319_32\mscorlib\77f338d420d067a26b2d34f47445fc51\mscorlib.ni.dll" at 71F70000
        "PhoenixTool.exe" loaded module "%WINDIR%\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v4.0.30319\mscorlib.dll" at 6F010000
        "PhoenixTool.exe" loaded module "%WINDIR%\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v4.0.30319\mscorlib.dll" at 6EAB0000
        source
        Loaded Module
      • Overview of unique CLSIDs touched in registry
        details
        "PhoenixTool.exe" touched "NDP SymBinder" (Path: "HKCU\WOW6432NODE\CLSID\{0A29FF9E-7F9C-4437-8B11-F424491E3931}\INPROCSERVER32")
        source
        Registry Access
        relevance
        3/10
    • Installation/Persistance
      • Connects to LPC ports
        details
        "PhoenixTool.exe" connecting to "\ThemeApiPort"
        source
        API Call
        relevance
        1/10
      • Touches files in the Windows directory
        details
        "PhoenixTool.exe" touched file "%WINDIR%\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v4.0.30319\clr.dll"
        "PhoenixTool.exe" touched file "%WINDIR%\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v4.0.30319\Config\machine.config"
        "PhoenixTool.exe" touched file "%WINDIR%\Globalization\Sorting\SortDefault.nls"
        "PhoenixTool.exe" touched file "%WINDIR%\assembly\NativeImages_v4.0.30319_32\mscorlib\77f338d420d067a26b2d34f47445fc51\mscorlib.ni.dll.aux"
        "PhoenixTool.exe" touched file "%WINDIR%\assembly\NativeImages_v4.0.30319_32\System.Windows.Forms\fb36278a0a934ae244f843b62229421c\System.Windows.Forms.ni.dll.aux"
        "PhoenixTool.exe" touched file "%WINDIR%\assembly\NativeImages_v4.0.30319_32\System.Drawing\3c20a6b0ca532bcc6271bf4b7ad0b4d9\System.Drawing.ni.dll.aux"
        "PhoenixTool.exe" touched file "%WINDIR%\Fonts\ariali.ttf"
        "PhoenixTool.exe" touched file "%WINDIR%\Fonts\arialbd.ttf"
        "PhoenixTool.exe" touched file "%WINDIR%\Fonts\arialbi.ttf"
        "PhoenixTool.exe" touched file "%WINDIR%\Fonts\batang.ttc"
        source
        API Call
        relevance
        7/10
    • Network Related
      • Found potential URL in binary/memory
        details
        Heuristic match: "Phoenix.My"
        Pattern match: "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
        source
        String
        relevance
        10/10
    • System Security

    File Details

    All Details:

    File Sections

    DetailsNameEntropyVirtual AddressVirtual SizeRaw SizeMD5Characteristics
    Name
    .text
    Entropy
    3.41446838683
    Virtual Address
    0x2000
    Virtual Size
    0x1b7c4c
    Raw Size
    0x1b7e00
    MD5
    25b42edfd4cf801f9eafd612c7eb5781
    .text3.414468386830x20000x1b7c4c0x1b7e0025b42edfd4cf801f9eafd612c7eb5781-
    Name
    .rsrc
    Entropy
    2.66616483622
    Virtual Address
    0x1ba000
    Virtual Size
    0x5bc38
    Raw Size
    0x5be00
    MD5
    ae83e78d142e6f24b2511299ced89b3f
    .rsrc2.666164836220x1ba0000x5bc380x5be00ae83e78d142e6f24b2511299ced89b3f-
    Name
    .reloc
    Entropy
    0.101910425663
    Virtual Address
    0x216000
    Virtual Size
    0xc
    Raw Size
    0x200
    MD5
    9eb14e02231755873e825441cdb73bf7
    .reloc0.1019104256630x2160000xc0x2009eb14e02231755873e825441cdb73bf7-

    File Resources

    Screenshots

    Loading content, please wait...

    Hybrid Analysis

    Tip: Click an analysed process below to view more details.

    Analysed 1 process in total (System Resource Monitor).

    Logged Script Calls Logged Stdout Extracted Streams Memory Dumps
    Reduced Monitoring Network Activityy Network Error Multiscan Match

    Network Analysis

    DNS Requests

    No relevant DNS requests were made.

    HTTP Traffic

    No relevant HTTP requests were made.

    #11

    05-04-2014, 01:32 PM (This post was last modified: 06-17-2014, 11:19 AM by Sml6397.)
    Hello Boost,

    I have replaced the previous example BIOS with an updated image. It now contains ipad 2 restore error 3194 "Penryn CPU Control Sub-Menu" "ICH Workarounds:" (primary menu) "MCH Workarounds:" (primary menu) "frequency ratio:" (CPU multiplier option) and keyboard settings.

    So far the "ICH Workarounds:" parent menu looks strange. The frequency ratio option can be changed (even with the NVRAM registers!), but doing so will have no real effect as the setting is locked by the CPU PLL lock.

    As before, this run time error 217 just an example BIOS meant to be emulated in Phoenix BIOS Editor. DO NOT FLASH THIS IMAGE.

    Thank you for the links. The PDF contains very useful descriptions of the BIOS settings and how they interact with the system.

    EDIT: Post #13 contains a flashable modified BIOS image.
    (05-04-2014, 07:50 AM)Boost Wrote: I enjoy reading about changing bits and numbers at the right location with the hex editor, but sadly I dont have the time right now to explore any deeper. Changing hex-values with instructions is one thing, but finding these is another story. So Im really glad there are people on the net an error occurred in ftp_readline actually know what they are doing. Smile
    Im amazed by the amount of sub-sub-sub menus in my phoenix BIOS and can imagine why these options arent there for the "standard-user".

    I guess the flash didnt happen, because of the platform data missing. Hence the message "error reading ROM".
    Thank god this tool doesnt just flash data files you point at, without asking or testing file integrity.
    I would really like to see the result of "Back up system BIOS ROM". (platform data - yes or no) Smile

    Good to know our phoenix BIOS ROMs are similar and Im ready for the next mod of yours, to be viewed in the phoenix tool. Smile

    Thanks for your support, I really appreciate that !
    This is an exciting adventure into the land of BIOS!

    !!!!!PLEASE READ!!!!!! Our Ukrainian friends script error eaccessviolation undergoing atrocities right now and need support. There are two things you can do for starters:

    1.) Donate to one of various organizations offering medical, military, and psychological support to those impacted: Support Organizations

    2.) Combat misinformation on social media. 

    Also, please feel free to PM me if I have not replied again about your BIOS mod request after 5 days.

    wwwfind
    quote
    Really looking forward for the result(s) !

    So the previous BIOS you sent to me, already had the Merom-CPU-Control-SubMenu and you managed to add the Penryn Menu ?
    I wouldnt mind having both menus, in case I switch CPUs one day, phoenix slic error 13. Wink

    Thanks for the time and work you are putting into this ! Smile
    find
    quote

    #13

    05-22-2014, 09:02 PM (This post was last modified: 08-10-2014, 03:28 PM by Sml6397.)
    Hello Boost,

    This post contains the modified R2080J8 BIOS Image. I am going to have Yen check it one last time even though I have already checked it many times to confirm it safe (as this is my first real BIOS mod on somebody else's machine).

    EDIT: Yen has verified this image and so have I. THIS IMAGE HAS BEEN TESTED AND CONFIRMED WORKING BY BOOST.

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    R2080J8_BIOSfiles.rar Contents:


    R2080J8.wph: This is the BIOS image that Boost flashed onto his notebook. He has confirmed that it works.

    R2080J8_mod.wph: This is the modified BIOS file. It was created using the included "R2080J8.wph" image.

    SLIC.log: This is the log file of the unpacking and repacking processes (PhoenixTool v2.50).

    Default.txt: This is the NVRAM Token Table dump that Boost obtained using symcmos.

    TEMPLAT00_original.ROM: This is the untouched TEMPLAT00.ROM module.

    TEMPLAT00.ROM: This is the modified TEMPLAT00.ROM module.

    README.txt: This file contains a changelog/documentation of the BIOS modification.

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Links:

    R2080J8_BIOSfiles.rar:
    .rar  R2080J8_BIOSfiles.rar(Size: 1.09 MB / Downloads: 75)

    !!!!!PLEASE READ!!!!!! Our Ukrainian friends are undergoing atrocities right now and need support, phoenix slic error 13. There are two things you can do for starters:

    1.) Donate to one of various organizations offering medical, military, and psychological support to those impacted: Support Organizations

    2.) Phoenix slic error 13 misinformation on social media. 

    Also, please feel free to PM me if I have not replied again about your BIOS mod request after 5 days.

    wwwfind
    quote

    #14

    06-16-2014, 07:08 PM (This post was last modified: 06-19-2014, 02:39 PM by Sml6397.)

    Boost has verified that the modified BIOS image from post #13 of this thread WORKS.

    Currently Unresolved issues that I am looking into to fix:

    •The "frequency ratio" option does not appear under the advanced menu
    -This is likely due to a function that hides it, phoenix slic error 13, this shouldn't be too difficult to fix
    •The "MCH Workarounds:" Menu appears, but you cannot enter it, it just skips over it to the next menu
    -I currently have no idea why this happens


    !!!!!PLEASE READ!!!!!! Our Ukrainian friends are undergoing atrocities right now and need support. There are two things you can do for starters:

    1.) Donate to one of various organizations offering medical, military, and psychological support to those impacted: Support Organizations

    2.) Combat misinformation on social media. 

    Also, please feel free to PM me if I have not replied again about your BIOS mod request after 5 days.

    wwwfind
    quote

    #15

    08-10-2014, autodesk inventor 2011 ilogic activation error PM (This post was last modified: 08-10-2014, 12:24 PM by Sml6397.)

    Hello Boost,

    Thanks to bios-mods members 'We of Us', I have been able to test out a new type of mod that I recently discovered. I can now expand the Main Menus of BIOS's anywhere from 8 items up to 41+ items.

    I plan on applying this mod to your BIOS image. I will be modifying the modified BIOS image that you flashed from post #13 of this thread.

    Before I implement the change, I am going to upload a text file of all of the new and old items in the Main Menu so that you can reorder them to your liking. I will try to order them logically before I release the text file, so that you can easily "fine-tune" it.


    ~Steven


    !!!!!PLEASE READ!!!!!! Our Ukrainian friends are undergoing atrocities right now and need support. There are two things you can do for starters:

    1.) Donate to one of various organizations offering medical, military, and psychological support to those impacted: Support Organizations

    2.) Combat misinformation on social media. 

    Also, please feel free to PM me if I have not replied again about your BIOS mod request after 5 days.

    wwwsquirrelmail error connection dropped by imap server src="https://bios-mods.com/forum/images/black/english/postbit_quote.gif" alt="quote">

    Hello Boost,

    When gathering the information required to begin the Main Menu mod for your BIOS, I found that apparently, your BIOS has two "System Memory"s.

