I/o error 1784 reklamer

i/o error 1784 reklamer

Watch the video or see the presentation of Topdanmark's equity story on sprers.eu → Investors → shareprofile. The errors of Charles' character may perhaps be partially extenuated by remembering the associations of his youth, and the political crimes. Wilhelm Ostwald-by courtesy of Wilhelm Ostwald Memorial and Archive in aged library usage by a process of trial and error. Die Reklame des Ma-.

I/o error 1784 reklamer - turns!

Surveyor: Creole translation, definition, meaning, synonyms, pronunciation, transcription, antonyms, examples

With the enlargement of the European community, the profession of the Chartered Building Surveyor is becoming more widelyknown in other European states, particularly France.

Avèk elajisman nan kominote Ewopeyen an, pwofesyon an nan Geometry Building Chartered ap vin pi lajman li te ye nan lòt eta Ewopeyen yo, patikilyèman Lafrans.

Blunt was professor of art history at the University of London, director of the Courtauld Institute of Art, and Surveyor of the Queen's Pictures.

Blunt te pwofesè nan istwa atizay nan University of London, direktè Enstiti Courtauld of Art, ak Surveyor nan foto Rèn lan.

Following his release in , Price returned to Philadelphia where he worked as a surveyor and oil company driver, and as a watchmaker in a jewelry shop.

Aprè lage li an , Pri retounen nan Philadelphia kote li te travay kòm yon Geometry ak lwil konpayi chofè, ak kòm yon horloger nan yon magazen bijou.

In , the Holland Land Company opened its salesoffice in Batavia, managed by surveyor and agent Joseph Ellicott.

An , Holland Land Company te louvri biwo lavant li nan Batavia, ki te jere pa Geometry ak ajan Joseph Ellicott.

In place of George Stephenson, the railwaypromotersappointed George and John Rennie as engineers, who chose Charles Blacker Vignoles as their surveyor .

Nan plas George Stephenson, pwomotè tren yo te nonmen George ak John Rennie kòm enjenyè, ki te chwazi Charles Blacker Vignoles kòm Geometry yo.

On 19 July , the surveyor William Gosse sighted the landmark and named it Ayers Rock in honour of the then Chief Secretary of South Australia, Sir Henry Ayers.

Sou 19 jiyè , Geometry William Gosse a wè bòn tè a ak rele li Ayers Rock nan onè nan Lè sa a, Chèf Sekretè nan Sid Ostrali, Sir Henry Ayers.

Daniel Alfred Sanborn, a civilengineer and surveyor , beganworking on fire insurance maps in

Daniel Alfred Sanborn, yon enjenyè sivil ak Surveyor, te kòmanse travay sou kat asirans dife an

William Farrer was a surveyor who turned his hand to farming in near where Canberra now stands.

William Farrer se te yon Geometry ki te vire men l 'nan agrikilti an toupre kote Canberra kounye a kanpe.

In November , Macquarie sent the surveyor George Evans on an expedition to confirm the apparentdiscoveries made by Blaxland and his party.

Nan mwa novanm , Macquarie te voye Geveyor George Evans sou yon ekspedisyon pou konfime dekouvèt aparan Blaxland ak pati li te fè.

In Indonesia, Soetoro workedfirst as a low - paid topographical surveyor for the Indonesian government, and later in the governmentrelationsoffice of Union Oil Company.

Nan Endonezi, Soetoro te travay an premye kòm yon Geometry topografik ki pa peye pou gouvènman Endonezyen an, epi pita nan biwo relasyon gouvènman an nan Union Oil Company.

Holloway was born in San Jose, California, the second of four boys of a nursemother and a surveyorfather.

Holloway te fèt nan San Jose, Kalifòni, dezyèm lan nan kat ti gason nan yon manman enfimyè ak yon papa Geometry.

The treatyprovided for a joint commission, made up of a surveyor and commissioner from each country, to determine the finalboundarybetween the United States and Mexico.

Trete a te bay yon komisyon konjwen, ki te fòme ak yon Geometry ak komisyonè ki soti nan chak peyi, pou detèmine fwontyè final la ant Etazini ak Meksik.

The firstdetailedscientificdescription was made by Tasmania's Deputy Surveyor - General, George Harris, in , five yearsafterfirst European settlement of the island.

Premye deskripsyon detaye syantifik la te fèt pa Tasmania a Adjwen Surveyor - Jeneral, George Harris, nan , senk ane apre premye règleman Ewopeyen an nan zile a.

In August the MCS appointed Joseph Bazalgette to the position of assistant surveyor .

Nan mwa Out MCS la nonmen Joseph Bazalgette nan pozisyon asistan Geometry.

Belum came to scientificattention in by a British surveyor , Robert Bruce Foote and from to , a team of German speleologistsheaded by H. Daniel Gebauer conducted a detailedexploration of the caves.

Belum te vin nan atansyon syantifik nan pa yon Geometry Britanik, Robert Bruce Foote ak soti nan a , yon ekip nan speleologist Alman te dirije pa H. Daniel Gebauer fè yon eksplorasyon detaye nan twou wòch yo.

Lycurgus's paternal grandfather, Robert Johnson, was a surveyor in Kentucky, which had put him in a good position to identifyproperty to claimunder land grants.

Granpapa patènèl Lycurgus, Robert Johnson, se te yon Geometry nan Kentucky, ki te mete l 'nan yon bon pozisyon pou idantifye pwopriyete yo reklame anba sibvansyon tè.

Mount Hawkins was namedafter J. S. Hawkins, a government surveyor .

Mòn Hawkins te rele apre JS Hawkins, yon Geometry gouvènman an.

The name Dooral appeared on Surveyor Richard Dundiate's map of April and originallycovered the whole area includingpresent day Glenorie, Galston, Arcadia and Middle Dural.

Non Dooral la te parèt sou kat jeyografik Surveyor Richard Dundiate a nan mwa avril e li te orijinèlman kouvri tout zòn nan ki gen ladan jounen jodi a Glenorie, Galston, Arcadia ak Middle Dural.

In the online game World of Warcraft, there is a quest in Wetlands given by Surveyor Thurdan to retrieve his lost dumpylevel.

Nan jwèt la sou entènèt World of Warcraft, gen yon demand nan Wetlands bay pa Surveyor Thurdan rekipere nivo pèdi l 'fanb.

The new building, which was designed by William Horace Pope, a council surveyor , in the Edwardian Baroque style, was officiallyopened on 27 April

Nouvo bilding lan, ki te fèt pa William Horace Pope, yon Geometry konsèy, nan style Edwardian Barok la, te ofisyèlman louvri sou 27 avril

At least one lava flow from The Volcano was notified by a surveyornamed Fremont Morse in during a survey for the International Boundary Commission.

Omwen yon koule lav soti nan Vòlkan an te notifye pa yon Geometry ki te rele Fremont Morse an pandan yon sondaj pou Komisyon Fwontyè Entènasyonal la.

The Conqueror - classships of the line were a class of two - gun first rate screwpropelledshipsdesigned by the Surveyor’s Department for the Royal Navy.

Bato klas Konkeran yo nan liy lan se te yon klas de - zam premye bato vis pouse ki fèt pa Depatman Surveyor a pou Royal Navy la.

A surveyor'stripod is a device used to support any one of a number of surveying instruments, such as theodolites, total stations, levels or transits.

Vrtilni yon sondaj se yon aparèy ki itilize pou sipòte nenpòt nan yon kantite enstriman sondaj, tankou teodolit, estasyon total, nivo oswa transpò piblik.

As the survey was only partiallycompleted the two colonies were in agreement that surveyor White shouldcomplete Wade's line to the Murray River as soon as possible.

Kòm sondaj la te fini sèlman pasyèlman de koloni yo te dakò ke Geometry White ta dwe ranpli liy Wade a Rivyè Murray la pi vit posib.

A Cargo surveyor is normallyappointed by the Cargo Owner, mostly for Bulk . Grain Cargo.

Nòmalman Pwopriyetè Kago a nonmen yon Surveyeur Kago, sitou pou Bulk. Kago grenn.

About the time McNeil was returning his quitclaim, the surveyor general's officedispatched Spanish - languageexpert Rufus C. Hopkins to Mexico.

Nan moman McNeil t ap retounen reklamasyon li a, biwo Geometry Jeneral la te voye ekspè nan lang Panyòl Rufus C. Hopkins nan Meksik.

A Chartered building surveyor in the United Kingdom can only progressthrough the RICS membershiproute.

Yon enspektè bilding Chartered nan Wayòm Ini a kapab sèlman pwogrese atravè wout manm RICS la.

Although gold had been found in Australia as early as by surveyor James McBrien, a gold rush began when Edward Hargraves widelypublicised his discovery of gold near Bathurst, New South Wales, in February

Malgre ke Geometry James McBrien te jwenn lò nan Ostrali osi bonè ke , yon prese lò te kòmanse lè Edward Hargraves te pibliye anpil dekouvèt lò toupre Bathurst, New South Wales, nan mwa fevriye

Although Palmer was a prolific surveyor , he left few majorschemes by which his work can be assessed.

Malgre ke Palmer te yon Geometry prolific, li te kite kèk plan gwo pa ki travay li ka evalye.

Crater that was buried in another age and is now beingexposed by erosion, as seen by the Mars Global Surveyor , under the MOC Public Targeting Program.

Kratè ki te antere nan yon lòt laj epi kounye a ke yo te ekspoze pa ewozyon, jan yo wè pa Mas Global Surveyor a, anba Pwogram MOC Public Targeting.

A year after his retirement Harcourt - Smith was appointedadvisor for the Royal Art Collections and from until he was also Surveyor of the Royal Works of Art.

Yon ane apre li pran retrèt li, Harcourt - Smith te nonmen konseye pou Koleksyon Atizay Royal yo epi depi jiska li te tou Surveyor of Royal Works of Art.

A plan of Brisbane Town drawn by draftsman H. W. Marriott on 24 March was forwarded to the New South Wales Surveyor - General by Surveyor Henry Wade on 26 April

Yon plan Brisbane Town trase pa desinè HW Marriott sou 24 Mas te voye bay Sipèvizyon Jeneral New South Wales pa Surveyor Henry Wade sou 26 avril

Author, historian, founder and surveyor John Filson worked as a schoolteacher in Lexington, Kentucky and wrote The Discovery, Settlement and Present State of Kentucke in

Otè, istoryen, fondatè ak Geometry John Filson te travay kòm yon pwofesè lekòl nan Lexington, Kentucky e li te ekri The Discovery, Settlement and Present State of Kentucke an

Alan Cherry, a chartered surveyor , began his career as an estateagent and was one of the foundingpartners of Bairstow Eves.

Alan Cherry, yon Geometry Chartered, te kòmanse karyè li kòm yon ajan imobilye e li te youn nan patnè fondatè Bairstow Eves.

Ammen was a surveyor and civilengineer in Hamilton County, Ohio, then he purchased a farm near Beltsville, Maryland, in

Ammen se te yon Geometry ak enjenyè sivil nan Hamilton County, Ohio, Lè sa a, li te achte yon fèm toupre Beltsville, Maryland, nan

Between and , he worked as an assistant to the Surveyor General; accordingly, he did surveying and created Military route maps in Bihar and then moved with his section to Benares.

Ant ak , li te travay kòm yon asistan nan Surveyor Jeneral la; an konsekans, li te fè sondaj e li te kreye kat wout militè nan Bihar epi li te deplase ak seksyon li nan Benares.

At the same time as John Henslow was designing the Acute class, his colleague, fellow - Surveyor Sir William Rule, was ordered to produce an alternativedesign.

An menm tan an kòm John Henslow t ap desine klas Acute, kòlèg li a, parèy - Surveyor Sir William Rule, te bay lòd pou pwodwi yon konsepsyon altènatif.

Balfour held the surveyor's post until , when he was succeeded by Edmund Wimperis.

Balfour te kenbe pòs enspektè a jiska , lè Edmund Wimperis te pran plas li.

At Cape Kennedy, NASA delayed the erection of an Atlas - Centaur rocketwhich was to be used to launch a crafttowards the Moon as part of the Surveyor Program on September 2.

Nan Cape Kennedy, NASA te retade batiman yon fize Atlas - Centaur ki te dwe itilize pou lanse yon navèt nan direksyon Lalin nan kòm yon pati nan Pwogram Surveyor a 2 septanm.

As a result, a new design was put forward in by Arthur W. Ward, the Borough Surveyor .

Kòm yon rezilta, Arthur W. Ward, Borough Surveyor, te pwopoze yon nouvo konsepsyon an

Chief Surveyor and Marine Engineer, Maharashtra Maritime Board is the Head of Department of Marine Engineering and Survey Section.

Chèf Surveyor ak Enjenyè Marin, Maharashtra Maritime Board se Chèf Depatman Jeni Marin ak Seksyon Sondaj.

Although there is no record of his having had any further education, Lewis Morris began his career as an estate - surveyor , and was employed by the Meyrick family of Bodorgan.

Malgre ke pa gen okenn dosye ki montre li te gen plis edikasyon, Lewis Morris te kòmanse karyè li kòm yon siveyè byen imobilye, e li te anplwaye nan fanmi Meyrick nan Bodorgan.

Cambie was educated in England, and emigrated to the Province of Canada as a youth, where he learned to be a surveyor .

Cambie te edike nan Angletè, e li te emigre nan Pwovens Kanada kòm yon jèn, kote li te aprann yo dwe yon Geometry.

Geoffrey Cross was born in London, the elderchild of Arthur George Cross, a quantity surveyor , and of Mary Elizabeth Cross, née Dalton.

Geoffrey Cross te fèt nan Lond, gran pitit Arthur George Cross, yon topeyè kantite, ak Mary Elizabeth Cross, née Dalton.

Before the Elmer Barnes character was introduced, Jeff Merrill appeared on earlyepisodes of the show as a geological surveyor , who advised Luther Bedlow of gold deposits to be foundunderneath Dry Gulch.

Anvan yo te prezante karaktè Elmer Barnes, Jeff Merrill te parèt nan premye epizòd yo nan emisyon an kòm yon Geometry, ki te konseye Luther Bedlow sou depo lò yo te jwenn anba Dry Gulch.

Burt was an active surveyor in Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa and otherstates.

Burt te yon Geometry aktif nan Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa ak lòt eta.

Burt became a United States deputy surveyor in and began surveyinggovernment land for a territorynorthwest of the Ohio River.

Burt te vin tounen yon Geometry adjwen Etazini an e li te kòmanse fè sondaj sou tè gouvènman an pou yon teritwa nan nòdwès Ohio River.

During his career as a surveyor , he was involved in the founding of the Cross Country Cycling Classic race in

Pandan karyè li kòm yon Geometry, li te patisipe nan fondasyon an nan Cross Country Cycling Classic ras la nan

Cambie's views prevailed, and in , he was made chief surveyor of the CPR's Pacific Division, a position he would hold for the next four years, followingwhich he was promoted to chiefengineer.

Opinyon Cambie te domine, epi an , yo te fè l jefò an chèf nan Divizyon Pasifik CPR a, yon pozisyon li ta kenbe pou kat ane kap vini yo, apre sa li te monte nan enjenyè anchèf.

Details of the sale of the land from Ryan to Charles Grimes, the NSW Surveyor General are not known.

Detay sou vant tè a soti nan Ryan bay Charles Grimes, NSW Surveyor Jeneral la yo pa konnen.

Born into a middle - classfamily in Dublin to builder and surveyor Patrick McDonald and housewife Joan, her parentsseparated when she was 9 years old and she stayed with her mother in Rathgar.

Fèt nan yon fanmi klas mwayèn nan Dublin pou bòs mason ak Geometry Patrick McDonald ak madanm marye Joan, paran li separe lè li te 9 ane fin vye granmoun epi li te rete ak manman l 'nan Rathgar.

Crater that was buried in another age and is now beingexposed by erosion, as seen by the Mars Global Surveyor .

Kratè ki te antere nan yon lòt laj e kounye a ke yo te ekspoze pa ewozyon, jan yo wè pa Mas Global Surveyor la.

At the time of filing, Reavis and his wife said they were aware that the surveyorgeneral had released a report, but claimed to have been unable to obtain a copy.

Nan moman depoze a, Reavis ak madanm li te di ke yo te okouran ke Geometry jeneral la te pibliye yon rapò, men te deklare ke yo pa t 'kapab jwenn yon kopi.

Chapter 3 The Danger between Nature and Culture: The Quotidian Threat of Urban Fires in the Premodern Era

8, Fires in Germany and Austria

The Städtebücher is a multivolume encyclopedic register of all German and Austrian communities once or still possessing the rights and status of a city. These volumes, the publication of which began in , are the result of a large and multipronged archival research project, and they facilitate a uniquely accurate and precise summary of large urban fires for the German and central European region.18 It is often forgotten that the Städtebücher project was a product of National Socialist Volksgeschichte (ethnic history). It was founded by the Danzig archivist and professor Erich Keyser (–) at the seventh International Congress of History in Warsaw in August 19 The particular element that made the Städtebücher unique was the attention devoted to “small and smallest cities.”20 Keyser organized a host of contributors from the Institutes for Regional History Publication (Konferenz der landesgeschichtlichen Publikationsinstitute), the Historical Commissions of the States (Historischen Kommissionen der Länder), the German Assembly of Cities (Deutscher Gemeindetag), and experts in race research at the Reich Ministry of the Interior. City archivists and local and regional historians provided Keyser with data for a short “biographical” entry for each town or city according to a predetermined rubric. The schematic also included obviously ideologically biased points—for example, point 16, which recorded the city’s Jewish population. Point 5 deals with major disasters in the history of the city—in particular, fires and floods—which allows for the database-like organization of this information. This is not the place for a detailed discussion concerning the very problematic roles played by Keyser and many contributors to Nazi ethnic history and to the framework of Ostforschung (an outdated Weimar Republic and National-socialist term for Eastern European research) in general.21 For present purposes, we can accept that not all elements of the data and the schematic are steeped in ideology and that the Städtebücher do retain value as an aggregation of source analysis. The definition of “city” underlying the whole enterprise is disputable, as is every definition of the city, but also entirely pragmatic and feasible:

The city book contains the representation of the history of all cities that belonged to the German Empire or to the area comprising the free city of Danzig on January 1, Under the term “city” we understand here all communities which were, in the past, considered as cities according to historical legal, business, or settlement parameters and which, before the law of January 1, , were officially described as cities, according to city constitution or official designation. It therefore also includes those places that, in the course of time, have lost their status as cities.22

Of course this also includes originally “German” towns and cities, which are no longer located in Germany and may not even exist as distinct cities at all anymore. The attribution of cities in the Städtebücher to a certain region corresponds to twentieth-century political borders. This was a deliberate choice necessary for the purpose of organizing work and fixing spatial boundaries at a given point in time. In most cases relevant to this study, such regional attributions simply served as approximate indicators of geographical location and city and fire distributions (e.g., northwestern, northeastern, southwestern, etc.).

The then unusual nature of the ethnic-historical approach consisted primarily in the inclusion of not only the traditional large imperial cities of Cologne, Augsburg, Nuremberg, Frankfurt, Regensburg, etc., but a multitude of 3,–4, smaller cities, towns, and other communities that together shaped the everyday urban landscape between the Middle Ages and early modern eras. Since they concern the history of the entire “Volk” in structural terms, these “average cities” were accorded a new dignity in relation to the exceptional major cities. This innovation was described as a key contribution to the overall historiographic turn to ethnic history in the s.23 Strikingly, the planned inclusion of small-, micro-, and dwarf municipalities into newer urban historical analysis thus has a hidden root in that early ethnic history. While since the mids the inclusion of smaller municipalities has been once again recognized as important by several researchers in the international community, they tend to think of this as an emulation of the English model of the “small city” approach.24 Therefore, just as continuities between “ethnic history” and the older structural and social history of the s have been highlighted, it might be wise to recall similar continuities in urban history.25 However, it is a simple truth that small towns dominated the landscape, particularly in central Europe, for a very long period of time.26 In this respect, continuing the German Städtebücher project and embarking on respective Austrian and Bohemian analogues after World War ii, was a logical development.

The entries of the Städtebücher regarding city fires conceal some uncertainties in their scanty descriptions, which have nothing to do with their problematic ideological framing: very often the year alone is given as information (“fires in , , ”), though perhaps the original archival records contained more information. Occasionally, statements concerning the severity of the fires, the number of destroyed houses, or the state of reconstruction are added to the entries. If such specifics regarding the severity of the fires are given, the descriptions, which are often based on narrative sources, are often very vague, citing, for example, the destruction of “almost the whole town,” “half of the city,” or “two-thirds”. But these forms of description often have direct roots in the source material, as has been confirmed by other attempts to create fire lists.27 The Städtebücher formulated no clear criteria as to which fires were big and significant enough to be recorded under point 5 of the rubric. Because a legion of contributors scattered throughout German archives for decades (at least before World War ii) provided this information, a uniform result and homogenous classification cannot be assumed. It therefore seems highly possible that there were very different criteria at work here.28 In order to achieve greater precision and accuracy, or at least to be able to qualitatively estimate the probable degree of aberration and difference, in the course of building the database I collected the research of local historians and other accessible urban research—systematically for specific years and unsystematically for the entire dataset.29

Combining all the information in the Städtebücher with the further information derived from archival and local history data results in 8, fires in 1, towns and cities—not all of the 2, towns and cities represented in the first edition of the Städtebücher,30 nor all of the in the new editions since , or the Austrian towns and cities, include an entry on fire. A simple distribution of the frequency of fires per year for the total dataset from the years to 31 is presented in the image below (Figure 6). It is evident that the number of fires becomes important only from the s on and that the absolute number of fires dramatically decreases only beginning around If one were to superimpose (as Frost and Jones do) the rapid urban population growth beginning at the end of the eighteenth century onto this graphic, the striking concentration of fire frequency between around and would lose significance in relation to the much larger urban population numbers, so that the beginning of the spread of the “German” or central European fire gap would appear to be located around , increasing steadily until (Fig. 5).32

Figure 5

The ʻCentral-European fire gapʼ: Big fires in Germany – and growth of the urban population in Germany (in the largest 64 cities, by 10, people)

The frequent peaks in the graph are predominantly war induced. Single years with values of thirty fires or more from the Hussite Wars (–30), the Landshut War of Succession (), the Second Margrave War (), the Thirty Years’ War (–48)—including the record years of (84 fires), (88 fires), and (78 fires)—the First Northern War (–58), the Swedish-Brandenburg War (–78), the Nine Years’ War (War of the Palatine Succession) (/89 and ), and the beginning of the Seven Years’ War () are all easily recognizable as caused by war-related activities. In the eighteenth century, however, fires were relatively scarce even during wartime (Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars), which is a clear indicator that war tactics had changed from infrastructure destruction to decisive battle plans. The exceptionally high fire frequencies in , , , , , , and , however, are not explainable by wars—a topic which will be further addressed below. It will be useful to construct a regionally differentiated analysis, especially when accounting for the war-induced peak values, for reasons that go beyond simply addressing fire counts for the whole dataset.33 In this case, it is apparent that merging the data to create a fire statistic for all of Germany has relatively little meaning, because the respective averages and peak values are still strongly specific and different for each region. A comparison of fire frequency distributions demonstrates that it makes sense to group certain regions34—namely Baden, Rhineland, Rhineland-Palatinate and Saarland (Figure 7); Württemberg (Figure 8), Bavaria (Figure 9), Hesse, Westphalia and Lower Saxony—excluding the coastal regions of Lower Saxony (Figure 10); Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, and Thuringia (Figure 11); Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg, Pomerania, East Pomerania, and (with some exceptions because, particularly in the late Middle Ages, a very unique fire characteristic is still present) East Prussia as a Baltic state (Figure 12); Brandenburg and Berlin (Figure 13); Silesia (Figure 14), Austria (Figure 15). The selected starting year for these statistics reflected the degree of urbanization of the specific regions. For the Southwest, even for very early years, a substantial number of fires were documented, simply because there were already many early urban communities in this region. The datasets for the North and East have respectively later starting points.

Further, more sophisticated consideration of the urban fire phenomenon associated with individual wars is made possible by such regional distribution analysis: in East Prussia, the so-called “Hunger War,” the Polish invasion of the Prince-Bishopric of Warmia in , and the Knights’ War of –21 can all be considered war events that caused solitary series of city fires. For Baltic Schleswig and Holstein, Mecklenburg, and Pomerania, the Thirty Years’ War—except for , the year that Sweden entered the war—appears to be much less important than the years –59, /77, , , and –36, correlating with the Northern Wars, the Swedish-Brandenburg War, and the War of Polish Succession; in later years, only the years (of the Seven Years’ War) and (of the Napoleonic Wars) distinguish themselves. While the Hussite Wars had no effect in the Northeast, Brandenburg (), and especially Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia (/30), and Bavaria () were hit hard. In the latter regions, the Saxon Brother War culminated in with a devastating onslaught of city fires; the Hildesheim Abbey Feud of was also destructive in this sense. In Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia and Hesse, as well as Brandenburg, the Thirty Years’ War years of , , /32, /37, /42 comprise the pinnacles of destruction for these regions. Silesia was only affected in the years , /34 and , and Bavaria was only affected in –35 and—less intensively—in – The western regions of Baden, Rhineland, Rhineland-Palatinate, and Saarland, were repeatedly hit by fire during the years –47; however, truly destructive peaks representing at least ten major fires per year were not recorded. , , , , , , , and are very fiery years in Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, and Thuringia (ten or more fires per year)—the fires were, however, obviously not related to war in these years—and thereafter it is only the year of the Napoleonic military expedition in that stands out. The Nine Years’ War caused a year of blazing cities in Baden, Rhineland, and the Palatinate in , but did not have this effect until in Württemberg. The Seven Years’ War, viewed in terms of the fires it triggered, is actually of minor significance in Brandenburg (/58) and Pomerania (). The Bavarian region is influenced by some only regionally important fire-filled wars—the Cities’ War (), the First Margrave War (, ), as well as the Landshut War of Succession (), and the War of the Austrian Succession (). Other wars that were only influential on a local level included the Feud of Soest () and the Cologne War ().

In 1, cases, the number of houses destroyed by each respective fire was directly given or otherwise deducible from information either in the Städtebücher or from other local historical sources.35 In total, there were , destroyed houses with an average of about 96 houses per fire, with fires ranging from very small to large, and including a few very large fires in Hamburg ( 1, destroyed houses; 4,), Altendresden (1,), and Aachen (4,). Basing the size categorization for fires on the number of destroyed houses, the overall characteristics thus differ significantly from the English analysis by Jones, Porter and Turner (Table 1):36

Table 1

Number of fires/number of destroyed houses. Left: Numbers for central Europe. Right: Numbers for Englanda 

While for England it would seem that the number of fires with a small number of destroyed houses (10–49) clearly outweighs the following categories (the ratios for the first six categories of 10– houses are 9: ), for central Europe there is much less spread in the ratios ( 9: 5). This means that—assuming the English numbers are reliable—in the case of central Europe, the frequency of major fires is much higher. From dividing the relevant number of destroyed houses by the total number of fires (and accepting the inherent imprecision of this),37 we can conclude that the most likely number of houses that burned down in a typical fire is ten for central Europe.

The fact that the highest probability is ten houses, rather than a lower number, reflects the fact that the data sources primarily concern major fires.38 However, at the core of these findings the fact remains that the premodern danger of city fires consistently focused on major conflagrations rather than on isolatable single fires. The data in this regard are the same for both wartime and peacetime fires—interestingly, in comparison to the ratios in the database as a whole, war-induced fires are significantly underrepresented by a factor of two. This likely reflects the fact that the entries detailing the numbers of houses were usually based on the administrative efforts of the magistrate or other official authorities—of course, the functioning of the responsible municipal management, especially in times of war, was often completely ineffectual. In any case, no statistically significant differences in the destructive effects of normal versus war-related fires can be ascertained.