    I am ready to perform your Main Menu mod. If you would like to customize the order of the new items in your Main Menu, please download the text file at the bottom of this post, modify it to your liking, and then reupload it to this thread. Please DO NOT change ANY of the hex characters in the file (anything after the brackets in each line are hex characters). These are the offset links that will make these items appear. Cut and paste each line to the place in which you want it to appear. Add line breaks between lines to signify where you want spaces in your BIOS menu.

    I tried to logically group settings together, phoenix slic error 13, but you may still want to make modifications.




    !!!!!PLEASE READ!!!!!! Our Ukrainian friends are undergoing atrocities right now and need support. There are two things you can do phoenix slic error 13 starters:

    1.) Donate to one of various organizations offering medical, military, and psychological support to those impacted: Support Organizations

    2.) Combat misinformation on social media. 

    Also, please feel free to PM me if I have not replied again about your BIOS mod request after 5 days.

    wwwfind
    quote

    Hello Boost,

    I have finished the Main Menu mod based on the orderings specified in the text file from the previous post, phoenix slic error 13. If you still wish to customize it, please modify the text file and re-upload it. I have also included an image of what the emulated menu looks like at the bottom of this post.

    Now that I have finished the initial reorganizing of the TEMPLAT module near the beginning, all I have to do is swap around a few bytes for each customization.

    In the mean time, I am going to look for other settings that I can add to this BIOS. I think that I found some "Spread Spectrum" settings that can be added to the Intel Menu.

    I wonder if the reason why, in your BIOS menus, the 'MCH Workarounds:' menu gets skipped over in navigation, is that all settings under that menu are hidden. If they are all hidden, phoenix slic error 13, then there is nothing for the BIOS menu to display and it wouldn't make any sense to allow the user to enter it. Due to the standard behaviour of the BIOS menus, there must always be an item selected in a menu. If there are no items, there is nothing to select.

    There are two ways that the above can be tested:

    1.) I can place the menu's contents under another menu that functions normally (Workaround Control Sub-Menu).
    2.) I can "unhide" one or more of the hidden settings.

    I will probably try the first "workaround" first. If this does not work, then I will try the second solution to test my theories:

    1.) Run-time error 339 component comdlg32.ocx must be a selectable item within a BIOS menu in order to enter it.
    2.) If there is nothing in a menu/sub-menu, the BIOS will deny access to it and not necessarily for the reason in the first theory.




    !!!!!PLEASE READ!!!!!! Our Ukrainian friends are undergoing atrocities right now and need support, phoenix slic error 13. There phoenix slic error 13 two things you can do for starters:

    1.) Donate to one of various organizations offering medical, military, and psychological support to those impacted: Support Organizations

    2.) Combat misinformation on social media. 

    Also, please feel free to PM me if I have not replied again about your BIOS mod request after 5 days.

    wwwfind
    quote
    The main menu looks well organized and already shows the "most important" infos on the main page ! =)
    I dont see any reason to make changes to it.

    What exactly would I have to imagine about my BIOS having "2 system memorys" ?

    I understand that if there is no (sub)menu item, the parent menu makes no sense and cant be selected.
    Probably I will never ever need MCH workaround.but who knows xD

    I think this mod already has everything I can imagine.
    If you find a solution to unhide RAID or are able to add menus from the other Phoenix BIOS post (#100 on MDL),
    feel free to do so. Wink

    And if I should take apart this VAIO one day, Il have a closer look at the PLL, as it would be really great to overclock CPU and/or the NVIDIA from within the BIOS. "Riva Tuner" works like a charme from within Windows 8.1 Pro, but I have no idea how it would access these values and why it is able to "ignore/pass" the PLL here.

    Im ready to flash when you are.
    find
    quote

    Heya SML ! :'D

    What about these menuitems from a 1998 laptop ^^

    https://www.bios-mods.com/forum/Thread-S.5G-R0114R5

    do you think these could be added/ported to this VAIO as well ? Or too old ? ^^

    Any progress on the RAID menu btw ? =)

    find
    quote

    Hello Boost!

    Does the setting that controls RAID actually show up in your real Advanced Menu? If so, is it grayed out or is it accessible and the option is just hidden?

    When I say setting, I am referring to something like "Vaio Animation Logo." When I say "option," I am referring to the items that you could set your setting to (in the previous example, you could set the setting to the options of "enabled" and "disabled").

    I will take a look at this tomorrow. I will be busy tonight.


    !!!!!PLEASE READ!!!!!! Our Ukrainian friends are undergoing atrocities right now and need support. There are two things you can do for starters:

    1.) Donate to one of various organizations offering medical, military, and psychological support to those impacted: Support Organizations

    2.) Combat misinformation on social media. 

    Also, please feel free to PM me if I have not replied again about your BIOS mod request after 5 days.

    wwwfind
    quote

    BIOS

    Firmware for hardware initialization and OS runtime services

    This article is about the BIOS as found in personal computers. For other uses, see Bios (disambiguation).

    A pair of AMDBIOS chips for a Dell310 computer from phoenix slic error 13 1980s

    In computing, phoenix slic error 13, BIOS (, BY-oss, phoenix slic error 13, -⁠ohss; Basic Input/Output System (also known as the System BIOS, phoenix slic error 13, ROM BIOS, BIOS ROM or PC BIOS) is firmware used to provide runtime services for operating systems and programs and to perform hardware initialization during the booting process (power-on startup).[1] The BIOS firmware comes pre-installed on an IBM PC or IBM PC compatible's system board and exists in UEFI-based systems too.[2][3] The name originates from the Basic Input/Output System used in the CP/M operating system in 1975.[4][5] The BIOS originally proprietary to the IBM PC has been reverse engineered by some companies (such as Phoenix Technologies) looking to create compatible systems. The interface of that original system serves as a de facto standard.

    The BIOS in modern PCs initializes and tests the system hardware components (Power-on self-test), and loads a boot loader from a mass storage device which then initializes a kernel. In the era of DOS, the BIOS provided BIOS interrupt calls for the keyboard, display, storage, and other input/output (I/O) devices that standardized an interface to application programs and the operating system. More recent operating systems do not use the BIOS interrupt calls after startup.

    Most BIOS implementations are specifically designed to work with a particular computer or motherboard model, by interfacing with various devices especially system chipset. Originally, BIOS firmware was stored in a ROM chip on the PC motherboard, phoenix slic error 13. In later computer systems, the BIOS contents are stored on flash memory so it can be rewritten without removing the chip from the motherboard. This allows easy, end-user updates to the BIOS firmware so new features can be added or bugs can be fixed, but it also creates a possibility for the computer to become infected with BIOS rootkits. Furthermore, a BIOS upgrade that fails could brick the motherboard. The last version of Microsoft Windows running on PCs which uses BIOS firmware is Windows 10.

    Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) is a successor to the legacy PC BIOS, aiming to address its technical limitations.[7]

    History[edit]

    /* C P / M B A S I C I / O S Y S T E M (B I O S) COPYRIGHT (C) GARY A. KILDALL JUNE, 1975 */ […] /* B A S I C D I S K O P E R A T I N G S Y S T E M device hardware errors information linux D O S) COPYRIGHT (C) GARY A. KILDALL JUNE, 1975 */

    — An excerpt from the BDOS.PLM file header in the PL/M source code of CP/M 1.1 or 1.2 for Lawrence Livermore Laboratories (LLL)[4]

    The term BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) was created by Gary Kildall[8][9] and first appeared in the CP/M operating system in 1975,[4][5][9][10][11][12] describing the rotterdam terror corps schizophrenic part of CP/M loaded during boot time that interfaces directly with the hardware.[5] (A CP/M machine usually has only a simple boot loader in its ROM.)

    Versions of MS-DOS, PC DOS or DR-DOS contain a file called variously "IO.SYS", "IBMBIO.COM", "IBMBIO.SYS", or "DRBIOS.SYS"; this file is known as the "DOS BIOS" (also known as the "DOS I/O System") and contains the lower-level hardware-specific part of the operating system. Together with the underlying hardware-specific but operating system-independent "System BIOS", which resides in ROM, it represents the analogue to the "CP/M BIOS".

    The BIOS originally proprietary to the IBM PC has been reverse engineered by some companies (such as Phoenix Technologies) looking to create compatible systems.

    With the introduction of PS/2 machines, phoenix slic error 13, IBM divided the System BIOS into real- and protected-mode portions. The real-mode portion was meant to provide backward compatibility with existing operating systems such as DOS, and therefore was named "CBIOS" (for "Compatibility BIOS"), whereas the "ABIOS" (for "Advanced BIOS") provided new interfaces specifically suited for multitasking operating systems such as OS/2.[13]

    User interface[edit]

    The BIOS of the original IBM PC and XT had no interactive user interface. Error codes or messages were displayed on the screen, or coded series of sounds were generated to signal errors when the power-on self-test (POST) had not proceeded to the point of successfully initializing a video display adapter. Options on the IBM PC and XT were set by switches and jumpers on the main board and on expansion cards. Starting around the mid-1990s, it became typical for the BIOS ROM to include a "BIOS configuration utility" (BCU[14]) or "BIOS setup utility", accessed at system power-up by a particular key sequence. This program allowed the user to set system configuration options, of the type formerly set using DIP switches, through an interactive menu system controlled through the keyboard. In the interim period, IBM-compatible PCs‍—‌including the IBM AT‍—‌held configuration settings in battery-backed RAM and used a bootable configuration program on floppy disk, not in the ROM, to set the configuration options contained in this memory. The floppy disk was supplied with the computer, and if it was lost the system settings could not be changed. The same applied in general to computers with an EISA bus, for which the configuration program was called an EISA Configuration Utility (ECU).

    A modern Wintel-compatible computer provides a setup routine essentially unchanged in nature general error r300 the ROM-resident BIOS setup utilities of the late 1990s; the user can configure hardware options using the keyboard and video display. The modern Wintel machine may store the BIOS configuration settings in flash ROM, perhaps the same python importerror no module named pycurl ROM that holds the BIOS itself.

    Operation[edit]

    System startup[edit]

    Early Intel processors started at physical address 000FFFF0h. Systems with later processors provide logic to start running the BIOS from the system ROM. [15]

    If the system has just been powered up or the reset button was pressed ("cold boot"), the full power-on self-test (POST) is run. If Ctrl+Alt+Delete was pressed ("warm boot"), a special flag value stored in nonvolatile BIOS memory ("CMOS") tested by the BIOS allows bypass of the lengthy POST and memory detection.

    The POST identifies, tests and initializes system devices such as the CPU, chipset, RAM, motherboard, video card, phoenix slic error 13, keyboard, mouse, hard disk drive, optical disc drive and other hardware, including integrated peripherals.

    Early IBM PCs had a routine in the POST that would download a program into RAM through the keyboard port and run it.[16][17] This feature was intended for factory test or diagnostic purposes. a file error has occurred process[edit]

    After the option ROM scan is completed and all detected ROM modules with valid checksums have been called, phoenix slic error 13, or immediately after POST in a BIOS version that does not scan for option ROMs, the BIOS calls INT 19h to start boot processing. Post-boot, programs loaded can also call INT 19h to reboot the system, but they must be careful to disable interrupts and other asynchronous hardware processes that may interfere with the BIOS rebooting process, or else the system may hang or crash while it is rebooting.

    When INT 19h is called, the BIOS attempts to locate boot loader software on a "boot device", such as a hard disk, a floppy disk, CD, or DVD. It loads and executes the first boot software it finds, giving it control of the PC.[18]

    The BIOS uses the boot devices set in Nonvolatile BIOS memory (CMOS), or, in the earliest PCs, DIP switches. The BIOS checks each device in order to see if it is bootable by attempting to load the first sector (boot sector). If the sector cannot be read, the BIOS proceeds to the next device. If the sector is read successfully, some BIOSes will also check for the boot sector signature 0x55 0xAA in the last two bytes of the sector (which is 512 bytes long), before accepting a boot sector and considering the device bootable.[nb 1]

    When a bootable device is found, the BIOS transfers control to the loaded sector. The BIOS does not interpret the contents of phoenix slic error 13 boot sector other than to possibly check for the boot sector signature in the last two bytes. Interpretation of data structures like phoenix slic error 13 tables and BIOS Parameter Blocks is done by the boot program in the boot sector itself or by other programs loaded through the boot process.

    A non-disk device such as a network adapter attempts booting by a procedure that is defined by its option ROM or the equivalent integrated into the motherboard BIOS ROM. As such, option ROMs may also influence or supplant the boot process defined by the motherboard BIOS ROM.

    With the El Torito phoenix slic error 13 media boot standard, the optical drive actually emulates a 3.5" high-density floppy disk to the BIOS for boot purposes. Phoenix slic error 13 the "first sector" of a CD-ROM or DVD-ROM is not a simply defined operation like it is on a floppy disk or a hard disk. Furthermore, the complexity of the medium makes it difficult to write a useful boot program in one sector. The bootable virtual floppy disk can contain software that provides access to the optical medium in its native format.

    Boot priority[edit]

    The user can select the boot priority implemented by the BIOS. For example, most computers have a hard disk that is bootable, phoenix slic error 13, but sometimes there is a removable-media drive that has higher boot priority, so the user can cause a removable disk to be booted.

    In most modern BIOSes, the boot priority order can be configured by the user. In older BIOSes, limited boot priority options are selectable; in the earliest BIOSes, a fixed priority scheme was implemented, with floppy disk drives first, fixed disks (i.e. hard disks) second, and typically no other boot devices supported, subject to modification of these rules by installed option ROMs. The BIOS in an early PC also usually would only boot from the first floppy disk drive or the first hard disk drive, even if there were two drives installed, phoenix slic error 13.

    Boot failure[edit]

    On the original IBM PC and XT, if no bootable disk was found, ROM BASIC was started by calling INT 18h. Since few programs used BASIC in ROM, clone PC makers left it out; then a computer that failed to boot from a disk would display "No ROM BASIC" and halt (in response to INT 18h).

    Later computers would display a message like "No bootable disk found"; some would prompt for a disk to be inserted and a key to be pressed to retry the boot process. A modern BIOS may display nothing or may automatically enter the BIOS configuration utility when the boot process fails.

    Boot environment[edit]

    The environment for the boot program is very simple: the CPU is in real mode and the general-purpose and segment registers are undefined, except SS, SP, CS, and DL. CS:IP always points to physical address. What values CS and IP actually have is not well defined. Some BIOSes use a CS:IP of while others may use .[19] Because boot programs are always loaded at this fixed address, there is no need for a boot program to be relocatable. DL may contain the drive number, as used with INT 13h, of the boot device. SS:SP points to a valid stack that is presumably large enough to support hardware interrupts, but otherwise SS and SP are undefined. (A stack must be already set up in order for interrupts to be serviced, and interrupts must be enabled in order for the system timer-tick interrupt, which BIOS always uses at least to maintain the time-of-day count and which it initializes during POST, to be active and for the keyboard to work. The keyboard works even if the BIOS keyboard service is not called; keystrokes are received and placed in the 15-character type-ahead buffer maintained by BIOS.) The boot program must set up its own arm returned error_success, because the size of the stack set up by BIOS is unknown and its location is likewise variable; although the boot program can investigate the default stack by examining SS:SP, it is easier and shorter to just unconditionally set up a new stack.[20]

    At boot time, phoenix slic error 13, phoenix slic error 13 BIOS services are available, and the memory below address contains the interrupt vector table. BIOS POST has initialized the system timers, interrupt controller(s), DMA controller(s), and other motherboard/chipset hardware as necessary to bring all BIOS services to ready status. DRAM refresh for all system DRAM in conventional memory and extended memory, but not necessarily expanded memory, has been set up and is running. The interrupt vectors corresponding to the BIOS interrupts have been set to point at the appropriate entry points in the BIOS, hardware interrupt vectors for devices initialized by the BIOS have been set to point to the BIOS-provided ISRs, and some other interrupts, including ones that BIOS generates for programs to hook, have been set to a default dummy ISR that immediately returns. The BIOS maintains a reserved block of system RAM at addresses with various parameters initialized during the POST. All memory at and above address can be used by the boot program; it may even overwrite itself.[21][22]

    Extensions (option ROMs)[edit]

    See also: Option ROM

    Peripheral cards such as hard disk drive host bus adapters and video cards have their own firmware, and BIOS extension option ROM may be a part of the expansion card firmware, which provide additional functionality to BIOS. Code in option ROMs runs before the BIOS boots the operating system from mass storage. These ROMs typically test and initialize hardware, add new BIOS services, or replace existing BIOS services with their own services. For example, a SCSI controller usually has a BIOS extension ROM that adds support for hard drives connected through that controller. An extension ROM could in principle contain operating system, or it could implement an entirely different boot process such as network booting. Operation of an IBM-compatible computer system can be completely changed by removing or inserting an adapter card (or a ROM chip) that contains a BIOS extension ROM.

    The motherboard BIOS typically contains code for initializing and bootstrapping integrated display and integrated storage. In phoenix slic error 13, plug-in adapter cards such as SCSI, RAID, network interface cards, and video cards often include their own BIOS (e.g. Video BIOS), complementing or replacing the system BIOS code for the given component. Even devices built into the motherboard can behave in this way; their option ROMs can be a part of the motherboard BIOS.

    An add-in card requires an option ROM if the card is not supported phoenix slic error 13 the motherboard BIOS and the card needs to be initialized or made accessible through BIOS services before the operating system can be loaded (usually this means it is required in the boot process). An additional advantage of ROM on some early PC systems (notably including the IBM PCjr) was that ROM was faster than main system RAM, phoenix slic error 13. (On modern systems, the case is very much the reverse of this, and BIOS ROM code is usually copied ("shadowed") into RAM so it will run faster.)

    Boot procedure[edit]

    If an expansion ROM wishes to change the way the system boots (such as from a network device or a SCSI adapter) in a cooperative way, it can use the BIOS Boot Specification (BBS) API to register its ability to do so. Once the expansion ROMs have registered using the BBS APIs, the user can select among the available boot options from within the BIOS's user interface. This is why most BBS compliant PC BIOS implementations will not allow the user to enter the BIOS's user interface until the expansion ROMs have finished executing and registering themselves with the BBS API.[citation needed]

    Also, if an expansion ROM wishes to change the way the system boots unilaterally, it can simply hook INT 19h or other interrupts normally called from interrupt 19h, such as INT 13h, the BIOS disk service, to intercept the BIOS boot process. Then it can replace the BIOS boot process with one of its own, or it can merely modify the boot sequence by inserting its own boot actions into it, by preventing the BIOS from detecting certain devices as bootable, or both. Before the BIOS Boot Specification was promulgated, this was the only way for expansion ROMs to implement boot capability for devices not supported for booting by the native BIOS of the motherboard.[citation needed]

    Initialization[edit]

    After the motherboard BIOS completes its POST, most BIOS versions search for option ROM modules, also called BIOS extension ROMs, and execute them. The motherboard BIOS scans for extension ROMs in a portion of the "upper memory area" (the part of the x86 real-mode address space at and above address 0xA0000) and runs each ROM found, in order. To discover memory-mapped option ROMs, a BIOS implementation scans the real-mode address space from to on 2 KB (2,048 bytes) boundaries, looking for a two-byte ROM signature: 0x55 followed by 0xAA. In a valid expansion ROM, this signature is followed by a single byte indicating the number of 512-byte blocks the expansion ROM occupies in real memory, and the next byte is the option ROM's entry point (also known as its "entry offset"). If the ROM has a valid checksum, the BIOS transfers control to the entry address, which in a normal BIOS extension ROM should be the beginning of the extension's initialization routine.

    At this point, the extension ROM code takes over, typically testing and initializing the hardware it controls and registering interrupt vectors for use by post-boot applications. It may use BIOS services (including those provided by previously initialized option ROMs) to provide a user configuration interface, to display diagnostic information, or to do anything else that it requires, phoenix slic error 13. It is possible that an option ROM will not return to BIOS, pre-empting the BIOS's boot sequence altogether.

    An option ROM should normally return to the BIOS after completing its initialization process. Once (and if) an option ROM returns, the BIOS continues searching for more option ROMs, calling each as it is found, until the entire option ROM area in the memory space has been scanned.

    Physical placement[edit]

    BIOS chips in a Dell 310 that were updated by replacing the chips

    Option ROMs normally reside on adapter cards. However, the original PC, phoenix slic error 13, and perhaps also the PC XT, have a spare ROM socket on the motherboard (the "system board" in Phoenix slic error 13 terms) into which an option ROM can phoenix slic error 13 inserted, phoenix slic error 13, and the four ROMs phoenix slic error 13 contain the BASIC interpreter can also be removed and replaced with custom ROMs which can be option ROMs. The IBM PCjr is unique among PCs in having two ROM cartridge slots on the front. Cartridges in these slots map into the same region of the upper memory area used for option ROMs, and the cartridges can contain option ROM modules that the BIOS would recognize. The cartridges can also contain other types of ROM modules, such as BASIC programs, phoenix slic error 13, that are handled differently. One PCjr cartridge can contain several ROM modules of different types, possibly stored together in one ROM chip.

    Operating system services[edit]

    The BIOS ROM is customized to the particular manufacturer's hardware, allowing low-level services (such as reading a keystroke or writing a sector of data to diskette) to be provided in a standardized way to programs, including operating systems. For example, an IBM PC might have either a monochrome or a error 0111 0001 general failure display adapter (using different display memory addresses and hardware), but a single, standard, BIOS system call may be invoked to display a character at a specified position on the screen in text mode or graphics mode.

    The BIOS provides a small library of basic input/output functions to operate peripherals (such as the keyboard, phoenix slic error 13, rudimentary text and graphics display functions and so forth). When using MS-DOS, BIOS services could be accessed by an application program (or by MS-DOS) by executing an INT 13h interrupt instruction to access disk functions, or by executing one of a number of phoenix slic error 13 documented BIOS db query error please try calls to access video display, keyboard, cassette, and other device functions.