Since the distribution is strongly asymmetrical, the most probable number of houses destroyed per fire is not equal to the average number of houses destroyed, which, as previously mentioned, is This average value of 96 therefore indicates very little, and the variance—i.e., the width of distribution—is very high. Even if one removes the eleven exceptionally major fires which burned more than houses, the variance value is still houses. This value is also a measure for the uncertainty with which the size of each particular fire could have been predicted—a measure of uncertainty that may have been of interest to fire insurers, but was not accessible to them in early modern times. Today, an insurer might ask the question about what was the most probable size of a fire, and one can answer it retrospectively of a fire: while approximately 40 per cent of all fires destroyed between 3 and 48 houses, about 70 per cent of all fires in the area destroyed between 3 and houses. This demonstrates that a remarkably high proportion of fires were relatively large (i.e., affecting between 49– houses).

In the attempt to model the relationship between the number of destroyed houses per fire with a proximity function, another value from the data can be derived, from which the normal size of a “city” can be estimated at between and houses.39 This illustrates the extent to which the problem concerns small and tiny towns. By including this information, the numbers given above concerning the probable size of fires becomes that much more remarkable—in relation to these tiny communities, the given numbers indicate almost complete destruction of the town in many of these cases. Because the 1, documented cases concern, for the most part, smaller damages and the given number of cases represents approximately 18 per cent of the total number, these findings may be taken as representative for the total scope of city fires.

For all regions and for the total dataset it becomes clear that the fire gap for the German-speaking area begins to expand around One of the most important military developments of this time was the trend away from the wars of siege and devastation characterizing the late Middle Ages and the seventeenth century toward combat wars and greater military professionalism and discipline. While this demanded great resources from cities for quartering soldiers, among other things, the trend no longer aimed at the complete destruction of towns and cities (see section 4 below).

Figure 6

Number of large city fires per year in all regions covered by the Städtebücher, –

Figure 7

Baden, Rhineland, Rhineland-Palatinate, Saarland –

Figure 8

Württemberg, –

Figure 9

Bavaria –

Figure 10

Hesse, Lower Saxony, Wesphalia, –

Figure 11
Charles I of England. King of England. 17th century clothing. Baroque era costumes

Charles I of England. King and Martyr.

King Charles, , was from to King of England, Scotland and Ireland from the House of Stuart. His attempts to introduce a uniform Church constitution in England and Scotland and govern within the meaning of absolutism against parliament, sparked the English Civil War, which ended with Charles’s execution and the temporary abolition of the monarchy.

Before the death of James negotiations had been made for the marriage of Prince Charles (“Baby Charles,” as his father used to call him) to Henrietta Maria, sister to King Louis of France. In this alliance both the king and the prince had to deal with the crafty and powerful Richelieu, who at once insisted on a complete relaxation of the laws against the Roman Catholics. These demands were a repetition of the agreements made by James with the King of Spain when Charles was affianced to the Infanta—a match which the prince and Buckingham continued to elude with a duplicity which was worthy of the Stuarts. It is said, indeed, that Charles had seen the French princess at the Spanish court during his half clandestine visit there, and that he had then been so smitten with her charms as to determine to break away from the proposed marriage with the sister of Philip. This want of faith led to the difficulties and apprehensions, which, combined with full feeding and excess, of strong sweet wines,hastened the death of James. On the fourteenth day of his illness, being Sunday, the 27th of March, (on the 8th of April, new style), he sent before daybreak for the prince, who rose out of his bed and went to him in his night-gown. The king seemed to have something earnest to say to him, and so endeavored to raise himself on his pillow; but his spirits were so spent that he had not strength to make his words audible. He lingered for a few hours, and then ” went to his rest upon the day of rest, presently after sermon was done.”

An hour or two afterwards Charles was proclaimed king at Theobald’s, where the ministers had assembled, and on the following day he was proclaimed in London. Charles was then twenty-five years of age, and but for the influence of the latest of his father’s favourites, the violent, insolent, and dissolute Buckingham, might have come to the throne with a better promise of a peaceful and a happy reign. But while Buckingham supported the pretensions of the king for his own ends, Charles himself combined the Stuart shiftiness and weakness of character with the Tudor arrogance, and was soon ready to claim from the parliament what would not have been granted to Elizabeth, though a remarkable advance in the assertion of freedom had been made during the twenty-two years since her death. The nation had became conscious both of its rights and its strength, and the spirit of freedom kept pace with the growing wealth and intelligence of the people.

There was nothing in the personal character of Charles which entitled him to the place he has so long held in English history, but the circumstances of his position made him prominent. His combined weakness and assumption placed him in opposition to the great national struggle, which became imminent directly the divinely instituted right of kings to arbitrary power was reasserted. Had his end been less tragic, or the events of the contest less momentous, Charles would have been neither hero nor martyr. His public character has been made as it were to reflect the colour of the times by those who regard him as representing a certain principle opposed to anarchy, whereas, he represented no principle but that of autocracy and the aggrandizement of the crown. Had he succeeded, he would perhaps have attempted to drive the nation back to the time when it was declared that laws were concessions to the people from the monarch who granted, and was therefore above, the laws; and this theory might have been held, while in practice a considerable degree of national and personal liberty would have been obtained. The English people, however, had grown into a free constitution. They had no intention of struggling for concessions any more. They determined to have political liberty established and secured by measures which were effectual both with sovereign and subject.

There is something in the character of Charles and in the real facts of the case to mislead a superficial observer, and at first to lend a certain plausibility to the attractive picture of him which the softening influences of time and the imaginations of his sympathizers have substituted for the real man. Every one is acquainted with the conception of him which is still perhaps the prevalent one in the majority of English drawing-rooms, as a stately English gentleman of the most refined tastes and habits, of highly cultivated mind, deep religious feelings, and the purest morals, who unfortunately entertained (or rather was educated into) notions of absolute authority, which were inconsistent with the predominant spirit of the age, though justified by precedents, and who, after making every concession,consistent with right to the exorbitant demands of his rebellious subjects, resisted them by arms in strict self-defence, and more than expiated any errors he had committed in his lifetime by his heroic and saintly bearing on the scaffold.

Such a representation could be supported only by the widest deductions from the most imperfect premises, by a total disregard of all but a few isolated facts, and a violation of all the sequences and natural relation of events. The truth is that Charles was brought up in a court where the influence’s were coarse and peculiarly demoralizing, and that he observed a much greater decorum of life than had been displayed by James is so far to his credit, but it may be doubted whether a certain coldness and formality of temperament and a more cultivated taste had not a large share in this superiority. It seems difficult to believe that any man could retain the infamous Buckingham as prime favorite and close friend, and yet have a deep and practical moral sense.

The errors of Charles’ character may perhaps be partially extenuated by remembering the associations of his youth, and the political crimes of which he was guilty may be referred to the self-importance which he learned from his father and from the tuition of the churchmen to whom his education had been confided. When he was a child his brother Harry, prince of Wales, was living, and he was kept in the back-ground till he was twelve years old. He was also weakly in constitution, and thus had learned to live much within himself, and so may have become reserved and uncommunicative. Thus disposed he would learn from his tutors, and the books to which they directed him, to look upon government as an absolute function of the sovereign. His education was casuistical, his way of looking at things had less relation to the practical duties and obligations of real life than to a narrow standard of conscience and self-assertion, to which those duties were subordinated. As he grew up his reserve was caused less by self diffidence than self-conceit. He evidently believed that he had a talent for diplomacy, while he was continually imperilling the nation by acts and words which showed no regard for the opinion or the claims of others. His belief in his own wisdom was little less profound than that of James. The overt act of a lie seemed frequently the best method of incommunicativeness, and the lying of Charles differed in this essential point from that of Elizabeth, that it did not represent any occasional or partial sentiment of his mind, but was entirely external to his whole nature, and was justified probably to his conscience by the casuistical argument that its perpetration was an essential agency in a policy which, as a whole, represented his real views, and, indeed, to his eyes, the cause of truth.

Charles appears to have been incapable of seeing the falsity of his own conduct, or the results of his own arrogant demands, and so sanguine was his nature that it was only when he had lost all, that he gave up the direct opposition, and the tortuous plotting by which he sought to gain his ends. He was true, however, to his own autocratic assertions to the last, and there was after all a nobility in the man which enabled him to bear his reverses, and even to go to the scaffold with a high and dignified bearing. Reduced to complete inaction by inexorable necessity, he was saved from the consequences of his own ill-advised action. His self-confidence, which in prosperity assumed such an unamiable and unattractive form, exhibited,under these altered circumstances, all the aspect of dignified self-respect. His proud nature fell back upon itself, and the “wise passiveness” thus imposed upon him, became his greatest strength, and has proved the best foundation for his reputation in the eyes of posterity. The more complete the restraint, the more hopeless his prospects, the more helpless his “gray discrowned head,” the nobler became his bearing, the brighter grew his fame; until at last in “that memorable scene” at Whitehall, when every earthly hope had vanished, and all possibility of weak or unworthy plotting had ceased, he was more completely royal in his demeanor,and more worthy of our respect, than at any other epoch of his life. At that moment he dropped the cloak of a constitutional king, which he had hitherto affected to wear, and died with a steady eye and unfaltering tongue, asserting his real creed that “a share in government” is “nothing pertaining” to the people.

There can be little doubt that Charles was in the main a fond and faithful husband, and he was certainly a good and affectionate father, and to these domestic virtues he deservedly owes part of that reputation for virtue which has been so long maintained. His court was decorum and virtue it self in comparison with that ofJames. Drunkenness disappeared, there were no scandalous favorites, Buckingham only retaining his ascendency, and the king manifested his notions of the royal dignity by a stately reserve. Charles also had an artistic taste, and not only collected pictures but encouraged Rubens and Vandyke; he was a judge of literature, and retained Jonson as his laureate, read Shakespeare and Spenser, and was friendly to Sandys, May, and Carew. Walpole was of opinion that the celebrated festivals of Louis XIV. were copied from the masques and shows at Whitehall, in its time the most polite court in Europe; yet Charles constantly provoked dislike because of his arrogant, contemptuous and irritable manner, and especially by his offensive speeches. His reformations, except in regard to the more scandalous doings of the court of James, appear to have been little more than external. Mrs. Hutchinson, while she speaks highly of the improvement, intimates that there was still a great deal of private license, and though it is asserted that Charles discountenanced swearing, perhaps even this was only by comparison. It is reported of Charles II., that in answer to a remonstrance made to him on the oaths in which he indulged, he exclaimed in avery irreverent and unfilial manner, “Oaths! Why, your martyr was a greater swearer than I am.”

Unluckily for Charles’ dignity in the eyes of his attendants and his ultimate welfare with the people, there was a contest of irritability too often going forward between him and his consort Henrietta, who was of a petulant and violent temper. When not offended, however, the queen’s manners were lively and agreeable.

We are to imagine the time of the court divided between her majesty’s coquetries and accomplishments and Catholic confessors, and the king’s books and huntings and political anxieties, Buckingham, as long as he lived being the foremost figure next to himself, and Laud and Strafford domineering after Buckingham. In the morning the ladies embroidered, and read huge romances, or practised their music and dancing (the latter sometimes with great noise in the queen’s apartments), or they went forth to steal a visit to a fortune-teller, or to see a picture by Rubens, or to sit for a portrait to Vandyke, who married one of them. In the evening there was a masque, or a ball, or a concert, or gaming; the Sucklings, theWallers, and Carews repeated their soft things, or their verses; and “Sacharissa” (Lady Dorothy Sydney) doubted Mr. Waller’s love, and glanced towards sincere-looking Henry Spenser; Lady Carlisle flirted with the Riches and Herberts; Lady Morton looked grave; the queen threw round the circle bright glances and French mots; and the king criticized a picture with Vandyke or Lord Pembroke, or a poem with Mr. Sandys (who, besides being a poet, was gentleman of his majesty’s chamber), or perhaps he took Hamilton or Strafford into a corner, and talked not so wisely against the House of Commons. It was upon the whole a grave and graceful court, not without an undercurrent of intrigue.

Source: Pictures and Royal Portraits illustrative of English and Scottish History by Thomas Archer. London

Continuing

King James I of England.

Mary I, also Maria, the Catholic or the Bloody Mary.

The character of Henry VIII. Tudor King of England

Queen Elizabeth the first. The days of Queen Bess. The Virgin Queen.

Relics associated with Queen Elisabeth. The Golden Prayer-book.

The offer of the crown to Lady Jane Grey.

Mary Stuart, Queen of France and Scotland

Queen Elisabeth knighting Drake on Board of the Golden Hind 16th c..

The english boy king Edward VI. Son of Henry VIII. The Tudor.

Charles I and The English Civil War. Cavaliers against Roundheads.

Oliver Cromwell. The Protector. History of England

The Escape of Charles II. with Jane Lane. Charles as William Jackson.

Frances Carr, Countess of Somerset, involved in a famous scandal.

Abbotsford – Relics and antiquarian treasures of Sir Walter Scott.

The dress of the Anglo-Saxons. Costumes and Decorations by Henry Shaw.

Charles Howard, First Earl of Nottingham English statesman.

The Art of cutting in England. The Norman Period.

Fashion in the time of William I. The Conquerer & Matilda of Flanders.

About this book

This collection focuses on the cultural history of the police as an institution from the sixteenth to the twentieth centuries. Contrary to most studies on the law and the state, Police Forces demonstrates how profoundly modern democracies are enveloped by more informal and less codified modes of social control. In a time when the rule of law appears to be on the retreat, 'police studies' emerges as a field in its own right. This volume helps stake out this new discipline, including the intricate link between police and the law, 'might' and 'right,' state violence, surveillance technologies, politics and resistance. Police Forces considers the question of law and order from below: alleyways, borders, police stations, law offices, bureaucracies, and the minds of administrators, in which the quotidian workings of the law unfold.

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Reviews

'It is unusual for a collection of essays to form such a seamless whole as in the case of Police Forces. Mladek has brought together a superb group of international scholars, whose contributions illuminate, often in startling ways, the history of the 'police' in reality and imagination. One is uncertain whether to praise the book more for the acuteness of its historical analyses or for its urgent contemporary relevance. This is an exemplary and pioneering contribution that will have a major impact on work in cultural studies.' - David E. Wellbery, University of Chicago

'By tracing the history of modern police activity, largely through a German lens, this illuminating volume helps us understand the central and expanding role of sprers.eu than law or even war-making, policing may be emerging as the primary field for the exercise of power in contemporary society.' - Michael Hardt, Duke University

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About the authors

KLAUS MLADEK is Assistant Professor of German Studies at Dartmouth College, USA.