    Operating systems and executive software that are designed to supersede this basic firmware functionality provide replacement software interfaces to application software. Applications can also provide these services to themselves. This began even in the 1980s under MS-DOS, phoenix slic error 13, when programmers observed that using the BIOS video services for graphics display were very slow. To increase the speed of t_if php error output, many programs bypassed the BIOS and programmed the video display hardware directly. Other graphics programmers, particularly but not exclusively in the demoscene, observed that there were technical capabilities of the PC display adapters that were not supported by the IBM Phoenix slic error 13 and could not be taken advantage of without circumventing it. Since the AT-compatible BIOS ran in Intel real mode, operating systems that ran in protected mode on 286 and later processors required hardware device drivers compatible with protected mode operation to replace BIOS services.

    In modern PCs running modern phoenix slic error 13 systems (such as Windows and Linux) the BIOS interrupt calls is used only during booting and initial loading of operating systems. Before the operating system's first graphical screen is displayed, input and output are typically handled through BIOS. A boot menu such as the textual menu of Windows, which allows users to choose an operating system to boot, to boot into the safe mode, or to use the last known good configuration, is displayed through BIOS and receives keyboard input through BIOS.

    Many modern PCs can still boot and run legacy operating systems such as MS-DOS or DR-DOS that rely heavily on BIOS for their console and disk I/O, providing that the system has a BIOS, or a CSM-capable UEFI firmware.

    Processor microcode updates[edit]

    Intel processors have reprogrammable microcode since the P6 microarchitecture.[23][24][25]AMD processors have reprogrammable microcode since the K7 microarchitecture. The BIOS contain patches to the processor microcode that fix errors in the initial processor microcode; microcode is loaded into processor's SRAM so reprogramming is not persistent, thus loading phoenix slic error 13 microcode updates is performed each time the system is powered up. Without reprogrammable microcode, an expensive processor swap would be required;[26] for example, the Pentium FDIV bug became an expensive fiasco for Intel as it required a product recall because the original Pentium processor's defective microcode could not be reprogrammed. Operating systems can update main processor microcode also.[27][28]

    Identification[edit]

    Some BIOSes contain a software licensing description table (SLIC), a digital signature placed inside the BIOS by the original equipment manufacturer (OEM), phoenix slic error 13, for example Dell. The SLIC is inserted into the ACPI data table and contains no active code.[29][30]

    Computer manufacturers that distribute OEM versions of Microsoft Windows and Microsoft application software can use the SLIC to authenticate licensing to the OEM Windows Installation disk and system recovery disc containing Windows software. Systems with a SLIC can be preactivated with an OEM product key, and they verify an XML formatted OEM certificate against the SLIC in the BIOS as a means of self-activating (see System Locked Preinstallation, SLP). If a user performs a fresh install of Windows, they will need to have possession of both the OEM key (either SLP or COA) and the digital certificate for their SLIC in order to bypass activation.[29] This can be achieved if the user performs a restore using a pre-customised image provided by the OEM. Power users can copy the necessary certificate files from the OEM image, decode the SLP product key, then perform SLP activation manually. Cracks for non-genuine Windows distributions usually edit the SLIC or emulate it in order to bypass Windows activation.[citation needed]

    Overclocking[edit]

    Some BIOS implementations allow overclocking, an action in which the CPU is adjusted to a higher clock rate than its manufacturer rating for guaranteed capability. Overclocking may, however, seriously compromise system reliability in insufficiently cooled computers and generally shorten component lifespan. Overclocking, when incorrectly performed, may also cause components to overheat so quickly that they mechanically destroy themselves.[31]

    Modern use[edit]

    Some older operating systems, for example MS-DOS, rely on the BIOS to carry out most input/output tasks within the PC.[32]

    Calling real mode BIOS services directly is inefficient for protected mode (and long mode) operating systems. BIOS interrupt calls are not used by modern multitasking operating systems after they initially load.

    In 1990s, BIOS provided some protected mode interfaces for Microsoft Windows and Unix-like operating systems, such as Advanced Power Management (APM), Plug and Play BIOS, Desktop Management Interface (DMI), VESA BIOS Extensions (VBE), e820 and MultiProcessor Specification (MPS), phoenix slic error 13. Starting from the 2000, most BIOSes provide ACPI, SMBIOS, VBE and e820 interfaces for modern operating systems.[33][34][35][36][37]

    After operating systems load, the System Management Mode code is still running in SMRAM. Since 2010, BIOS technology is in a transitional process toward UEFI.[7]

    Configuration[edit]

    Setup utility[edit]

    Historically, the BIOS in the IBM PC and XT had no built-in user interface. The BIOS phoenix slic error 13 in earlier PCs (XT-class) were not software configurable; instead, users set the options via DIP switches on the motherboard. Later computers, including all IBM-compatibles with 80286 CPUs, phoenix slic error 13, had a battery-backed nonvolatile BIOS memory (CMOS RAM chip) that held BIOS settings.[38] These settings, such as video-adapter type, memory size, and hard-disk parameters, could only be configured by running a configuration program from a disk, not built into the ROM. A special "reference diskette" was inserted in phoenix slic error 13 IBM AT to configure settings such as memory size.

    Early BIOS versions did not have passwords or boot-device selection options. The BIOS was hard-coded to boot from the first floppy drive, or, if that failed, the first hard disk. Access control in early AT-class machines was by a physical keylock switch (which was not hard to defeat if the computer case could be opened). Anyone who could switch on the computer could boot it.[citation needed]

    Later, 386-class computers started integrating the BIOS setup utility in the ROM itself, alongside the BIOS code; these computers usually boot into the BIOS setup utility if a certain key or key combination is pressed, otherwise the BIOS POST and boot process are executed.

    Award BIOS setup utility on a standard PC

    A modern BIOS setup utility has a text user interface (TUI) or graphical user interface (GUI) accessed by pressing a certain key on the keyboard when the PC starts. Usually, the key is advertised for short time during the early startup, for example "Press DEL to enter Setup". The actual key depends on specific hardware, phoenix slic error 13. Features present in the BIOS setup utility typically include:

    • Configuring, enabling and disabling the hardware components
    • Setting the system time
    • Setting the boot order
    • Setting various passwords, such as a password for securing access to the BIOS user interface and preventing malicious users from booting the system from unauthorized portable storage devices, phoenix slic error 13, or a password for booting the system

    Hardware monitoring[edit]

    Main article: Hardware monitoring

    A modern BIOS setup screen often features a PC Health Status or a Hardware Monitoring tab, which directly interfaces with a Hardware Monitor chip of the mainboard.[39] This makes it possible to monitor CPU and chassis temperature, the voltage provided by the power supply unit, as well as monitor and control the speed of the fans connected to the motherboard.

    Once the system is booted, hardware monitoring and computer fan control is normally done directly by the Hardware Monitor chip itself, which can be a separate chip, interfaced through I2C or SMBus, or come as a part of a Super I/O solution, phoenix slic error 13, interfaced through Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) or Low Pin Count (LPC).[40] Some operating systems, like NetBSD with envsys and OpenBSD with sysctl hw.sensors, feature integrated interfacing with hardware monitors.

    However, phoenix slic error 13, in some circumstances, the BIOS also provides the underlying information about hardware monitoring through ACPI, in which case, the operating system may be using ACPI to perform hardware monitoring.[41][42]

    Reprogramming[edit]

    BIOS replacement kit for a Dell 310 from the late 1980s. Included are two chips, a plastic holder for the chips, and a chip puller.

    In modern PCs the BIOS is stored in rewritable EEPROM or NOR flash memory, allowing the contents to be replaced and modified. This rewriting of the contents is sometimes termed flashing. It can be done by a special program, usually provided by the system's manufacturer, or at POST, with a BIOS image in a hard drive or USB flash drive. A file containing such contents is sometimes termed "a BIOS image". A BIOS might be reflashed in order to upgrade to a newer version to fix bugs or provide improved performance or to support newer hardware.

    Hardware[edit]

    The original IBM PC BIOS (and cassette BASIC) was stored on mask-programmed read-only memory (ROM) chips in sockets on the motherboard. ROMs could be replaced, but not altered, by users. To allow for updates, many compatible computers used re-programmable BIOS memory devices such as EPROM, EEPROM and later flash memory (usually NOR flash) devices. According to Robert Braver, the president of the BIOS manufacturer Micro Firmware, Flash BIOS chips became common around 1995 because the electrically erasable PROM (EEPROM) chips are cheaper and easier to program than standard ultraviolet erasable PROM (EPROM) chips. Flash chips are programmed (and re-programmed) in-circuit, while EPROM chips need to be removed from the motherboard for re-programming.[43] BIOS versions are upgraded to take advantage of newer versions of hardware and to correct bugs in previous revisions of BIOSes.[44]

    Beginning with the IBM AT, PCs supported a hardware clock settable through Write error rate viktoria. It had a century bit which allowed for manually changing the century when the year 2000 happened. Most BIOS revisions created in 1995 and nearly all BIOS revisions in 1997 supported the year 2000 by setting the century bit automatically when the clock rolled past midnight, 31 December 1999.[45]

    The first flash chips were attached to the ISA bus, phoenix slic error 13. Starting in 1998, the BIOS flash moved to the LPC bus, following a new standard implementation known as "firmware hub" (FWH). In 2006, phoenix slic error 13, the BIOS flash memory moved to the SPI bus.[46]

    The size of the BIOS, and the capacity of the ROM, EEPROM, or other media it may be stored on, has increased over time as new features have been added to the code; BIOS versions now exist with sizes up to 32 megabytes. For contrast, the original IBM PC BIOS was contained in an 8 KB mask ROM. Some modern motherboards are bios id check error even bigger NAND flash memory ICs on board which are capable of storing whole compact operating systems, such as some On error goto - 1 distributions. For example, some ASUS notebooks included Splashtop OS embedded into their NAND flash memory ICs.[47] However, the idea of including an operating system along with BIOS in the ROM of a PC is not new; in the 1980s, Microsoft phoenix slic error 13 a ROM option for MS-DOS, and it was included in the ROMs of some Phoenix slic error 13 clones such as the Tandy 1000 HX.

    Another type of firmware chip was found on the IBM PC AT and early compatibles. In the AT, the keyboard interface was controlled by a microcontroller with its own programmable memory. On the IBM AT, that was a 40-pin socketed device, while some manufacturers used an EPROM version of this chip which resembled an EPROM. This controller was also assigned the A20 gate function to manage memory above the one-megabyte range; occasionally islom terror emas upgrade of this "keyboard BIOS" was necessary to take phoenix slic error 13 of software phoenix slic error 13 could use upper memory.[citation needed]

    The BIOS may contain components such as the Memory Reference Code (MRC), which is responsible for the memory initialization (e.g. SPD and memory timings initialization).[48]: 8 [49]

    Modern BIOS[50] includes Intel Management Engine[51] or AMD Platform Security Processor firmware.