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sprers.eu_ACCOUNTSAllows access to the list of accounts in the Accounts Service.sprers.eu_CONTACTSAllows an application to read the user&#;s contacts data.sprers.eu_CONTACTSAllows an application to write the user&#;s contacts data.sprers.eu_CALL_LOGAllows an application to read the user&#;s call log.sprers.eu_CALL_LOGAllows an application to write (but not read) the user&#;s contacts data.sprers.eu_EXTERNAL_STORAGEAllows an application to write to external storage.sprers.eu_EXTERNAL_STORAGEAllows an application to read from external storage.sprers.eu_SYNC_SETTINGSAllows applications to read the sync settings.sprers.euS_OUTGOING_CALLSAllows an application to see the number being dialed during an outgoing call with the option to redirect the call to a different number or abort the call altogether.sprers.eu_PHONEAllows an application to initiate a phone call without going through the Dialer user interface for the user to confirm the call.sprers.eu_PHONE_STATEAllows read only access to phone state.sprers.eu_PROFILE-sprers.eu_PROFILE-sprers.eu_LOCKAllows using PowerManager WakeLocks to keep processor from sleeping or screen from dimming.sprers.euETAllows applications to open network sockets.sprers.eu_NETWORK_STATEAllows applications to access information about networks.sprers.euEAllows access to the vibrator.sprers.eu_AUDIO_SETTINGSAllows an application to modify global audio settings.sprers.euOTHAllows applications to connect to paired bluetooth devices.sprers.eu_SIPAllows an application to use SIP service.sprers.euL_SHORTCUTAllows an application to install a shortcut in Launcher.sprers.eu-sprers.eu-sprers.eu_SETTINGS-sprers.eu_SHORTCUT-sprers.euAST_BADGE-sprers.euER_INSERT_BADGE-sprers.eu_COUNT-sprers.eu_BADGE-sprers.eu_BADGE-sprers.eu_SETTINGS-sprers.eu_SETTINGS-sprers.eu_APP_BADGE-sprers.eu_SETTINGS-sprers.eu_SETTINGS-sprers.eu_COUNT_READ-sprers.eu_COUNT_WRITE-sprers.eu_ALERT_WINDOWAllows an app to create windows using the type TYPE_SYSTEM_ALERT, shown on top of all other apps.sprers.eu_CONTENT_CONTROLAllows an application to know what content is playing and control its playback.sprers.euL_INCALL_EXPERIENCE-sprers.eu_INCALL_SERVICEMust be required by a InCallService, to ensure that only the system can bind to it.sprers.eu_PRIVILEGEDAllows an application to call any phone number, including emergency numbers, without going through the Dialer user interface for the user to confirm the call being placed.sprers.eu_PHONE_STATEAllows modification of the telephony state - power on, mmi, etc.sprers.eu_PRIVILEGED_PHONE_STATE-sprers.eu_SUPERUSER-sprers.euG-sprers.eu_ACCESSIBILITY_SERVICEMust be required by an AccessibilityService, to ensure that only the system can bind to it.sprers.eu_NOTIFICATION_LISTENER_SERVICEMust be required by an NotificationListenerService, to ensure that only the system can bind to it.
King James I of England. Baroque era. 17th century clothing

King James I of England (–).

Son of Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots.

James Stuart was as James VI from King of Scotland, and since until his death in addition as James I King of England and King of Ireland. He was the driving force of the witch hunts in Scotland as well as later in England, he wrote for this purpose a treatise. He was born on June 19, as the son of Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots, and her second husband Henry Stewart, Duke of Albany, better known as Lord Darnley, in Edinburgh. He was baptized in Stirling Castle and received the name Charles James. On behalf of Jacob, a translation of the Bible was made in the English language, which first appeared in and had a profound influence on English literature. As King James Version it is still under English Christians in use.

It was sixteen years after the victory over the Spanish Armada, and nearly eighteen since Mary Queen of Scots had been beheaded at Fotheringay Castle, after that long and severe imprisonment which made her a cripple and marred her great beauty. Leicester too had paid the penalty of his audacity and his treachery. Essex had perished on the scaffold, a fallen favorite, after a brilliant career as soldier, scholar, and general. Drake, Hawkins, and the great opponents of the Armada, had gone to their rest. Raleigh and Cecil remained with some others in high office; but Elizabeth had outlived most of her early courtiers, and now she too lay dying, an old woman of seventy, who after a reign of forty-five years sat on cushions upon the floor at her palace at Richmond, neither rising nor lying down, her finger almost always in her mouth, her eyes open and fixed on the ground. On the 21st March, , she was laid in her bed partly by force, and listened earnestly to the prayers of Whitgift, Archbishop of Canterbury. The most authentic account of the last hours of the great queen says, that on the 22d of March secretary Cecil, with the lord admiral and the lord-keeper, approached and asked her to name her successor. She started and said, “I told you my seat has been the seat of kings; I will have no rascal to succeed me.” The lords not understanding this dark speech looked one on the other, but at length Cecil boldly asked her what she meant by those words “no rascal?” She replied that a king should succeed her, and who could that be but her cousin of Scotland? They asked her whether this was her absolute resolution? where upon she begged them to trouble her no more Notwithstanding, some hours after, when the Archbishop of Canterbury and other divines had been with her, and left her in a manner speechless, the lords repaired to her again, and Cecil besought her, if she would have the King of Scots to succeed her, she would show a sign unto them. Whereat, suddenly heaving herself up in her bed, she held both her hands joined together over her head in manner of a crown. Then she sank down, fell into a dose, and at three o’clock on the morning of the 24th of March died in a stupor, without any apparent pain of mind or body.

The “dark saying” of Elizabeth is still far from having been explained. In those long cogitations, during which she had her finger in her mouth and her eyes fixed on the floor, her wandering thoughts must have been busy. Not without bitterness could she have contemplated the succession of that son of her enemy and rival, who assuredly she must have regarded as “a rascal” in the sense of his unkingly character and the want of any quality which fitted him to bear rule in England. In duplicity James Stuart was perhaps the equal of Elizabeth herself, in dissimulation he would have been a match for his own mother, as he was a match for English envoys, for Catholic plotters, and for Scottish preachers. But in addition he was altogether mean in conduct, conceited of his crude learning, cowardly and vulgar indisposition, and with a doting and foolish fondness for the favorites of his caprice, which excited the disgust of his court and people, and the contempt and reviling of foreign ambassadors.

Bacon, who was then seeking power and eminence, spoke of the time of Elizabeth’s death as “a fine morning before sun rising,” meaning there by the rising of James; and if the heir to the English throne had possessed the qualifications of a king, the simile would scarcely have been misplaced, for to what a splendid inheritance he was called! The country was powerful’ and feared abroad, and was prosperous at home; agriculture had revived and was in a flourishing condition; trade was vastly extended by the commerce which the great maritime adventurers had opened up in distant parts of the world; the monopolies which had for so long crippled business dealings had for the most part been removed at the urgent demand of parliament; the noble age of literature had progressed, and following the scholars and poets of the time of Henry, Sir Thomas More, Surrey, and the father of Sir Thomas Wyatt, a host of brilliant wits and writers, like Sidney, Raleigh, Spencer, Lord Dorset, and the immortal Shakespeare, had contributed to make the literature of England a national inheritance, independent of Greek and Roman models.
This literature was developed far more during the reign of James, for in the previous half century, though it had been growing in strength and variety of expression, its progress had been delayed by wars and persecutions, and even in the latter portion of the reign of Elizabeth, the punishments which followed assumed detection of plots against the throne and the state, revived the policy of the axe and the block. Indeed these last years of a great period were darkened by the intrigues of men in power, to maintain their influence by implicating their rivals in treasons,which were often as it seems mere snares, invented to entrap dangerous men to deeds for which they might afterwards be tried and condemned to death or long imprisonment.

It should be placed to the account of any estimate of the character of James, that he was born within the shadow of a dark and murderous coalition,— that he was a neglected orphan, never knowing what desperate or unfriendly enterprise might work his ruin,— that he lived ever amidst plots and counter-plots involving the lives of men, and often sustained by treachery, perjury, and bloodshed,—that the stern and fanatical preachers by whom his youth was watched were themselves necessarily associated with men whose authority was sustained by violence and falsehood. Yet learning and literature had advanced in Scotland, and even commerce had been extended by the enterprise of the people, and by their intimate connection with foreign courts. With scanty produce, and a restrictive legislation which almost prohibited individual enterprise, the trade of the country had greatly increased. The impetus given to shipbuilding by James sprers.eu his son James V., who was a bold and skillful sailor, had developed commerce and enhanced the comfort of the people, who would probably have made far greater progress but for the turbulent aristocracy who governed them. The style of living in Scotland was rude and scanty as compared with that of England, so that James on his journey may well have looked forward to his new kingdom as a land of plenty, and may be excused for expressing astonishment at the luxury, order, and refinement of the noblemen’s houses at which he was a guest, and particularly at the palatial and splendid seat of Cecil at Theobalds. Fynes Moryson, who visited Scotland in , says, ” Myself was at a knight’s house who had many servants to attend him, that brought in his meat with their heads covered with blue caps, the table being more than half furnished with great platters of porridge, each having a little piece of sodden meat, and when the table was served the servants sat down with us; but the upper mess instead of porridge had a pullet, with some prunes in the broth, and I observed no art of cookery, or furniture of household stuff, but rather rude neglect of both, though myself and my companions, sent from the governor of Berwick about Bordering affairs,were entertained after their best manner.” Describing the general diet of the country he tells us that their bread was chiefly hearth cakes of oats, and in the towns wheaten bread, “which for the most part was bought by courtiers, gentlemen, and the best sort of citizens. The drink of the upper classes was wines sweetened with comfits after the French fashion. There seemed to be no inns, but the citizens brewed ale, which was the common drink for festivity or hospitality. The bed places were built in the wall, with doors to open and shut, in a similar manner to those dormitories which are still occasionally to be seen in cottages in Scotland, but even in country mansions the beds were of straw.

The character of James Stuart has been so admirably depicted by Sir Walter Scott in The Fortunes of Nigel, that it might be sufficient to refer to that inimitable story for an estimate of the manners and disposition of the king. The great novelist treats his majesty certainly with as much consideration as he appears to have deserved, and refrains from presenting us with a portrait as coarse as that which was drawn by some of the contemporaries of James himself, or which may be obtained by an examination of his own royal records. He was a man of small and mean extremes. At once a pedant and a conceited dunce, a pretender to learning and wit, and a devourer of flattery which would have been nauseous to any but a person of coarse and depraved taste; a man grossly selfish and unscrupulous, and yet one who lavished on the favorites with whom he was disgustingly familiar, wealth and station which eminent scholars and statesmen might have sought for in vain. Full of subterfuges, and yet so constantly in dread of plots that he wore a quilted dagger-proof doublet, and revived the torture in order to wring from innocent or unwilling witnesses confessions of what they did not know or were too brave to reveal; a professed peacemaker, who yet was continually making enemies by his want of good faith; a loud professor of religion, who, with low and grovelling propensities and as hifty tyrannous disposition, lowered the whole tone of the court to a dangerous profligacy, and injured the progress of the Reformation and the cause of piety itself by a pretense of discussing matters which he afterwards settled by declaring his divine right to be not only head of the state but head of the church, so that he might at once persecute the Papists whom he feared for their supposed plots,and the Puritans whom he hated because of the rigor with which they had governed him in his youth.

During the early period of his life he had been permitted a show of power, while Scotland was actually ruled by a knot of fierce and unscrupulous conspirators. As King of England he was cajoled and flattered by less fierce and perhaps only a little more scrupulous courtiers in order to gain their own ends, while the men who really guided the state watched each other with a growing suspicion which at last in successive reigns led to the temporary ruin of the country. It took a terrible revolution,the execution of one king, the banishment of another, and the prayer of the people for a foreign governor, to counteract the deadly effects of the Stuart rule in England. To undo the work of flatterers, favorites, and plotting statesmen, much noble and innocent blood had to be shed, and ultimately both England and Scotland were saved only as by fire. Elizabeth must surely have held James in small estimation. She had at one time sought to have him in safe-keeping in England, and had afterwards, it is thought, been concerned in his being shut up in Ruthven Castle, whence he contrived to be liberated by persuading his keepers into a belief that he was not at all angry at their keeping him in duresse. Whether his pusillanimity and the apparent indifference with which he regarded the imprisonment, and afterwards the execution, of his mother, satisfied Elizabeth that he was her slave, it is not easy to say, but he certainly exhibited scarcely ordinary emotion, and was perhaps quite willing that Mary should be kept captive and suffering in England, that he might occupy the throne. At the very time that Elizabeth was preparing the commission to try Mary at Fotheringay he told Courcelles, the French ambassador, that he loved his mother as much as nature and duty commanded, but he could not like her conduct, and knew very well that she had no more good-will towards him than towards the Queen of England, adding among other things that he had seen letters in her handwriting which proved her ill-will towards him, and that he knew very well that she had made frequent attempts to appoint a regent in Scotland and deprive him of the throne. This is an illustration of the pettishness, pedantry, and suspicious selfishness of the boy, and the man fulfilled the promise of his youth. The ambassadors of James at the court of England were creatures of Elizabeth as much as they were his representatives. Courcelles indeed complained that the king of Scotland did not seem to have much heart at any embassy in his mother’s favour, and except on two occasions he appears to have regarded her only as a woman of a different religion who was an obstacle to his own ambition. When he did at last venture to make a more spirited remonstrance, Elizabeth was so enraged that he wrote a humble letter of apology. When the execution was determined on, and James for a little while displayed a more becoming conduct by urging his ambassador, Gray, to spare no pains nor plainness, but to be no longer reserved in dealing for his mother, things might have gone differently but that Gray himself was in the interests of Elizabeth, and was in reality helping Walsingham and Leicester to send Mary to the scaffold. The former wrote to James expressing surprise that he should interfere to rescue his mother, since as a Protestant prince he ought to feel that her life was inconsistent with the safety of the reformed churches in England and Scotland. James, with a sudden show of dignity, recalled his ambassadors, and that was all, except that he issued an order to the Scottish clergy to remember his mother in their public prayers, and with very few exceptions they refused to pray for an idolater and a Papist.