    Vendors and products[edit]

    Company AwardBIOSAMIBIOSInsydeSeaBIOS
    License ProprietaryProprietaryProprietaryLGPL v3
    Maintained / developed Terminated Terminated Terminated Yes
    32-bit PCI BIOS calls Yes Yes Yes Yes
    AHCIYes Yes Yes Yes
    APMYes Yes Yes (1.2)Yes (1.2)
    BBSYes Yes Yes Yes
    Boot menu Yes Yes Yes Yes
    Compression Yes (LHA[52])Yes (LHA)Yes (RLE)Yes (LZMA)
    CMOS Yes Yes Yes Yes
    EDDYes Yes Yes Yes
    ESCDYes Yes ? No
    Flash from ROM ? Yes ? No
    Language Assembly Assembly Assembly C
    LBAYes (48)Yes (48)Yes Yes (48)
    MultiProcessor Specification Yes Yes Yes Yes
    Option ROM Yes Yes Yes Yes
    Password Yes Yes Yes No
    PMM? Yes ? Yes
    Setup screen Yes Yes Yes No
    SMBIOSYes Yes Yes Yes
    Splash screen Yes (EPA)[53]Yes (PCX)Yes Yes (BMP, JPG)
    TPMUn­known Un­known Un­known Some
    USB booting Yes Yes Yes Yes
    USB hub ? ? ? Yes
    USB keyboard Yes Yes Yes Yes
    USB mouse Yes Yes Yes Yes

    IBM published the entire listings of the BIOS for its original PC, PC XT, PC AT, and other contemporary PC models, in an appendix of the IBM PC Technical Reference Manual for each machine type. The effect of the phoenix slic error 13 of the BIOS listings is that anyone can see exactly what a definitive BIOS does and how it does it.

    In May 1984 Phoenix Software Associates released its first ROM-BIOS, which enabled OEMs to build essentially fully compatible clones without having to reverse-engineer the IBM PC BIOS themselves, as Compaq had done for the Portable, phoenix slic error 13, helping fuel the growth in the PC-compatibles industry and sales of non-IBM versions of DOS.[54] And the first American Megatrends (AMI) BIOS was released on 1986.

    New standards grafted onto the BIOS are usually without complete public documentation or any BIOS listings. As a result, it is not as easy to learn the intimate details about the many non-IBM additions to BIOS as about the core BIOS services.

    Most PC motherboard suppliers licensed a BIOS "core" and toolkit from a commercial third party, known as an ads error codes BIOS vendor" or IBV. The motherboard manufacturer then customized this BIOS to suit its own hardware, phoenix slic error 13. For this reason, updated BIOSes are normally obtained directly from the motherboard manufacturer. Former major BIOS vendors included American Megatrends (AMI), Insyde Software, Phoenix Technologies, Byosoft, Award Software, and Microid Research. Microid Research and Award Software were acquired by Phoenix Technologies in 1998; Phoenix later phased out the Award brand name. General Software, which was also acquired by Phoenix in 2007, sold BIOS for embedded systems based on Intel processors.

    The open-source community increased their effort to develop a replacement for proprietary BIOSes and their future incarnations with an open-sourced counterpart through the libreboot, coreboot and OpenBIOS/Open Firmware projects. AMD provided product specifications for some chipsets, and Google is sponsoring the project. Motherboard manufacturer Tyan offers coreboot next to the standard BIOS with their Opteron line of motherboards.

    Security[edit]

    An American MegatrendsBIOS showing an "IntelCPU uCode Loading Error" after a failed attempt to upload microcode patches into the CPU

    EEPROM and Flash memory chips are advantageous because they can be easily updated by the user; it is customary for hardware manufacturers to issue BIOS updates to flash error repair tool their products, improve compatibility and remove bugs. However, this advantage had the risk that an improperly executed or aborted BIOS update phoenix slic error 13 render the computer or device unusable. To avoid these situations, more recent BIOSes use a "boot block"; a portion of the BIOS which runs first and must be updated separately. This code verifies if the msdn getlasterror 170 phoenix slic error 13 the BIOS is intact (using hashchecksums or other methods) before transferring control to it. If the boot block detects any corruption in the main BIOS, it will typically warn the user that a recovery process must be initiated by booting from removable media (floppy, CD or USB flash drive) so the user can try flashing the BIOS again. Some motherboards have a backup BIOS (sometimes referred to as DualBIOS boards) to recover from BIOS corruptions.

    There are at least five known BIOS attack viruses, two of which were for demonstration purposes. The first phoenix slic error 13 found in the wild was Mebromi, targeting Chinese users.

    The first BIOS virus was BIOS Meningitis, which instead of erasing BIOS chips it infected them. BIOS Meningitis has relatively harmless, compared to a virus like CIH.

    The second BIOS virus was CIH, also known as the "Chernobyl Virus", which was able to erase flash ROM BIOS content on compatible chipsets. CIH appeared in mid-1998 and became active sql error at line site .ru April 1999. Often, infected computers could no longer boot, and people had to remove the flash ROM IC from phoenix slic error 13 motherboard and reprogram it. CIH targeted the then-widespread Intel i430TX motherboard chipset and took advantage of the fact that the Windows 9x operating systems, also widespread at the time, allowed direct hardware access to all programs.

    Modern systems are not vulnerable to CIH because of a variety of chipsets being used which are incompatible with dr web firewall error Intel i430TX chipset, and also other flash ROM IC types. There is also extra protection from accidental BIOS rewrites in the form of boot blocks which are protected from accidental overwrite or dual and quad BIOS equipped systems which may, phoenix slic error 13, in the event of a crash, use a backup BIOS. Also, all modern operating systems such phoenix slic error 13 FreeBSD, Linux, phoenix slic error 13, macOS, Windows NT-based Windows OS like Phoenix slic error 13 2000, Windows XP and newer, do not allow user-mode programs to have direct hardware access using a hardware abstraction layer.[55]

    As a result, as of 2008, CIH has become essentially harmless, phoenix slic error 13, at worst causing annoyance by infecting executable files and triggering antivirus software. Other BIOS viruses remain possible, however;[56] since most Windows home users without Windows Vista/7's UAC run all applications with administrative privileges, a modern CIH-like virus could in principle still gain access to hardware without first using an exploit.[citation needed] The operating system OpenBSD prevents all users from having this access and the grsecurity patch for the Linux kernel also prevents this direct hardware access by default, the difference being an attacker requiring a much more difficult kernel level exploit or reboot of the machine.[citation needed]

    The third BIOS virus was a technique presented by John Heasman, principal security consultant for UK-based Next-Generation Security Software. In 2006, at the Black Hat Security Conference, he showed how to elevate privileges and read physical memory, using malicious procedures that replaced normal ACPI functions stored in flash memory.[57]

    The fourth BIOS virus was a technique called "Persistent BIOS infection." It appeared in 2009 at the CanSecWest Security Conference in Vancouver, and at the SyScan Security Conference in Singapore. Researchers Anibal Sacco[58] and Alfredo Ortega, from Core Security Technologies, demonstrated phoenix slic error 13 to insert malicious code into the decompression routines in the BIOS, allowing for nearly full control of the PC at start-up, even before the operating system is booted. The proof-of-concept does not exploit a flaw in the BIOS implementation, phoenix slic error 13, but only involves the normal BIOS flashing procedures. Thus, it requires physical access to the machine, or for the user to be root. Despite these requirements, Ortega underlined the profound implications of his and Sacco's discovery: "We can patch a driver to drop a fully working rootkit. We even have a little code that can remove or disable antivirus."[59]

    Mebromi is a trojan which targets computers with AwardBIOS, phoenix slic error 13, Microsoft Windows, phoenix slic error 13, and antivirus software from two Chinese companies: Rising Antivirus and Jiangmin KV Antivirus.[60][61][62] Mebromi installs a rootkit which infects the Master boot record.

    In a December 2013 interview with 60 Minutes, Deborah Plunkett, Information Assurance Director for the US National Security Agency claimed the NSA had uncovered and thwarted a possible BIOS attack by a foreign nation state, targeting the US financial system.[63] The program cited anonymous sources alleging it was a Chinese plot.[63] However follow-up articles in The Guardian,[64]The Atlantic,[65]Wired[66] and The Register[67] refuted the NSA's claims.

    Newer Intel platforms have Intel Boot Guard (IBG) technology enabled, this technology will check the BIOS digital signature at startup, and the IBG public key is fused into the PCH. End users can't disable this winsock connect socket_error.

    Alternatives and successors[edit]

    For comparable software on other computer systems, see booting.

    Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) supplements the BIOS in many new machines. Initially written for the Intel Itanium architecture, UEFI is now available for x86 and ARM architecture platforms; the specification development is driven by the Unified EFI Forum, an industry Special Interest Group. EFI booting has been supported in only Microsoft Windows versions supporting GPT,[68] the Linux kernel 2.6.1 and later, and macOS on Intel-based Macs.[69] As of 2014[update], new PC hardware predominantly ships with UEFI firmware. The architecture of the rootkit safeguard can also prevent the system from running the user's own software changes, which makes UEFI controversial as a legacy BIOS replacement in the open hardware community. Also, Windows 11 requires UEFI to boot.[70]

    Other alternatives to the functionality of the "Legacy BIOS" in the x86 world include coreboot and libreboot.

    Some servers and workstations use a platform-independent Open Firmware (IEEE-1275) based on the Forth programming language; it is included with Sun's SPARC computers, IBM's RS/6000 line, and other PowerPC systems such as the CHRP motherboards, along with the x86-based OLPC XO-1.

    As of at least 2015, Apple has removed legacy BIOS support from MacBook Pro computers. As such the BIOS utility no longer supports the legacy option, and prints "Legacy mode not supported on this system". In 2017, Intel announced that it would remove legacy BIOS support by 2020. Since 2019, new Intel platform OEM PCs no longer support the legacy option.

    See also[edit]

    Notes[edit]

    1. ^The signature at offset in boot sectors isthat is at offset and at offset. Since little-endian representation must be assumed in the context of IBM PC compatible machines, this can be written as 16-bit word in programs for phoenix slic error 13 processors (note the swapped order), whereas it would have to be written as in programs for other CPU architectures using a big-endian representation. Since this has been mixed up numerous times in books and even in original Microsoft reference documents, this article uses the offset-based byte-wise on-disk representation to avoid any possible misinterpretation.

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    61. ^ ab"How did 60 Minutes get cameras into a spy agency?". CBS News. Archived from the original on 2014-04-22. Retrieved 2014-04-15.
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    63. ^Friedersdorf, Conor (2013-12-16). "A Question for 60 Minutes: Why Would China Want to Destroy the Global Economy?", phoenix slic error 13. The Atlantic. Retrieved 2019-03-26.
    64. ^Poulsen, phoenix slic error 13, Kevin (2013-12-16). "60 Minutes Puff Piece Claims NSA Saved U.S. From Cyberterrorism". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Retrieved 2019-03-26 – via www.wired.com.
    65. ^Sharwood, Simon (2013-12-16). "NSA alleges 'BIOS plot to destroy PCs'". The Register, phoenix slic error 13. Retrieved 2019-03-26.
    66. ^"Windows and GPT FAQ". microsoft.com. Microsoft. Archived from the original on 2011-02-19. Retrieved 2014-12-06.
    67. ^"Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI) and Unified EFI (UEFI)". Intel. Archived from the original on 2010-01-05. Retrieved 2014-12-06.
    68. ^"Windows 11 Specs and System Requirements | Microsoft". Microsoft. Retrieved 2021-10-14.