James was then nearly twenty-one years old. Some weeks after his mother’s execution he received a visit from Sir Robert Carew, who had been sent by Elizabeth to make excuses, to declare that the deed had been done without her knowledge and consent, to assure him of her anxious concern for his welfare, and to express her trust that he would consider every one as his own enemy who endeavored to excite any animosity between them on account of the present accident. After a hysterical outburst and cry for vengeance the royal orphan accepted an increased pension, some deer, and a leash of hounds.

Years afterwards this weak, selfish, and unfeeling man displayed even less emotion at the death of his eldest son, the accomplished Prince Henry, and even hurried away the mourning in order to celebrate a series of court entertainments, balls, and masques, for which under such circumstances he gained the wrath and detestation of the people.

Before the death of Elizabeth he had married the Princess Anne, daughter of the King of Denmark, and when, as soon as Elizabeth had breathed her last, Sir Robert Carew stole out of the palace of Richmond and posted to Scotland with the news, James was ready to set out for England without her, as delays were dangerous. He was too poor to commence his journey till Cecil sent him some money, the council declining to grant his request that the crown jewels might be sent for the queen.

He was full of alacrity to commence the work of ruling the English, though he had held little kingly authority in his own country. During his progress he ordered new coin to be struck, and was anxious to attend the funeral of “the queen defunct,” as he called the late Elizabeth. Cecil and the lords were too sagacious to have him present on that solemn occasion however. It is astonishing that they could have endured his prating folly and vulgar self-assertion, but he gave ample evidence that he meant to make the utmost of prerogative. “Do I make the judges? Do I make the bishops?” he asked. “Then, God’s wounds! I make what likes me law and gospel;” and this he endeavored to carry out to the end of his reign, and would have succeeded, but that the people and the parliament had learned freedom, and he was too much of a coward and liked the throne too well to risk disaffection. His belief in witchcraft, and the dread of plots against himself, amounted to an unreasonable terror, and was almost as suggestive of his base nature as his captious choice of favorites, and the indifference and even gratuitous injury with which he discarded and then ruined those of whom he had tired, as he discarded the once all-powerful Rochester for the equally infamous but more accomplished Buckingham.

From the book: Pictures and Royal Portraits illustrative of English and Scottish History by Thomas Archer. London

Related to:
History of England

  • Celt and Roman. History of England 43 BC to AD.
  • Celtic relics, ornaments of gold and bronze.
  • Roman Britain. Maps, Places, Tribes. Historical atlas.
  • Alfred the Great Viking chieftain.
  • Alfred the Great. The first English king.
  • King Harold II. Last Anglo-Saxon king of England.
  • King James I of England, son of Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots.
  • Sir Thomas More.
  • Thomas Becket. Archbishop of Canterbury.
  • John Wycliffe and the Dawn of the Reformation.
  • William Caxton and the art of printing.
  • Bloody Mary, the daughter of Henry VIII.
  • The character of Henry VIII. Tudor King of England.
  • The reign of Elizabeth. The days of Queen Bess.
  • Tudor Queen. The offer of the crown to Lady Jane Grey.
  • Mary Queen of Scots at Lochleven Castle.
  • Sir Francis Drake.
  • The english boy king Edward VI.
  • Relics associated with Queen Elisabeth.
  • The departure of the Mayflower.
  • Charles I of England. King and Martyr.
  • The English Civil War
  • The Battle of Marston Moor on 2 July .
  • Charles the first in the guard room.
  • Oliver Cromwell. The Protector.
  • Pictures and Royal Portraits Illustrative of English and Scottish History:
  • Reigns of John and of Charles V. to (Medieval, Byzantine, Gothic)
  • Reigns’ of Charles VI. and Charles VII. to (Medieval, Gothic, Burgundy)
  • Reigns of Louis XI, Charles VIII, and Louis XII. to (Late Medieval, Burgundy, early Renaissance)
  • Reign of Francis I. to (Renaissance, Tudor)
  • Reign of Henry II. to (Tudor, Renaissance)
  • Reign of Francis II. to (Tudor, Renaissance)
  • Reign of Charles IX. to (Tudor, Renaissance, Spanish court dress)
  • Reign of Henri III. to (Renaissance, early Baroque, Spanish court dress, Tudor)
  • Reigns of Henri IV. and Louis XIII. to (Renaissance, Baroque)
  • Reign of Louis XIV. to (Baroque)
  • Reign of Louis XV. to (Rococo)
  • Reign of Louis XVI. to (Late Rococo)
  • Reign of Louis XVI. to Le Pouf. Fashion in the Ancien Régime.
  • The Reticulated Headdress. 15th century. Medieval Burgundy era.
  • The Hennin. Headdress 15th century. Medieval Burgundy era.
  • Costumes de Noblesse du 14ème siècle. Histoire de la mode médiévale.
  • Noble anglaise. Mode féminine du Moyen Age. 13ème siècle. 13ème siècle.

  • Gabrielle d’Estrées, mistress of the French King Henry IV. 16th century, Renaissance fashion era.
  • Henri de Lorraine, duc de Guise. France 16th century. Huguenot wars.
  • Madame de Pompadour. Her political power and general influence to Louis XV. Rococo era.
  • 15th century medieval room interior. The history of Tobit. Historia Scholastica.
  • The Corset and the Crinoline. Introduction of Cottes-Hardies. The Ladies of Old France.
  • Pictures and Royal Portraits Illustrative of English and Scottish History.
  • Les Modes de la Renaissance de l’an à l’an
  • Characters of The Commedia dell Arte. Italian Renaissance Theater.
  • The Rise of Monachism. Monastic costumes history.
  • On the history of costumes. Fashion gallery from ancient until the 19th century.

Surveyor: Creole translation, definition, meaning, synonyms, pronunciation, transcription, antonyms, examples

With the enlargement of the European community, the profession of the Chartered Building Surveyor is becoming more widelyknown in other European states, particularly France.

Avèk elajisman nan kominote Ewopeyen an, pwofesyon an nan Geometry Building Chartered ap vin pi lajman li te ye nan lòt eta Ewopeyen yo, patikilyèman Lafrans.

Blunt was professor of art history at the University of London, i/o error 1784 reklamer, director of the Courtauld Institute of Art, i/o error 1784 reklamer, and Surveyor of the Queen's Pictures.

Blunt te pwofesè nan istwa atizay nan University of London, direktè Enstiti Courtauld of Art, ak Surveyor nan foto Rèn lan.

Following his release inPrice returned to Philadelphia where he worked as a surveyor and oil company driver, and as a watchmaker in a jewelry shop.

Aprè lage li anPri retounen nan Philadelphia kote li te travay kòm yon Geometry ak lwil konpayi chofè, ak kòm yon horloger nan yon magazen bijou.

Inthe Holland Land Company opened its salesoffice in Batavia, managed by surveyor and agent Joseph Ellicott.

AnHolland Land Company te louvri biwo lavant li nan Batavia, ki te jere pa Geometry ak ajan Joseph Ellicott.

In place of George Stephenson, the railwaypromotersappointed George and John Rennie as engineers, who chose Charles Blacker Vignoles as their surveyor .

Nan plas George Stephenson, pwomotè tren yo te nonmen George ak John Rennie kòm enjenyè, ki te chwazi Charles Blacker Vignoles kòm Geometry yo.

On 19 Julythe surveyor William Gosse sighted the landmark and named it Ayers Rock in honour of the then Chief Secretary of South Australia, Sir Henry Ayers.

Sou 19 jiyèGeometry William Gosse a wè bòn tè a ak rele li Ayers Rock nan onè nan Lè sa a, Chèf Sekretè nan Sid Ostrali, Sir Henry Ayers.

Daniel Alfred Sanborn, a civilengineer and surveyorbeganworking on fire insurance maps in

Daniel Alfred Sanborn, yon enjenyè sivil ak Surveyor, te kòmanse travay sou kat asirans dife an

William Farrer was a surveyor who turned his hand to farming in near where Canberra now stands.

William Farrer se te yon Geometry ki te vire men l 'nan agrikilti an toupre kote Canberra kounye a kanpe.

In NovemberMacquarie sent the surveyor George Evans on an expedition to confirm the apparentdiscoveries made by Blaxland and his party.

Nan mwa novanmMacquarie te voye Geveyor George Evans sou yon ekspedisyon pou konfime dekouvèt aparan Blaxland ak pati li te fè.

In Indonesia, Soetoro workedfirst as a low - paid topographical surveyor for the Indonesian government, and later in the governmentrelationsoffice of Union Oil Company.

Nan Endonezi, Soetoro te travay an premye kòm yon Geometry topografik ki pa peye pou gouvènman Endonezyen an, epi pita nan biwo relasyon gouvènman an nan Union Oil Company.

Holloway was born in San Jose, California, the second of four boys of a nursemother and a surveyorfather.

Holloway te fèt nan San Jose, Kalifòni, dezyèm lan nan kat ti gason nan yon manman enfimyè ak yon papa Geometry.

The treatyprovided for a joint commission, made up of a surveyor and commissioner from each country, to determine the finalboundarybetween the United States and Mexico.

Trete a te bay yon komisyon konjwen, ki te fòme ak yon Geometry ak komisyonè ki soti nan chak peyi, pou detèmine fwontyè final la ant Etazini ak Meksik.

The firstdetailedscientificdescription was made by Tasmania's Deputy Surveyor - General, George Harris, infive yearsafterfirst European settlement of the island.

Premye deskripsyon detaye syantifik la te fèt pa Tasmania a Adjwen Surveyor - Jeneral, George Harris, nansenk ane apre premye règleman Ewopeyen an nan zile a.

In August the MCS appointed Joseph Bazalgette to the position of assistant surveyor .

Nan mwa Out MCS la nonmen Joseph Bazalgette nan pozisyon asistan Geometry.

Belum came to scientificattention in by a British surveyorRobert Bruce Foote and from toa team of German speleologistsheaded by H. Daniel Gebauer conducted a detailedexploration of the caves.

Belum te vin nan atansyon syantifik nan pa yon Geometry Britanik, Robert Bruce Foote ak soti nan ayon ekip nan speleologist Alman te dirije pa H. Daniel Gebauer fè yon eksplorasyon detaye nan twou wòch yo.

Lycurgus's paternal grandfather, Robert Johnson, was a surveyor in Kentucky, which had put him in a good position to identifyproperty to claimunder land grants.

Granpapa patènèl Lycurgus, Robert Johnson, se te yon Geometry nan Kentucky, ki te mete l 'nan yon bon pozisyon pou idantifye pwopriyete yo reklame anba sibvansyon tè.

Mount Hawkins was namedafter J. S. Hawkins, a government surveyor .

Mòn Hawkins te rele apre JS Hawkins, yon Geometry gouvènman an.

The name Dooral appeared on Surveyor Richard Dundiate's map of April and originallycovered the whole area includingpresent day Glenorie, Galston, Arcadia and Middle Dural.

Non Dooral la te parèt sou kat jeyografik Surveyor Richard Dundiate a nan mwa avril e li te orijinèlman kouvri tout zòn nan ki gen ladan jounen jodi a Glenorie, i/o error 1784 reklamer, Galston, Arcadia ak Middle Dural.

In the online game World of Warcraft, there is a quest in Wetlands given stream read error delphi rave Surveyor Thurdan to retrieve his lost dumpylevel.

Nan jwèt la sou entènèt World of Warcraft, gen yon demand nan Wetlands bay pa Surveyor Thurdan rekipere nivo pèdi l 'fanb.

The new building, i/o error 1784 reklamer, which was designed by William Horace Pope, a council surveyorin the Edwardian Baroque style, was officiallyopened on 27 April

Nouvo bilding lan, ki te fèt pa William Horace Pope, yon Geometry konsèy, nan style Edwardian Barok la, te ofisyèlman louvri sou 27 avril

At least one lava flow from The Volcano was notified by a surveyornamed Fremont Morse in during a survey for the International Boundary Commission.

Omwen yon koule lav soti nan Vòlkan an te notifye pa yon Geometry ki te rele Fremont Morse an pandan yon sondaj pou Komisyon Fwontyè Entènasyonal la.

The Conqueror - classships of the line were a class of two - gun first rate screwpropelledshipsdesigned by the Surveyor’s Department for the Royal Navy.

Bato klas Konkeran yo nan liy lan se te yon klas de - zam premye bato vis pouse ki fèt pa Depatman Surveyor a pou Royal Navy la.

A surveyor'stripod is a device used to support any one of a number of surveying instruments, i/o error 1784 reklamer, such as theodolites, total stations, levels or transits.

Vrtilni yon sondaj se yon aparèy ki itilize pou sipòte nenpòt nan yon kantite enstriman sondaj, tankou teodolit, estasyon total, nivo oswa transpò piblik.

As the survey was only partiallycompleted the two colonies were in agreement that surveyor White shouldcomplete Wade's line to the Murray River as soon as possible.

Kòm sondaj la te fini sèlman pasyèlman de koloni yo te dakò ke Geometry White ta dwe ranpli liy Wade a Rivyè Murray la pi vit posib.

A Cargo surveyor is normallyappointed by the Cargo Owner, mostly for Bulk. Grain Cargo.

Nòmalman Pwopriyetè Kago a nonmen yon Surveyeur Kago, sitou pou Bulk. Kago grenn.

About the pld load error McNeil was returning his quitclaim, the surveyor general's officedispatched Spanish - languageexpert Rufus C. Hopkins to Mexico.

Nan moman McNeil t ap retounen reklamasyon li a, biwo Geometry Jeneral la te voye ekspè nan lang Panyòl Rufus C. Hopkins nan Meksik.

A Chartered building surveyor in the United Kingdom can only progressthrough the RICS membershiproute.