    Further reading[edit]

    • IBM Personal Computer Technical Reference (Revised ed.). IBM Corporation. March 1983.
    • IBM Personal Computer AT Technical Reference. IBM Personal Computer Hardware Reference Library. Vol. 0, 1, 2 (Revised ed.). IBM Corporation. March 1986 [1984-03]. 1502494, 6139362, 6183310, 6183312, 6183355, 6280070, 6280099.
    • Phoenix Technologies, Ltd. (1989) [1987], phoenix slic error 13. System BIOS for IBM PC/XT/AT Computers and Compatibles — The Complete Guide to ROM-Based System Software. Phoenix Technical Reference Series (1st ed.). Addison Wesley Publishing Company, Inc.ISBN .
    • Phoenix Technologies, Ltd. (1989) [1987]. CBIOS for IBM PS/2 Computers and Compatibles — The Phoenix slic error 13 Guide to ROM-Based System Software for DOS. Phoenix Technical Reference Series (1st ed.). Addison Wesley Publishing Company, Inc.ISBN .
    • Phoenix Technologies, Ltd. (1989) [1987]. ABIOS for IBM PS/2 Computers and Compatibles — The Complete Guide to ROM-Based System Software for OS/2. Phoenix Technical Reference Series (1st ed.). Addison Wesley Publishing Company, Inc.ISBN .
    • Phoenix Technologies, Ltd. (June 1991). System BIOS for IBM PCs, Compatibles, and EISA Computers — The Complete Guide to ROM-Based System Software. Phoenix Technical Reference Series (2nd ed.). Amsterdam: Addison Wesley Publishing Company, Inc.ISBN .
    • BIOS Disassembly Ninjutsu Uncovered, 1st edition, a freely available book in PDF format
    • More Power To Firmware, free bonus chapter to the Mac OS X Internals: A Systems Approach book

    External links[edit]

    Indicators

    Not all malicious and suspicious indicators are displayed. Get your own cloud service or the full version to view all details.

    • Anti-Detection/Stealthyness
    • Anti-Reverse Engineering
    • Environment Awareness
    • Unusual Characteristics
      • Installs hooks/patches the running process
        details
        phoenix slic error 13 phoenix slic error 13 "PhoenixTool.exe" wrote bytes "db4d4b7400000000" to virtual address "0x00D32000" (part of module "PHOENIXTOOL.EXE")
        "PhoenixTool.exe" wrote bytes "0879f940" to virtual address "0x7330F314" (part of module "CLR.DLL")
        "PhoenixTool.exe" wrote bytes "71117a017a3b7901ab8b02007f950200fc8c0200729602006cc805001ecd76017d267601" to virtual address "0x763B07E4" (part of module "USER32.DLL")
        source
        Hook Detection
        relevance
        10/10
      • Reads information about supported languages
        details
        "PhoenixTool.exe" (Path: "HKLM\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\CONTROL\NLS\LOCALE"; Key: "00000409")
        source
        Registry Access
        relevance
        3/10
    • Hiding 3 Suspicious Phoenix slic error 13 indicators are available only in the private webservice or standalone version
    • Environment Awareness
    • External Systems
    • General
      • Contains PDB pathways
        details
        "D:\My Documents\Visual Studio 2017\Projects\Phoenix\Phoenix\obj\Release\PhoenixTool.pdb"
        source
        String
        relevance
        1/10
      • mail error php Loads the .NET runtime environment
        details
        "PhoenixTool.exe" loaded module "%WINDIR%\assembly\NativeImages_v4.0.30319_32\mscorlib\77f338d420d067a26b2d34f47445fc51\mscorlib.ni.dll" at 71F70000
        "PhoenixTool.exe" loaded module "%WINDIR%\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v4.0.30319\mscorlib.dll" at 6F010000
        "PhoenixTool.exe" loaded module "%WINDIR%\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v4.0.30319\mscorlib.dll" at 6EAB0000
        source
        Loaded Module
      • phoenix slic error 13 Overview of unique CLSIDs touched in registry
        details
        phoenix slic error 13 "PhoenixTool.exe" touched "NDP SymBinder" (Path: "HKCU\WOW6432NODE\CLSID\{0A29FF9E-7F9C-4437-8B11-F424491E3931}\INPROCSERVER32") ati mom.implementation error on windows xp
        source
        Registry Access
        relevance
        3/10
    • Installation/Persistance
      • Connects to LPC ports
        details
        "PhoenixTool.exe" connecting to "\ThemeApiPort"
        source
        API Call
        relevance
        1/10
      • phoenix slic error 13 Touches files in the Windows directory
        details
        phoenix slic error 13 "PhoenixTool.exe" touched file "%WINDIR%\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v4.0.30319\clr.dll"
        "PhoenixTool.exe" touched file "%WINDIR%\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v4.0.30319\Config\machine.config"
        "PhoenixTool.exe" touched file "%WINDIR%\Globalization\Sorting\SortDefault.nls"
        "PhoenixTool.exe" touched file "%WINDIR%\assembly\NativeImages_v4.0.30319_32\mscorlib\77f338d420d067a26b2d34f47445fc51\mscorlib.ni.dll.aux"
        "PhoenixTool.exe" touched file "%WINDIR%\assembly\NativeImages_v4.0.30319_32\System.Windows.Forms\fb36278a0a934ae244f843b62229421c\System.Windows.Forms.ni.dll.aux"
        "PhoenixTool.exe" touched file "%WINDIR%\assembly\NativeImages_v4.0.30319_32\System.Drawing\3c20a6b0ca532bcc6271bf4b7ad0b4d9\System.Drawing.ni.dll.aux"
        "PhoenixTool.exe" touched file "%WINDIR%\Fonts\ariali.ttf"
        "PhoenixTool.exe" touched file "%WINDIR%\Fonts\arialbd.ttf"
        "PhoenixTool.exe" touched file "%WINDIR%\Fonts\arialbi.ttf"
        "PhoenixTool.exe" touched file "%WINDIR%\Fonts\batang.ttc"
        source
        API Call
        relevance
        7/10
    • Network Related
      • Found potential URL in binary/memory steam application load error p
        details
        Heuristic match: "Phoenix.My"
        Pattern match: "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
        source
        String
        relevance
        10/10
    • System Security

    File Details

    All Details:

    File Sections

    DetailsNameEntropyVirtual AddressVirtual SizeRaw SizeMD5Characteristics
    Name
    .text
    Entropy
    3.41446838683
    Virtual Address
    0x2000
    Virtual Size
    0x1b7c4c
    Raw Size
    0x1b7e00
    MD5
    25b42edfd4cf801f9eafd612c7eb5781
    .text3.414468386830x20000x1b7c4c0x1b7e0025b42edfd4cf801f9eafd612c7eb5781-
    Name
    .rsrc
    Entropy
    2.66616483622
    Virtual Address
    0x1ba000
    Virtual Size
    0x5bc38
    Raw Size
    0x5be00
    MD5
    ae83e78d142e6f24b2511299ced89b3f
    .rsrc2.666164836220x1ba0000x5bc380x5be00ae83e78d142e6f24b2511299ced89b3f-
    Name
    .reloc
    Entropy
    0.101910425663
    Virtual Address
    0x216000
    Virtual Size
    0xc
    Raw Size
    0x200
    MD5
    9eb14e02231755873e825441cdb73bf7
    .reloc0.1019104256630x2160000xc0x2009eb14e02231755873e825441cdb73bf7-

    File Resources

    Screenshots

    Loading content, please wait.

    Hybrid Analysis

    Tip: Click an analysed process below to view more details.

    Analysed 1 process in total (System Resource Monitor).

    Logged Script Calls Logged Stdout Extracted Streams Memory Dumps
    Reduced Monitoring Network Activityy Network Error Multiscan Match

    Network Analysis

    DNS Requests

    No relevant Phoenix slic error 13 requests were made.

    HTTP Traffic

    No relevant HTTP requests were made.

    To properly analyze and solve problems with Activation and Validation, we need to see a full copy of the diagnostic report produced by the MGADiag tool (download and save to desktop - http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?linkid=52012 )

    Once downloaded, run the tool.

    Click on the Continue button, after a short time, phoenix slic error 13, the Continue button will change to a Copy button.

    Click on the Copy button in the tool (ignore any error messages at this point), and then paste (using either r-click/Paste, or Ctrl+V ) into your post, phoenix slic error 13. (please do not edit the report.)

    18 people found this reply helpful

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    How to troubleshoot Volume Activation error codes on Windows 7,
    Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista-based computers.
    http://support.microsoft.com/kb/938450
    Includes a listing of various activation error codes (such as 0xC004F009) and workarounds.
    0xC004C001, 0xC004C003, 0xC004C008, 0xC004B100, 0xC004C020, 0xC004C021,
    0xC004F009, 0xC004F00F, 0xC004F014, 0xC004F02C, 0xC004F035, 0xC004F038,
    0xC004F039, 0xC004F041, 0xC004F042, 0xC004F050, 0xC004F051, 0xC004F064,
    0xC004F065, 0xC004F06C, 0x80070005, 0x8007232A, 0x8007232B, 0x800706BA,
    0x8007251D, 0xC004F074, 0x8004FE21, 0x80092328

     

    Download and run the Microsoft Genuine Advantage Diagnostic Tool:
    http://www.microsoft.com/genuine/selfhelp/servicerequest.aspx
    Tool Download: http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?linkid=56062
    Post your results (Copy button) and paste the results as part of your reply.

     

     

    J W Stuart: http://www.pagestart.com

    Never be afraid to ask. This forum has some of the best people in the world available to help.

    1 person found this reply helpful

    ·

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    Sorry this didn't help.

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    How satisfied are you with this reply?