Yon enspektè bilding Chartered nan Wayòm Ini a kapab sèlman pwogrese atravè wout manm RICS la.

Although gold had been found in Australia as early as by surveyor James McBrien, a gold rush began when Edward Hargraves widelypublicised his discovery of gold near Bathurst, New South Wales, in February

Malgre ke Geometry James McBrien te jwenn lò nan Ostrali osi bonè keyon prese lò te kòmanse lè Edward Hargraves te pibliye anpil dekouvèt lò toupre Bathurst, New South Wales, nan mwa fevriye

Although Palmer was a prolific surveyorhe left few majorschemes by which his work can be assessed.

Malgre ke Palmer te yon Geometry prolific, li te kite kèk plan gwo pa ki travay li ka evalye.

Crater that was buried in another age and is now beingexposed by bios halt on errors, as seen by i/o error 1784 reklamer Mars Global Surveyori/o error 1784 reklamer, under the MOC Public Targeting Program.

Kratè ki te antere nan yon lòt laj epi kounye a ke yo te ekspoze pa ewozyon, jan yo wè pa Mas Global Surveyor a, anba Pwogram MOC Public Targeting.

A year after his retirement Harcourt - Smith was appointedadvisor for the Royal Art Collections and from until he was also Surveyor of the Royal Works of Art.

Yon ane apre li pran retrèt li, Harcourt - Smith te nonmen konseye pou Koleksyon Atizay Royal yo epi depi jiska li te tou Surveyor of Royal Works of Art.

A plan of Brisbane Town drawn by draftsman H. W. Marriott on 24 March was forwarded to the New South Wales Surveyor - General by Surveyor Henry Wade on 26 April

Yon plan Brisbane Town trase pa desinè HW Marriott sou 24 Mas te voye bay Sipèvizyon Jeneral New South Wales pa Surveyor Henry Wade sou 26 avril

Author, historian, founder and surveyor John Filson worked as a schoolteacher in Lexington, Kentucky and wrote The Discovery, Settlement and Present State of Kentucke in

Otè, istoryen, fondatè ak Geometry John Filson te travay kòm yon pwofesè lekòl nan Lexington, Kentucky e li te ekri The Discovery, Settlement and Present State of Kentucke an

Alan Cherry, a chartered surveyorbegan his career as an estateagent and was one of the foundingpartners of Bairstow Eves.

Alan Cherry, yon Geometry Chartered, te kòmanse karyè li kòm yon ajan imobilye e li te youn nan patnè fondatè Bairstow Eves.

Ammen was a surveyor and civilengineer in Hamilton County, Ohio, then he purchased a farm i/o error 1784 reklamer Beltsville, Maryland, i/o error 1784 reklamer, in

Ammen se te yon Geometry ak enjenyè sivil nan Hamilton County, Ohio, Lè sa a, li te achte yon fèm toupre Beltsville, i/o error 1784 reklamer, Maryland, nan

Between andhe worked as an assistant to i/o error 1784 reklamer Surveyor General; accordingly, i/o error 1784 reklamer, he did surveying and created Military route maps in Bihar and then moved with his section to Benares.

Ant akli te travay kòm yon asistan nan Surveyor Jeneral la; an konsekans, li te fè sondaj e li te kreye kat wout militè nan Bihar epi li te deplase ak seksyon li nan Benares.

At the same time as John Henslow was designing the Acute class, his jvm error 545, fellow - Surveyor Sir William Rule, was ordered to produce an alternativedesign.

An menm tan an kòm John Henslow t ap desine klas Acute, kòlèg li a, parèy - Surveyor Sir William Rule, te bay lòd pou pwodwi yon konsepsyon altènatif.

Balfour held the surveyor's post untilwhen he was succeeded by Edmund Wimperis.

Balfour te kenbe pòs enspektè a jiskai/o error 1784 reklamer, lè Edmund Wimperis te pran plas li.

At Cape Kennedy, NASA delayed the erection of an Atlas - Centaur rocketwhich was to be used to launch a crafttowards the Moon as part of the Surveyor Program on September 2.

Nan Cape Kennedy, NASA te retade batiman yon fize Atlas - Centaur ki te dwe itilize pou lanse yon navèt nan direksyon Lalin nan kòm yon pati nan Pwogram Surveyor a 2 septanm.

As a result, a new design was put forward in by Arthur W. Ward, the Borough Surveyor .

Kòm yon rezilta, Arthur W. Ward, Borough Surveyor, te pwopoze yon nouvo konsepsyon an

Chief Surveyor and Marine Engineer, Maharashtra Maritime Board is the Head of Department of Marine Engineering and Survey Section.

Chèf Surveyor ak Enjenyè Marin, Maharashtra Maritime Board se Chèf Depatman Jeni Marin ak Seksyon Sondaj.

Although there is no record of his having had any further education, Lewis Morris began his career as an estate - surveyorand was employed by the Meyrick family of Bodorgan.

Malgre ke pa gen okenn dosye ki montre li te gen plis edikasyon, Lewis Morris te kòmanse karyè li kòm yon siveyè byen imobilye, e li te anplwaye nan fanmi Meyrick nan Bodorgan.

Cambie was educated in England, and emigrated to the Province of Canada as a youth, where he learned to dr web firewall error a surveyor .

Cambie te edike nan Angletè, e li te emigre nan Pwovens Kanada kòm yon jèn, kote li te aprann yo dwe yon Geometry.

Geoffrey Cross was born in London, the elderchild of Arthur George Cross, a quantity surveyorand of Mary Elizabeth Cross, née Dalton.

Geoffrey Cross te fèt nan Lond, gran pitit Arthur George Cross, yon topeyè kantite, ak Mary Elizabeth Cross, née Dalton.

Before the Elmer Barnes character was introduced, Jeff Merrill appeared on earlyepisodes of the show as a geological surveyorwho advised Luther Bedlow of gold deposits to be foundunderneath Dry Gulch.

Anvan i/o error 1784 reklamer te prezante karaktè Elmer Barnes, Jeff Merrill te parèt nan premye epizòd yo nan emisyon an kòm yon Geometry, ki te konseye Luther Bedlow sou depo lò yo te jwenn anba Dry Gulch.

Burt was an active surveyor in Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa and otherstates.

Burt te yon Geometry aktif nan Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa ak lòt eta.

Burt became a United States deputy surveyor in and began surveyinggovernment land for a territorynorthwest of the Ohio River.

Burt te vin tounen i/o error 1784 reklamer Geometry adjwen Etazini an e li te kòmanse fè sondaj sou tè gouvènman an pou yon teritwa nan nòdwès Ohio River.

During his career as a surveyorhe was involved in the founding of the Cross Country Cycling Classic race in

Pandan karyè li kòm yon Geometry, li te patisipe nan fondasyon an nan Cross Country Cycling Classic ras la nan

Cambie's views prevailed, i/o error 1784 reklamer, and inhe was made chief surveyor of the CPR's Pacific Division, a position he would hold for the next four years, followingwhich he was promoted to chiefengineer.

Opinyon Cambie te domine, i/o error 1784 reklamer, epi anyo te fè l jefò an chèf nan Divizyon Pasifik CPR a, yon pozisyon li ta kenbe pou kat ane kap vini yo, i/o error 1784 reklamer, apre sa li te monte nan enjenyè anchèf.

Details of the sale of the land from Ryan to Charles Grimes, the NSW Surveyor General are not known.

Detay sou vant tè a soti nan Ryan bay Charles Grimes, NSW Surveyor Jeneral la yo pa konnen.

Born into a middle - classfamily in Dublin to builder and surveyor Patrick McDonald and housewife Joan, her parentsseparated when she was 9 years old and she stayed with her mother in Rathgar.

Fèt i/o error 1784 reklamer yon fanmi klas mwayèn nan Dublin pou bòs mason ak Geometry Patrick McDonald ak madanm marye Joan, paran li separe lè li te 9 ane fin vye granmoun epi li te rete ak manman l 'nan Rathgar.

Crater that was buried in another age and is now beingexposed by erosion, as seen by the Mars Global Surveyor .

Kratè ki te antere i/o error 1784 reklamer yon lòt laj e kounye a ke yo te ekspoze pa ewozyon, jan yo wè pa Mas Global Surveyor la.

At the time of filing, Reavis and his wife said they were aware that the surveyorgeneral had released a report, but claimed to have been unable to obtain a copy.

Nan moman depoze a, Reavis ak madanm li te di ke yo te okouran ke Geometry jeneral la te pibliye yon rapò, men te deklare ke yo pa t 'kapab jwenn yon kopi.
sprers.eu_ACCOUNTSAllows access to the list of accounts in the Mysql error number 1226 dle Service.sprers.eu_CONTACTSAllows an application to read the user&#;s contacts data.sprers.eu_CONTACTSAllows an application to write the user&#;s contacts data.sprers.eu_CALL_LOGAllows an application to read the user&#;s call log.sprers.eu_CALL_LOGAllows an application to write (but not read) the user&#;s contacts data.sprers.eu_EXTERNAL_STORAGEAllows an application to write to external storage.sprers.eu_EXTERNAL_STORAGEAllows an application to read from external storage.sprers.eu_SYNC_SETTINGSAllows applications to read the sync settings.sprers.euS_OUTGOING_CALLSAllows an application to see the number being dialed during an outgoing call with the option to redirect the call to a different number or abort the call altogether.sprers.eu_PHONEAllows an i/o error 1784 reklamer to initiate a phone call without going through the Dialer user interface for the user to confirm the call.sprers.eu_PHONE_STATEAllows read only access to phone state.sprers.eu_PROFILE-sprers.eu_PROFILE-sprers.eu_LOCKAllows using PowerManager WakeLocks i/o error 1784 reklamer keep processor from sleeping or screen from dimming.sprers.euETAllows applications to open network sockets.sprers.eu_NETWORK_STATEAllows applications to access information about networks.sprers.euEAllows access to the vibrator.sprers.eu_AUDIO_SETTINGSAllows an application to modify global audio settings.sprers.euOTHAllows applications to connect to paired bluetooth devices.sprers.eu_SIPAllows an application to use SIP service.sprers.euL_SHORTCUTAllows an application to install a shortcut in Launcher.sprers.eu-sprers.eu-sprers.eu_SETTINGS-sprers.eu_SHORTCUT-sprers.euAST_BADGE-sprers.euER_INSERT_BADGE-sprers.eu_COUNT-sprers.eu_BADGE-sprers.eu_BADGE-sprers.eu_SETTINGS-sprers.eu_SETTINGS-sprers.eu_APP_BADGE-sprers.eu_SETTINGS-sprers.eu_SETTINGS-sprers.eu_COUNT_READ-sprers.eu_COUNT_WRITE-sprers.eu_ALERT_WINDOWAllows an app to create windows using the type TYPE_SYSTEM_ALERT, shown on top of all other apps.sprers.eu_CONTENT_CONTROLAllows an application to know what content is playing and control its playback.sprers.euL_INCALL_EXPERIENCE-sprers.eu_INCALL_SERVICEMust be required by a InCallService, to ensure that only the system can bind to it.sprers.eu_PRIVILEGEDAllows an application to call any phone number, i/o error 1784 reklamer, including emergency numbers, without going through the Dialer user interface for the user to confirm the call being placed.sprers.eu_PHONE_STATEAllows modification of the telephony state - power on, mmi, etc.sprers.eu_PRIVILEGED_PHONE_STATE-sprers.eu_SUPERUSER-sprers.euG-sprers.eu_ACCESSIBILITY_SERVICEMust be required by an AccessibilityService, to ensure that only the system can bind to it.sprers.eu_NOTIFICATION_LISTENER_SERVICEMust be required by an I/o error 1784 reklamer, to ensure that only the system can bind to it.

Chapter 3 The Danger between Nature and Culture: The Quotidian Threat of Urban Fires in the Premodern Era

8, Fires in Germany and Austria

The Städtebücher is a multivolume encyclopedic register of all German and Austrian communities once or still possessing the rights and status of a city. These volumes, i/o error 1784 reklamer publication of which began inare the result of a large and multipronged archival research project, and they facilitate a uniquely accurate and precise summary of large urban fires for the German and central European region.18 It is often forgotten that the Städtebücher project was a product of National Socialist Volksgeschichte (ethnic history). It was founded by the Danzig archivist and professor Erich Keyser (–) at the seventh International Congress of History in Warsaw in August 19 The particular element that made the Städtebücher unique was the attention devoted to “small and smallest cities.”20 Keyser organized a host of contributors from the Institutes for Regional History Publication (Konferenz der landesgeschichtlichen Publikationsinstitute), the Historical Commissions of the States (Historischen Kommissionen der Länder), i/o error 1784 reklamer, the German Assembly of I/o error 1784 reklamer (Deutscher Gemeindetag), and experts in race research at the Reich Ministry of the Interior. City archivists and local and regional historians provided Keyser with data for a short “biographical” entry for each town or city according to a i/o error 1784 reklamer rubric. The schematic also included obviously ideologically biased points—for example, point 16, which recorded the city’s Jewish population. Point 5 deals with major disasters in the history of the city—in particular, fires and floods—which allows for the database-like organization of this information. This is not the place for a detailed discussion concerning the very problematic roles played by Keyser and many contributors to Nazi ethnic history and to the framework of Ostforschung (an outdated Weimar Republic and National-socialist term for Eastern European research) in general.21 For present purposes, we can accept that not all elements of the data and the schematic are steeped in ideology and that the Städtebücher do retain value as an aggregation of source analysis. The definition of “city” underlying the whole enterprise is disputable, as is every definition of the city, but also entirely pragmatic and feasible:

The city book contains the representation of the history of all cities that belonged to the German Empire or to the area comprising the free city of Danzig on January 1, Under the term “city” we understand here all communities which were, in the past, considered as cities according to historical legal, business, or settlement parameters and which, before the law of January 1,were officially described as cities, according to city constitution or official designation. It therefore also includes those places that, in the course of time, have lost their status as cities.22

Of course json error missing in panenthetical also includes originally “German” towns and cities, which are no longer located in Germany and may not even exist as distinct cities at all anymore. The attribution of cities in the Städtebücher to a certain region corresponds to twentieth-century political borders. This was a deliberate choice necessary for the purpose of organizing work and fixing spatial boundaries at a given point in time. In most cases relevant to this study, such regional attributions simply served as approximate indicators of geographical location and city and fire distributions (e.g., northwestern, northeastern, southwestern, etc.).