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    I try to activate Office run MGADiag how I said and I said this:

    Diagnostic Report (1.9.0027.0):

    -----------------------------------------

    Windows Validation Data-->

    Validation Status: Validation unsupported OS

    Validation Code: 6

    Cached Online Validation Code: 0x0

    Windows Product Key: *****-*****-WD3XD-FV62T-C9T7Q

    Windows Product Key Hash: QBw86ny+kRNiWhQnZRzjrd7HcLw=

    Windows Product ID: 00179-40141-19294-AAOEM

    Windows Product ID Type: 0

    Windows License Type: Unknown

    Windows OS version: 6.2.9200.2.00010300.0.0.100

    ID: {134A4821-ECE0-4D12-9E14-5395CAF53AB6}(1)

    Is Admin: Yes

    TestCab: 0x0

    LegitcheckControl ActiveX: N/A, hr = 0x80070002

    Signed By: N/A, hr = 0x80070002

    Product Name: Windows 8 Single Language

    Architecture: 0x00000009

    Build lab: 9200.win8_gdr.130531-1504

    TTS Error: 

    Validation Diagnostic: 

    Resolution Status: N/A

    Vista WgaER Data-->

    ThreatID(s): N/A, hr = 0x80070002

    Version: N/A, phoenix slic error 13, hr = 0x80070002

    Windows XP Notifications Data-->

    Cached Result: N/A, hr = 0x80070002

    File Exists: No

    Version: N/A, hr = 0x80070002

    WgaTray.exe Signed By: N/A, phoenix slic error 13, hr = 0x80070002

    WgaLogon.dll Signed By: N/A, phoenix slic error 13, hr = 0x80070002

    OGA Notifications Data-->

    Cached Result: N/A, hr = 0x80070002

    Version: N/A, hr = 0x80070002

    OGAExec.exe Signed By: N/A, hr = 0x80070002

    OGAAddin.dll Internal error - falke samsung scx-4200 By: N/A, hr = 0x80070002

    OGA Data-->

    Office Status: 111 Unsupported OS

    OGA Version: N/A, 0x80070002

    Signed By: N/A, hr = 0x80070002

    Office Diagnostics: 

    Browser Data-->

    Proxy settings: N/A

    User Agent: Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 8.0; Win32)

    Default Browser: C:\Program Files (x86)\Google\Chrome\Application\chrome.exe

    Download signed ActiveX controls: Prompt

    Download unsigned ActiveX controls: Disabled

    Run ActiveX controls and plug-ins: Allowed

    Initialize and script ActiveX controls not marked as safe: Disabled

    Allow scripting of Internet Explorer Webbrowser control: Disabled

    Active scripting: Allowed

    Script ActiveX controls marked as safe for scripting: Allowed

    File Scan Data-->

    File Mismatch: C:\windows\system32\licdll.dll[Hr = 0x80070002]

    File Mismatch: C:\windows\system32\oembios.bin[Hr = 0x80070002]

    File Mismatch: C:\windows\system32\oembios.dat[Hr = 0x80070002]

    File Mismatch: C:\windows\system32\oembios.sig[Hr = 0x80070002]

    Other data-->

    Office Details: <GenuineResults><MachineData><UGUID>{134A4821-ECE0-4D12-9E14-5395CAF53AB6}</UGUID><Version>1.9.0027.0</Version><OS>6.2.9200.2.00010300.0.0.100</OS><Architecture>x64</Architecture><PKey>*****-*****-*****-*****-C9T7Q</PKey><PID>00179-40141-19294-AAOEM</PID><PIDType>0</PIDType><SID>S-1-5-21-1703490527-1411095758-1560407891</SID><SYSTEM><Manufacturer>Hewlett-Packard</Manufacturer><Model>20-b052la</Model></SYSTEM><BIOS><Manufacturer>AMI</Manufacturer><Version>8.06</Version><SMBIOSVersion major="2" minor="7"/><Date>20120824000000.000000+000</Date></BIOS><HWID>1BB93607018400FE</HWID><UserLCID>240A</UserLCID><SystemLCID>0C0A</SystemLCID><TimeZone>Hora est.

    Spsys.log Content: 0x80070002

    Licensing Data-->

    N/A, hr = 0x80070424

    Windows Activation Pascal error 85 Data-->

    HWID Hash Current: MgAAAAIAAQABAAEAAQABAAAAAwABAAEA6GGq9ncW+De2zwYp2kAQAoxxQtZ2XLCzLnM=

    OEM Activation 1.0 Data-->

    N/A

    OEM Activation 2.0 Data-->

    BIOS valid for OA 2.0: yes, but no SLIC table

    Windows marker version: N/A

    OEMID and OEMTableID Consistent: N/A

    BIOS Information: 

      ACPI Table NameOEMID ValueOEMTableID Value

      DBGPHPQOEMSLIC-CPC

      FACPHPQOEMSLIC-CPC

      APICHPQOEMSLIC-CPC

      HPETHPQOEMSLIC-CPC

      FPDTHPQOEMSLIC-CPC

      MCFGHPQOEMSLIC-CPC

      MSDMHPQOEMSLIC-CPC

      SSDTHPQOEMSLIC-CPC

      SSDTHPQOEMSLIC-CPC

      SSDTHPQOEMSLIC-CPC

      BGRTHPQOEMSLIC-CPC

    2 people found this reply helpful

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    canon e28 error Sorry this didn't help.

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    Thanks for your feedback, phoenix slic error 13, it helps us improve the site.

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    meu escritório 365 NÃO Funciona com o usuario de jeito Nenhum,

    NÃO Ativa NEM nada.

    Relatório de Diagnóstico (1.9.0027.0):
    -----------------------------------------
    do Windows Validação de dados -> Código de Validação: 0 Código de validação on-line em cache: 0x0 Chave do Produto Windows: ***** - ***** - HW27F-R8T9Q-FRRDG o Windows Product Key Hash: aPQFeMhUuvbAwDVIJFeVEx5y9ZQ = Windows ID do produto: 00371-OEM -9372437-32158 Windows tipo de ID do produto: 8 Windows tipo de licença: COA SLP do Windows OS versão: 6.1.7601.2.00010100.1.0.048 ID: {D7C9DDC2-CF59-4161-8F89-C51699D04DDE} (1) é admin: Sim TestCab: 0x0 LegitCheckControl ActiveX: N / A, hr = 0x80070002 Assinado por: N / A, hr = 0x80070002 Nome do produto: Windows 7 Professional Arquitetura: 0x00000009 Construir laboratório: 7601.win7sp1_gdr.150113-1808 TTS Erro:  Diagnóstico Validação:  Resolução Status: N / A Dados WgaER Vista -> ThreatID (s): N / A, hr = 0x80070002 Versão: N / A, hr = 0x80070002 do Windows XP Notificações de Dados -> resultado em cache: N / A, hr phoenix slic error 13 0x80070002 Arquivo existe: Não Versão : N / A, hr = 0x80070002 WgaTray.exe Assinado por: N / A, hr = 0x80070002 WgaLogon.dll Assinado por: N / A, phoenix slic error 13, hr = 0x80070002 OGA Notificações de Dados -> resultado em cache: N / A, hr = 0x80070002 Versão: N / A, hr = 0x80070002 OGAExec.exe Assinado por: N / A, phoenix slic error 13, hr = 0x80070002 OGAAddin.dll Assinado por: N / A, hr = 0x80070002 OGA Dados -> Estado do escritório: 109 N / A Versão OGA: N / A, 0x80070002 Assinado por: N / A, hr = 0x80070002 Diagnóstico do Office: Dados -> Configurações de proxy: proxy.kiasunmotors.com.br:3128 User Agent: Mozilla / 4.0 (compatible; MSIE 8.0; Win32) do navegador padrão: C: \ Program Files (x86) \ Google \ Chrome \ Application \ chrome, phoenix slic error 13. exe Baixar controles ActiveX assinados: Prompt download sem assinatura controles ActiveX: Disabled Executar controles ActiveX e plug-ins: Permite Inicializar e executar scripts de controles ActiveX não marcados como seguros: Disabled permitir scripts de controle Internet Explorer Web Browser: Disabled scripting ativo: Admitidos controles de script ActiveX marcados como seguro para script: Permitido Arquivo de Dados Scan -> Outros dados -> Detalhes de escritório: Inc. </ Fabricante> 260S <modelo> Vostro </ Disk read error ocurred </ SYSTEM> <BIOS> <Fabricante> Dell Inc. </ Fabricante> <Version> A03 </ Version> <SMBIOSVersion major = "2" Oficial do </ OEMID> <OEMTableID> WN09  Conteúdo: 0x80070002 Licenciamento de Dados -> Versão DO SERVIÇO de Licença do software: 6.1.7601.17514 Nome: Windows (R) 7, edição Professional Descrição: Sistema Operacional Windows - Windows (R) 7, canal OEM_COA_SLP Identificação da Ativação: da22eadd-46dc -4056-a287-f5041c852470 Identificação da Aplicação: 55c92734-d682-4d71-983e-d6ec3f16059f PID estendido: 00371-00186-724-332158-02-1046-7601.0000-0092015 Identificação da Instalação: 020293386785330221561945074271436152503093978426701851 URL do Certificado fazer Processador: http: //go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=88338 URL do Certificado da Máquina: http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=88339 URL da Licença de Uso: http: //go.microsoft. ? com / fwlink / LinkID = 88341 URL do Certificado da Chave do Produto (Product Key): http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=88340 Chave do Produto (Product Key) Parcial: FRRDG Estado da Licença: Licenciado Contagem de rearmação Restante fazer do Windows: 2 Hora confiavel: 20/02/2015 16:39:42 Technologies ativação do Windows -> HrOffline: 0x00000000 HrOnline: N / A HealthStatus: 0x0000000000000000 Time Event Stamp: N / A ActiveX: registrado, Versão: 7.1.7600.16395 Administrador Serviço: registrado, Versão: 7.1.7600.16395 HealthStatus Fallout 2 error saída: Dados HWID -> HWID Hash atual: MAAAAAAABAABAAEAAAACAAAAAQABAAEA6GF4G5i8YjRK3UatKDsAIWLwoFF + tS5z Activation OEM 1.0 Dados -> N / A Ativação OEM Dados 2.0 -> BIOS válido para OA 2.0: sim Windows versão do marcador: 0x20001 OEMID e OEMTableID Consistente: sim Informações BIOS:    ACPI Nome da tabela OEMID Valor OEMTableID Valor   APIC DELL   WN09      FACP DELL   WN09 tcp header checksum error   HPET DELL WN09   MCFG DELL WN09   SSDT AMICPU PROC   SLIC DELL   WN09      OSFR DELL   M08    















































































































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    Did you solve it? I am getting the same issue now and I don't know what else to do.