The then unusual nature of the ethnic-historical approach consisted primarily in the inclusion of not only the traditional large imperial cities of Cologne, Augsburg, Nuremberg, i/o error 1784 reklamer, Frankfurt, Regensburg, etc., but a multitude of 3,–4, smaller cities, towns, and other i/o error 1784 reklamer that together shaped the everyday urban landscape between the Middle Ages and early modern eras. Since they concern the history of the entire “Volk” in structural terms, these “average cities” were accorded a new dignity in relation to the exceptional major cities. This innovation was described as a key runtime error gta_sa.exe to the overall historiographic turn to ethnic history in the s.23 Strikingly, the planned inclusion of small- micro- and dwarf municipalities into newer urban historical analysis thus has a hidden root in that early ethnic history. While since the mids the inclusion of smaller municipalities has been once again recognized as important by several researchers in the international community, they tend to think of this as an emulation of the English model of the “small city” approach.24 Therefore, just as continuities between “ethnic history” and the older structural and social history of the s have been highlighted, it might be wise to recall similar continuities in urban history.25 However, it is a simple truth that small towns dominated the landscape, particularly in central Europe, for a very long period of time.26 In this respect, continuing the German Städtebücher project and embarking on respective Austrian and Bohemian analogues after World War ii, was a logical development.

The entries of the Städtebücher regarding city fires conceal some uncertainties in their scanty descriptions, which have nothing to do with their problematic ideological framing: very often the year alone is given as information (“fires in, ”), though perhaps the original archival records contained more information. Occasionally, statements concerning the severity of the fires, the number i/o error 1784 reklamer destroyed houses, or the state of reconstruction are added to the entries. If such specifics regarding the severity of the fires are given, the descriptions, which are often based on narrative sources, are often very vague, citing, for example, the destruction of “almost the whole town,” “half of the city,” or “two-thirds”. But these forms of description often have direct roots in the source material, as has been confirmed by other attempts to create fire lists.27 The Städtebücher formulated no clear criteria as to which fires were big and significant enough to be recorded under point 5 of the rubric. Because a legion of contributors scattered throughout German archives for decades (at least before World War ii) provided this information, a uniform result and homogenous classification cannot be assumed. It therefore seems highly possible that there were very different criteria at work here.28 In order to achieve greater precision and accuracy, or at least to be able to qualitatively estimate the probable degree of aberration and difference, in the course of building the database I collected the research of local historians and other accessible urban research—systematically for specific years and unsystematically for the entire dataset.29

Combining all the information in the Städtebücher with the further information derived from archival and local history data results in 8, fires in 1, i/o error 1784 reklamer, towns and cities—not all of the 2, towns and cities represented in the first edition of the Städtebücher,30 nor all of the in the new editions sinceor the Austrian towns and cities, include an entry on fire. A simple distribution of the frequency of fires per year for the total dataset from the years to 31 is presented in the image below (Figure 6), i/o error 1784 reklamer. It is evident that the number of fires becomes important only from the s on and that the absolute number of fires dramatically decreases only beginning around If one were to superimpose (as Frost and Jones do) the rapid urban population growth beginning at the end of the eighteenth century onto this graphic, the striking concentration of fire frequency between around and would lose significance in relation to the much larger urban population numbers, so that the beginning of the spread of the “German” or central European fire gap would appear to be located aroundincreasing steadily until (Fig. 5).32

Figure 5

The ʻCentral-European fire gapʼ: Big fires in Germany – and growth of the urban population in Germany (in the largest 64 cities, by 10, people)

The frequent peaks in the graph are predominantly war induced. Single years with values of thirty fires or more from the Hussite Wars (–30), the Landshut War of Succession (), the Second Margrave War (), the Thirty Years’ War (–48)—including the record years of (84 fires), (88 fires), and (78 fires)—the First Northern War (–58), the Swedish-Brandenburg War (–78), the Nine Years’ War (War of the Palatine Succession) (/89 and ), and the beginning of the Seven Years’ War () are all sas winlogon.exe application error recognizable as caused by war-related activities. In the eighteenth century, however, fires were relatively scarce even during wartime (Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars), which is a clear indicator that war tactics had changed from infrastructure destruction to decisive battle plans. The exceptionally high fire frequencies in i/o error 1784 reklamer,,andhowever, are not explainable by wars—a topic which will be further addressed below. It will be useful to construct a regionally differentiated analysis, especially when accounting for the war-induced peak values, for reasons that go beyond simply addressing fire counts for the whole dataset.33 In this case, i/o error 1784 reklamer, it is apparent that merging the data to create a fire statistic for all of Germany has relatively little meaning, i/o error 1784 reklamer, because the respective averages and peak values are still strongly specific and different for each region. A comparison of fire frequency distributions demonstrates that it makes sense to group certain regions34—namely Baden, Rhineland, Rhineland-Palatinate and Saarland (Figure 7); Württemberg (Figure 8), Bavaria (Figure 9), Hesse, Westphalia and Lower Saxony—excluding the coastal regions of Lower Saxony (Figure 10); Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, and Thuringia (Figure 11); Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg, Pomerania, East Pomerania, and (with some exceptions because, particularly in the late Middle Ages, a very unique fire characteristic is still present) East Prussia as a Baltic state (Figure 12); Brandenburg and Berlin (Figure 13); Silesia (Figure 14), Austria (Figure 15). The selected starting year for these statistics reflected the degree of urbanization of the specific regions. For the Southwest, even for very early years, a substantial number of fires were documented, simply because there were already many early urban communities in this region. The datasets for the North and East have respectively later starting points.

Further, more sophisticated consideration of the urban fire phenomenon associated with individual wars is made possible by such regional distribution analysis: in East Prussia, the so-called “Hunger War,” the Polish invasion of the Prince-Bishopric of Warmia inand the Knights’ War of –21 can all be considered war events that caused solitary series of city fires. For Baltic Schleswig and Holstein, Mecklenburg, and Pomerania, the Thirty Years’ War—except forthe year that Sweden entered the war—appears to be much less important than the years –59, /77, and –36, correlating with the Northern Wars, the Swedish-Brandenburg War, and the War of Polish Succession; in later years, only the years (of the Seven Years’ War) and (of the Napoleonic Wars) distinguish themselves. While the Hussite Wars had no effect in the Northeast, Brandenburg (), and especially Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia (/30), and Bavaria () were hit hard. In the latter regions, the Saxon Brother War culminated in with a devastating onslaught of city fires; the Hildesheim Abbey Feud of was also destructive i/o error 1784 reklamer this sense. In Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia and Hesse, as well as Brandenburg, the Thirty Years’ War years of, /32, /37, /42 comprise the pinnacles of destruction for these regions. Silesia was only affected in the years/34 andand Bavaria was only affected in –35 and—less intensively—in – The western regions of Baden, Rhineland, Rhineland-Palatinate, and Sql 08001 error, were repeatedly hit by fire during the years –47; however, truly destructive peaks representing at least ten major fires per year were not recorded.,,and are very fiery years in Saxony, i/o error 1784 reklamer, Saxony-Anhalt, and Thuringia (ten or more fires per year)—the fires were, however, obviously not related to war in these years—and thereafter it is only the year of the Napoleonic military expedition in that stands out. The Nine Years’ War caused a year of blazing cities in Baden, i/o error 1784 reklamer, Rhineland, and the Palatinate inbut did not have this effect until in Württemberg. The Seven Years’ War, viewed in terms of the fires it triggered, is actually of minor significance in Brandenburg (/58) and Pomerania (). The Bavarian region is influenced by some only regionally important fire-filled wars—the Cities’ War (), the First Margrave War (, ), as well as the Landshut War of Succession (), and the War of the Austrian Succession (). Other wars that were only influential on a local level included the Feud of Soest () and the Cologne War ().

In 1, cases, the number of houses destroyed by each respective fire was directly given or otherwise deducible from information either in the Städtebücher or from other local historical sources.35 In total, there weredestroyed houses with an average of about 96 houses per fire, with fires ranging from very small to large, and i/o error 1784 reklamer a few very large fires in Hamburg ( 1, destroyed houses; 4,), Altendresden (1,), and Aachen (4,). Basing the size categorization for fires on the number of destroyed houses, the overall characteristics thus differ significantly from the English analysis by Jones, Porter and Turner (Table 1):36

Table 1

Number of fires/number of destroyed houses. Left: Numbers for central Europe. Right: Numbers for Englanda 

While for England it would seem that the number of fires with a small number of destroyed houses (10–49) clearly outweighs the following categories (the ratios for the first six categories of 10– houses are 9: ), for central I/o error 1784 reklamer there is much less spread in the ratios ( 9: 5). This means that—assuming the English numbers are reliable—in the case of central Europe, i/o error 1784 reklamer, the frequency of major fires is much higher. From dividing the relevant number of destroyed houses by the total number of fires (and accepting the inherent imprecision of this),37 we can conclude that the most likely number of houses that burned down in a typical fire is ten for central Europe.

The fact that the highest probability is ten houses, rather than a lower number, reflects the fact that the data sources primarily concern major fires.38 However, at the core of these findings the fact remains that the premodern danger of city fires consistently focused on major conflagrations rather than on isolatable single fires. The data i/o error 1784 reklamer this regard are the same for both wartime and peacetime fires—interestingly, in comparison to the ratios in the database as a whole, war-induced fires are significantly underrepresented by a factor of two. This likely reflects the fact that the i/o error 1784 reklamer detailing the numbers of houses were usually based on the administrative efforts of the magistrate or other official authorities—of course, the functioning of the responsible municipal management, especially in times runas error 740 requires elevation war, was often completely ineffectual. In any case, no statistically significant differences in the destructive effects of normal versus war-related fires can be ascertained.

Since the distribution is strongly asymmetrical, the most probable number of houses destroyed per fire is not equal to the average number of houses destroyed, which, sql error code 17001 previously mentioned, is This average value of 96 therefore indicates very little, and the variance—i.e., the width of distribution—is very high. Even if one removes the eleven exceptionally major fires which burned more than houses, the variance value is still houses. This value is also a measure for the uncertainty with which the apple tv seas0n pass error 3194 of each particular fire could have been predicted—a measure of uncertainty that may have been of interest to fire insurers, but was not accessible to them in early modern times. Today, i/o error 1784 reklamer, an insurer might ask the question about what was the most probable size of a fire, and one can answer it retrospectively of a fire: while approximately 40 per cent of all fires destroyed between 3 and 48 houses, about 70 per cent of all fires in the i/o error 1784 reklamer destroyed between 3 and houses. This demonstrates that a remarkably high proportion of fires were relatively large (i.e., affecting between 49– houses).

In the attempt to model the relationship between the number of destroyed houses per fire with a proximity function, another value from the data can be derived, from which the normal size of a “city” can be estimated at between and houses.39 This illustrates the extent to which the problem concerns small and tiny towns. By including this information, the numbers given above concerning the probable size of fires becomes that much more remarkable—in relation to these tiny communities, the given numbers indicate almost complete destruction of the town in many of these cases. Because the 1, documented cases concern, i/o error 1784 reklamer, for the most part, smaller damages and the given number of cases represents approximately 18 per cent of the total number, these findings may be taken as representative for the ubuntu vsftpd 3.0.0 make error scope of city fires.

For all regions and for the total dataset it becomes clear that the fire gap for the German-speaking area begins to expand around One of the most important military developments of this time was the trend away from the wars of siege and devastation characterizing the late Middle Ages and the seventeenth century toward combat wars and greater military professionalism and discipline. While this demanded great resources from cities for quartering soldiers, among other things, the trend no longer aimed at the complete destruction of towns and cities (see section 4 below).

Figure 6

Number of large city fires per year in all regions covered by the Städtebücher, –

Figure 7

Baden, Rhineland, Rhineland-Palatinate, Saarland –

Figure 8

Württemberg, –

Figure 9

Bavaria –

Figure 10

Hesse, Lower Saxony, Wesphalia, –

Figure 11

About this book

This collection focuses on the cultural history of the police as an institution from the sixteenth to the twentieth centuries. Contrary to most studies on the law and the state, Police Forces demonstrates how profoundly modern democracies are enveloped by more informal and less codified modes of social control. In a time when the rule of law appears to be on the retreat, 'police studies' emerges as a field in its own right. This volume helps stake out this new discipline, including the intricate link between police and the law, 'might' and 'right,' state violence, surveillance technologies, politics and i/o error 1784 reklamer. Police Forces considers the question of law and order from below: alleyways, borders, police stations, law offices, bureaucracies, and the minds of administrators, in which the quotidian workings of the law unfold.

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Reviews

'It is i/o error 1784 reklamer for a collection of essays to form such a seamless whole as in the case of Police Forces. Mladek has brought together a superb group of international scholars, whose contributions illuminate, often in startling ways, the history of the 'police' in reality and imagination. One is uncertain whether to praise the book more for the acuteness of its historical analyses or for its urgent contemporary relevance. This is an exemplary and pioneering contribution that will have a major impact on work in cultural studies.' - David E, i/o error 1784 reklamer. Wellbery, University of Chicago

'By tracing the history of modern police activity, largely through a German lens, this illuminating volume helps us understand the central and expanding role of sprers.eu than law or even war-making, policing may be emerging as the primary field for the exercise of power in contemporary society.' - Michael Hardt, Duke University

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About the authors

KLAUS MLADEK is Assistant Professor of German Studies at Dartmouth College, USA.

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Charles I of England, <b>i/o error 1784 reklamer</b>. King of England. 17th <b>i/o error 1784 reklamer</b> clothing. <a href=Smax4pnp application error era costumes">

Charles I of England. King and Martyr.

King Charles,was from to King of England, Scotland and Ireland from the House of Stuart. His attempts to introduce a uniform Church constitution in England and Scotland and govern within the meaning of absolutism against parliament, sparked the English Civil War, which ended with Charles’s execution and the temporary abolition of the monarchy.