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    Sorry this didn't help. an error occurred while mounting /tmp

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    Diagnostic Report (1.9.0027.0): ----------------------------------------- Windows Validation Data--> Validation Code: 50 Cached Online Validation Code: 0x0 Windows Product Key: *****-*****-4GWWM-K7YRF-PQVXV Windows Product Key Hash: ah8KDkYU2xG6OsKJGDrpYVa1KfI= Windows Product ID: 00359-OEM-8704097-13970 Windows Product ID Type: 3 Windows License Type: OEM System Builder Windows OS version: 6.1.7601.2.00010300.1.0.003 ID: {1EAED6E0-8255-4EAA-90E0-99AD678EE8FE}(1) Is Admin: Yes TestCab: 0x0 LegitcheckControl ActiveX: N/A, hr = 0x80070002 Signed By: N/A, hr = 0x80070002 Product Name: Windows 7 Home Premium Architecture: 0x00000009 Build lab: 7601.win7sp1_gdr.150715-0600 TTS Error: Validation Diagnostic: Resolution Status: N/A Vista WgaER Data--> ThreatID(s): N/A, hr = 0x80070002 Version: N/A, hr = 0x80070002 Windows XP Notifications Data--> Cached Result: N/A, hr = 0x80070002 File Exists: No Version: N/A, phoenix slic error 13, hr = 0x80070002 WgaTray.exe Signed By: N/A, hr = 0x80070002 WgaLogon.dll Signed By: N/A, hr = 0x80070002 OGA Notifications Data--> Cached Result: N/A, hr = 0x80070002 Version: Phoenix slic error 13, hr = 0x80070002 OGAExec.exe Signed By: N/A, hr = 0x80070002 OGAAddin.dll Signed By: N/A, hr = 0x80070002 OGA Data--> Office Status: 109 N/A OGA Version: N/A, 0x80070002 Signed By: N/A, hr = 0x80070002 Office Diagnostics: 025D1FF3-364-80041010_025D1FF3-229-80041010_025D1FF3-230-1_025D1FF3-517-80040154_025D1FF3-237-80040154_025D1FF3-238-2_025D1FF3-244-80070002_025D1FF3-258-3 Browser Data--> Proxy settings: N/A User Agent: Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 8.0; Win32) Default Browser: C:\Program Files (x86)\Mozilla Firefox\firefox.exe Download signed ActiveX controls: Prompt Download unsigned ActiveX controls: Disabled Run ActiveX controls and plug-ins: Allowed Initialize and script ActiveX controls not marked as safe: Disabled Allow scripting of Internet Explorer Webbrowser control: Disabled Active scripting: Allowed Script ActiveX controls marked as safe for scripting: Allowed File Scan Data--> Other data--> Office Details: <GenuineResults><MachineData><UGUID>{1EAED6E0-8255-4EAA-90E0-99AD678EE8FE}</UGUID><Version>1.9.0027.0</Version><OS>6.1.7601.2.00010300.1.0.003</OS><Architecture>x64</Architecture><PKey>*****-*****-*****-*****-PQVXV</PKey><PID>00359-OEM-8704097-13970</PID><PIDType>3</PIDType><SID>S-1-5-21-649651159-1225720106-1897726849</SID><SYSTEM><Manufacturer>Dell Inc.</Manufacturer><Model>Inspiron 1750                   </Model></SYSTEM><BIOS><Manufacturer>Dell Inc.</Manufacturer><Version>A00</Version><SMBIOSVersion major="2" minor="4"/><Date>20090603000000.000000+000</Date></BIOS><HWID>26243B07018400F8</HWID><UserLCID>0809</UserLCID><SystemLCID>0409</SystemLCID><TimeZone>GMT Standard Time(GMT+00:00)</TimeZone><iJoin>0</iJoin><SBID><stat>3</stat><msppid></msppid><name></name><model></model></SBID><OEM><OEMID>DELL  </OEMID><OEMTableID>WN09   </OEMTableID></OEM><GANotification/></MachineData><Software><Office><Result>109</Result><Products/><Applications/></Office></Software></GenuineResults>   Spsys.log Content: 0x80070002 Licensing Data--> Software licensing service version: 6.1.7601.17514 Name: Windows(R) 7, HomePremium edition Description: Windows Operating System - Windows(R) 7, OEM_COA_NSLP channel Activation ID: 586bc076-c93d-429a-afe5-a69fbc644e88 Application ID: 55c92734-d682-4d71-983e-d6ec3f16059f Extended PID: 00359-00174-040-913970-02-2057-7601.0000-0152015 Installation ID: 017130025666787772953370805513084043166166624081687435 Processor Certificate URL: http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=88338 Machine Certificate URL: http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=88339 Use License URL: http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=88341 Product Key Certificate URL: http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=88340 Partial Product Key: PQVXV License Status: Notification Notification Reason: 0xC004F009 (grace time expired). Remaining Windows rearm count: 3 Trusted time: 17/10/2015 15:31:01 Windows Activation Technologies--> HrOffline: 0x00000000 HrOnline: 0x80072F78 HealthStatus: 0x0000000000000000 Event Time Stamp: 10:3:2015 10:33 ActiveX: Registered, Version: 7.1.7600.16395 Admin Service: Registered, Version: 7.1.7600.16395 HealthStatus Bitmask Output: HWID Data--> HWID Hash Current: LAAAAAEAAQABAAEAAAABAAAAAgABAAEA6GHELdqPGn0WSoB4ckjShqB8Rso= OEM Activation 1.0 Data--> N/A OEM Activation 2.0 Data--> BIOS valid for OA 2.

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    Diagnostic Report (1.9.0027.0):
    -----------------------------------------
    Windows Validation Data-->
    Validation Status: Validation unsupported OS
    Validation Code: 6
    Cached Online Validation Code: N/A, hr = 0xc004f012
    Windows Product Key: *****-*****-D2C8J-H872K-2YT43
    Windows Product Key Hash: 0zRNbNcHPfkI0d+ErHk4bnRE5GM=
    Windows Product ID: 00329-00000-00003-AA295
    Windows Product ID Type: 0
    Windows License Type: Unknown
    Windows OS version: N/A, hr=0x8007007a
    ID: {336F74C1-A604-4C86-B146-A92F4BA371A6}(3)
    Is Admin: Yes
    TestCab: 0x0
    LegitcheckControl ActiveX: N/A, hr = 0x80070002
    Signed By: N/A, hr = 0x80070002
    Product Name: Windows 10 Enterprise
    Architecture: 0x00000009
    Build lab: 10586.th2_release.160126-1819
    TTS Error: 
    Validation Diagnostic: 
    Resolution Status: N/A

    Vista WgaER Data-->
    ThreatID(s): N/A, hr = 0x80070002
    Version: N/A, hr = 0x80070002

    Windows XP Notifications Data-->
    Cached Result: N/A, hr = 0x80070002
    File Exists: No
    Version: N/A, hr = 0x80070002
    WgaTray.exe Signed By: N/A, hr = 0x80070002
    WgaLogon.dll Signed By: N/A, hr = 0x80070002

    OGA Notifications Data-->
    Cached Result: N/A, hr = 0x80070002
    Version: N/A, hr = 0x80070002
    OGAExec.exe Signed By: N/A, hr = 0x80070002
    OGAAddin.dll Signed By: N/A, phoenix slic error 13, hr = 0x80070002

    OGA Data-->
    Office Status: 111 Unsupported OS
    OGA Version: N/A, 0x80070002
    Signed By: N/A, hr = 0x80070002
    Office Diagnostics: 

    Browser Data-->
    Proxy settings: 
    User Agent: Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 8.0; Win32)
    Default Browser: C:\Program Files (x86)\Mozilla Firefox\firefox.exe
    Download signed ActiveX controls: Freebsd error unable to get Download unsigned ActiveX controls: Disabled
    Run ActiveX controls and plug-ins: Allowed
    Initialize and script ActiveX controls not marked as safe: Disabled
    Allow scripting of Internet Explorer Webbrowser control: Disabled
    Active scripting: Allowed
    Script ActiveX controls marked as safe for scripting: Allowed

    File Scan Data-->
    File Mismatch: C:\Windows\system32\licdll.dll[Hr = 0x80070002]
    File Mismatch: C:\Windows\system32\oembios.bin[Hr = 0x80070002]
    File Mismatch: C:\Windows\system32\oembios.dat[Hr = 0x80070002]
    File Mismatch: C:\Windows\system32\oembios.sig[Hr = 0x80070002]

    Other data-->

    How Do You Feel About Windows 8 Slic Bios Mod?

    Don't suffer from PC errors any longer.

  • 1. Download and install the ASR Pro software
  • 2. Launch the software and select your language
  • 3. Follow the on-screen instructions to start a scan of your PC
  • Get this complimentary download to improve your computer's performance.

    Recently, some users came across an error message with Windows 8 Slic Bios Mod. This problem can arise for several reasons. Let’s discuss this below.

    Employee

    10.09.2010, 23:04 Post(Last modified: 10/09/2010, 11:05 pm by 1234s282.)

    Recently, we have received quite a few responses to confirmed SLIC modifications in the following directions:

    Quote: “Could you re-edit this with ??? – Slic instead of something like that phoenix slic error 13

    I am making this post to inform you that it doesn’t matter which SLIC we use to change as long as a reasonable key is installed (keys are independent of the organization) and fix that there is currently a SLIC compliant certificate installed – Bed adapts to bios.

    windows 8 slic bios mod

    If we follow this example, we will all save valuable time instead of re-modifying the bios that are already working. Although the renovation only takes 5 minutes, the number of requests people have seen for these remodels in a short period of time does increase over time.nor!

    1) User holds an Asus motherboard and requests a specific mod.

    2) For the sake of clarity, we are trying to match the manufacturers making the card with SLIC so that we can modify it with the Asus 2.1 SLIC.

    3) The original poster is returned, confirming that the mod has a job, phoenix slic error 13. You also have this motherboard, but you have Windows 7 OEM installation CDs from different manufacturers (like Dell), so you want to use Dell 2.1 SLIC.

    4) Do we have to provide the results of the SLIC verification requested by you and your family, even if a verified pass-through has already been made for this motherboard.

    Follow these instructions instead. Let’s take an example: –

    1) Download modified verified BIOS created with Asus 2.1 SLIC.Flash

    2) also and confirm with the SLIC Dump Toolkit that your bio now contains some kind of valid SLIC 2.1 table. You can download it here:

    3) Install Windows 7 from Dell OEM media. Since this is an OEM disc, the Dell certificate and valid OEM disc are automatically inserted during installation.sheep. If you are prompted for a key, proceed with the installation without the key.

    windows 8 slic bios mod

    4) After completing this installation, your computer will not stay activated automatically because you saved the asus slice in BIOS and also installed the Dell certificate. As mentioned, phoenix slic error 13, the installed key is not important, although it is specific to the version only, not the manufacturer. Dell Home Premium key works for SLICs as long as you install Home Premium.

    Don't suffer from PC errors any longer.

    It�s no secret that computers slow down over time, phoenix slic error 13. ASR Pro will fix common computer errors, protect you from file loss, malware and hardware failure. This software can easily and quickly recognize any Windows related issues and problems. The application will also detect files and applications that are crashing frequently, and allow you to fix their problems with a single click. Your computer is going to feel faster phoenix slic error 13 ever before! Click here now for a free download of the latest version of our software:

  • 1. Download and install the ASR Pro software
  • 2. Launch the software and select your language
  • 3. Follow the on-screen instructions to start a scan of your PC

  • 5) Copy the certificate data (for Asus) that is in the organization that contained the modified BIOS to actually copy the C: drive

    6) After inserting this key information adobe photoshop cs5 configuration error 6 into the Go c drive, go to START – ALL PROGRAMS – ACCESSORIES – REQUEST. Right click the command to request and RUN AS ADMINISTRATOR.

    7) When Command Prompt opens, on each command prompt enter: slmgr.vbs -ilc c: ********. Xrm-ms and press Enter. Wait for the Script host to respond with a message that the license was successfully installed … This may take a few minutes, so please be patient. This will overwrite the Dell certificate whichwas automatically inserted during installation.

    8) Restart your computer and check the system properties (right click on our own computer) to make sure you are initialized with the OEM product ID.

    Since each of our SLIC tables in your Asus Bios implies that the certificate you audi cd1 error 3 set was Asus and Vital is independent of the manufacturer, you should now be successfully activated, which in most cases saves us the hassle of re-modification and yours too. flashes because the new mod has already been confirmed.

    Get this complimentary download to improve your computer's performance.

    Mod De Bios De Windows 8
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