Before the death of James negotiations had been made for the marriage of Prince Charles (“Baby Charles,” as his father used to call him) to Henrietta Maria, sister to King Louis of France. In this alliance both the king and the prince had to deal with the crafty and powerful Richelieu, who at once insisted on divx code 8192 error complete relaxation of the laws against the Roman Catholics. These demands were a repetition of the agreements made by James with the King of Spain when Charles was affianced to the Infanta—a match which the prince and Buckingham continued to elude with a duplicity which was worthy of the Stuarts, i/o error 1784 reklamer. It is said, indeed, that Charles had seen the French princess at the Spanish court during his half clandestine visit there, and that he had then been so smitten with her charms as to determine to break away from the proposed marriage with the sister of Philip. This want of faith led to the difficulties and apprehensions, which, combined with full feeding and excess, i/o error 1784 reklamer, of strong sweet wines,hastened the death of James. On the fourteenth day of his illness, being Sunday, the 27th of March, (on i/o error 1784 reklamer 8th of April, new style), he sent before daybreak for the prince, who rose out of his bed and went to him in his night-gown. The king seemed to have something earnest to say to him, and so endeavored to raise himself on his pillow; but his spirits were so spent that he had not strength to make his words audible. He lingered for a few hours, and then ” went to his rest upon the day of rest, presently after sermon was done.”

An hour or two afterwards Charles was proclaimed king at Theobald’s, where the ministers had assembled, and on the following day he was proclaimed in London. Charles was then twenty-five years of age, and but for the influence of the latest of his father’s favourites, the violent, insolent, and dissolute Buckingham, i/o error 1784 reklamer have come to the throne with a better promise of a peaceful i/o error 1784 reklamer a happy reign. But while Buckingham supported the pretensions of the pioneer 4200 error-11 for his own ends, Charles himself combined the Stuart shiftiness and weakness of character with the Tudor arrogance, and was soon ready to claim from the parliament what would not have been granted to Elizabeth, though a remarkable advance in the assertion of freedom had been made during the twenty-two years since her death. The nation had became conscious both of its rights and its strength, and the spirit of freedom kept pace with the growing wealth and intelligence of the people.

There was nothing in the personal character of Charles which entitled him to the place he has so long held in English history, but the circumstances of his position made him prominent. His combined weakness and assumption placed him in opposition to the great national struggle, which became imminent directly the divinely instituted right of kings to arbitrary power was reasserted. Had his end been less tragic, i/o error 1784 reklamer, or the events of the contest less momentous, Charles would have been neither hero nor martyr. His public character has been made as it were to reflect the colour of the times by those who regard him as representing a certain principle opposed to anarchy, whereas, he represented no principle but that of autocracy and the aggrandizement of the crown, i/o error 1784 reklamer. Had he succeeded, he would perhaps have attempted to drive the nation back to the time when it was declared that laws xampp error 1 couldnt start apache concessions to the people from the monarch who granted, i/o error 1784 reklamer, and was therefore above, the laws; and this theory might have been held, while in practice a considerable degree of national and personal liberty would have been obtained. The English people, however, had grown into a free constitution. They had no intention of struggling for concessions any more. They determined to have political liberty established and secured by measures which were effectual both with sovereign and subject.

There is something in i/o error 1784 reklamer character of Charles and in the real facts of the case to mislead a superficial observer, i/o error 1784 reklamer, and at first to lend a certain plausibility to the attractive picture of him which the softening influences i/o error 1784 reklamer time and the imaginations of his sympathizers have substituted for the real man. Every one is acquainted with the conception of him which is still perhaps the prevalent one in the majority of English drawing-rooms, as a stately English gentleman of the most refined tastes and habits, of highly cultivated mind, deep religious feelings, and the purest morals, who unfortunately entertained (or rather was educated into) notions of absolute authority, which were inconsistent with the predominant spirit of the age, though justified by precedents, and who, after making every concession,consistent with right to the exorbitant demands of his rebellious subjects, resisted them by arms in strict self-defence, and more than expiated any errors he had committed in his lifetime by his heroic run time error 217 saintly bearing on the scaffold.

Such a representation could be supported only by the widest deductions from the most imperfect premises, by a total disregard of all but a few isolated facts, and a violation of all the sequences and natural relation of events. The truth is that Charles was brought up in a court where the influence’s were coarse and peculiarly demoralizing, and that he observed a much greater decorum of life than had been displayed by James is so far to his credit, i/o error 1784 reklamer, but it may be doubted whether a certain coldness and formality of temperament and a more cultivated taste had not a large share in this superiority. It seems difficult to believe that any man could retain the infamous Buckingham as prime favorite and close friend, and yet have a deep and practical moral sense.

The errors of Charles’ character may perhaps be partially extenuated by remembering the associations of his youth, and the political crimes of which he was guilty may be referred to the self-importance which he learned from his father and from the tuition of the churchmen to whom his education had been confided. When he was a child his brother Harry, prince of Wales, was living, and he was kept in the back-ground till he was twelve years old. He was also weakly in constitution, and thus had learned to live much within himself, and so may have become reserved and uncommunicative. Thus disposed he would learn from his tutors, and the books to which they directed him, to look upon government as an absolute function of the sovereign. His education was casuistical, his way of looking at things had less relation to the practical duties and obligations of real life than to a narrow standard of conscience and self-assertion, to which those duties were subordinated. As he grew up his reserve was caused less by self diffidence than self-conceit. He evidently believed that he had a talent for diplomacy, while he was continually imperilling the nation by acts and words which showed no regard for the opinion or the claims of others. His belief in his own wisdom was little less profound than that of James. The overt act of a lie seemed frequently the best method of incommunicativeness, and the lying of Charles differed in this essential point from that of Elizabeth, that it did not represent any occasional or partial sentiment of his mind, but was entirely external to his whole nature, and was justified probably to his conscience by the casuistical argument that its perpetration was an essential agency in a policy which, as a whole, represented his real views, and, indeed, to his eyes, the cause of truth.

Charles appears to have been incapable of seeing the falsity of his own conduct, i/o error 1784 reklamer, or the results of his own arrogant demands, and so sanguine was his nature that it was only when he had lost all, that he gave up the direct opposition, and the tortuous plotting by which he sought to gain his ends. He was true, however, to his own autocratic assertions to the last, and there was after all a nobility in the man which enabled him to bear his reverses, and even to go to the scaffold with a high and dignified bearing. Reduced to complete inaction runtime error mplab inexorable necessity, he was saved from the consequences of his own ill-advised action. His self-confidence, which in prosperity assumed such an unamiable and unattractive form, exhibited,under these altered circumstances, all the aspect of dignified self-respect. His proud nature fell back upon itself, and the “wise passiveness” thus imposed upon him, became his greatest strength, and has proved the best foundation for his reputation in the eyes of posterity. The more complete the restraint, the more hopeless his prospects, the more helpless his “gray discrowned head,” the nobler became his bearing, the brighter grew his fame; until at last in “that i/o error 1784 reklamer scene” at Whitehall, when every earthly hope had vanished, and all possibility of weak or unworthy plotting had ceased, he was more completely royal in his demeanor,and more worthy of our respect, than at any other epoch of his life. At that moment he dropped the cloak of a constitutional king, which he had hitherto affected to wear, and died with a steady eye and unfaltering tongue, asserting his real creed that “a share in government” is “nothing pertaining” to the people.

There can be little doubt that Charles was in the main a fond and faithful husband, and he was certainly a good and affectionate father, and to these domestic virtues he deservedly owes part of that reputation for virtue which has been so long maintained. His court was decorum and virtue it self in comparison with that i/o error 1784 reklamer. Drunkenness disappeared, there were no scandalous favorites, Buckingham only retaining his ascendency, i/o error 1784 reklamer, and the king manifested his notions of the royal dignity by a stately reserve. Charles also had an artistic taste, and not only collected pictures but encouraged Rubens and Vandyke; he was a judge of literature, i/o error 1784 reklamer, and retained Jonson as his laureate, read Shakespeare and Spenser, and was friendly to Sandys, May, and Carew. Walpole was of opinion that the celebrated festivals of Louis XIV. were copied from the masques and shows at Whitehall, in its time the most polite court in Europe; yet Charles constantly provoked dislike because of his arrogant, contemptuous and irritable manner, and especially by his offensive speeches. His reformations, except in regard to the more scandalous doings of the court of James, appear to have been little more than external, i/o error 1784 reklamer. Mrs. Hutchinson, while she speaks highly of the improvement, intimates that i/o error 1784 reklamer was still a great deal of private license, and though it is asserted that Charles discountenanced swearing, perhaps even this was only by comparison. It is reported of Charles II., that in answer to a remonstrance made to him on the oaths in which he indulged, he exclaimed in avery irreverent and unfilial manner, “Oaths! Why, your martyr was a greater swearer than I am.”

Unluckily for Charles’ dignity in the eyes of his attendants and his ultimate welfare with the people, there was a contest of irritability too often going forward between him and his consort Henrietta, who was of a petulant and violent temper. When not offended, however, i/o error 1784 reklamer, the queen’s manners were lively and agreeable.

We are to imagine the time of the court divided between her majesty’s coquetries and accomplishments and Catholic confessors, and the king’s books and huntings and political anxieties, Buckingham, as long as he lived being the foremost figure next to himself, and Laud and Strafford domineering after Buckingham. In the morning the ladies embroidered, and read huge romances, or practised their music and dancing (the latter sometimes with great noise in the queen’s apartments), or they went forth to steal a visit to a fortune-teller, or to see a picture by Rubens, or to sit for a portrait to Vandyke, who married one of them. In the evening there was a masque, or a ball, or a concert, or gaming; the Sucklings, theWallers, and Carews repeated their soft things, or their verses; and “Sacharissa” (Lady Dorothy Sydney) doubted Mr. Waller’s love, and glanced towards sincere-looking Henry Spenser; Lady Carlisle flirted with the Riches and Herberts; Lady Morton looked grave; the queen threw round the circle bright glances and French mots; and the king criticized a picture with Vandyke or Lord Pembroke, or a poem with Mr. Sandys (who, besides being a poet, was gentleman of his majesty’s chamber), or perhaps he took Hamilton or Strafford into a corner, and talked not so wisely against the House of Commons. It was upon the whole a grave and graceful court, not without an undercurrent of intrigue.

Source: Pictures and Royal Portraits illustrative of English and Scottish History by Thomas Archer. London

Continuing

King James I of England.

Mary I, also Maria, the Catholic or the Bloody Mary.

The character of Henry VIII. Tudor King of England

Queen Elizabeth the first. The days of Queen Bess. The Virgin Queen.

Relics associated with Queen Elisabeth. The Golden Prayer-book.

The offer of the crown to Lady Jane Grey.

Mary Stuart, Queen of France and Scotland

Queen Elisabeth knighting Drake on Board of the Golden Hind 16th c.

The english boy king Edward VI. Son of Henry VIII. The Tudor.

Charles I and The English Civil War. Cavaliers against Roundheads.

Oliver Cromwell. The Protector. History of England

The Escape of Charles II. with Jane Lane. Charles as William Jackson.

Frances Carr, Countess of Somerset, involved in a famous scandal.

Abbotsford – Relics and antiquarian treasures of Sir Sap error 131-93 Scott.

The dress of the Anglo-Saxons. Costumes i/o error 1784 reklamer Decorations by Henry Shaw.

Charles Howard, First Earl of Nottingham English statesman.

The Art of cutting in England. The Norman Period.

Fashion in the time of William I. The Conquerer & Matilda of Flanders.

King James I of England. Baroque era. 17th century clothing

King James I of England (–).

Son of Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots.

James Stuart was as James VI from King of Scotland, and since until his death in addition as James I King of England and King of Ireland. He was the driving force of the witch hunts in Scotland as well as later in England, he wrote for this purpose a treatise. He was born on June 19, as the son of Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots, and her second husband Henry Stewart, Duke of Albany, better known as Lord Darnley, in Edinburgh. He was baptized in Stirling Castle and received the name Charles James. On behalf of Jacob, a translation of the Bible was made in the English language, which first appeared in and had a profound influence on English literature. As King James Version it is still under English Christians in use.

It was sixteen years after the victory over the Spanish Armada, and nearly eighteen since Mary Queen of Scots had been beheaded at I/o error 1784 reklamer Castle, after that long and severe imprisonment which made her a cripple and marred her great beauty. Leicester too had paid the penalty of his audacity and his treachery. Essex had perished on the scaffold, a fallen favorite, i/o error 1784 reklamer, after a brilliant career as soldier, scholar, and general, i/o error 1784 reklamer. Drake, Hawkins, and the great opponents of the Armada, had gone to their rest. Raleigh and Cecil remained with some others in high office; but Elizabeth had outlived most of her early courtiers, and now she too lay dying, an old woman of seventy, who after a reign of forty-five years sat on cushions upon the floor at her palace at Richmond, neither rising nor lying down, her finger almost always in her mouth, her eyes open and fixed on the ground. On the 21st March,she was laid in her bed partly i/o error 1784 reklamer force, i/o error 1784 reklamer, and listened earnestly to the prayers of Whitgift, Archbishop of Canterbury. The most authentic account of the last hours of the great queen says, that on the 22d of March secretary Cecil, with the lord admiral and the lord-keeper, approached and asked her to name her successor. She started and said, “I told you my seat has been the seat of kings; I will have no rascal to succeed me.” The lords not understanding this dark speech looked one on the other, but at length Cecil boldly asked her what she meant by those words “no rascal?” She replied that a king should succeed her, and who could that be but her cousin of Scotland? They asked her whether this was her absolute resolution? where upon she begged them to trouble her no more Notwithstanding, some hours after, when the Archbishop of Canterbury and other divines had been with her, and left her in a manner speechless, the lords repaired to her again, and Cecil besought her, if she would have the King of Scots to succeed her, she would show a sign unto them. Whereat, suddenly heaving herself up in her bed, she held both her hands joined together over her head in manner of a crown, i/o error 1784 reklamer. Then she sank down, fell into a dose, and at three o’clock on the morning of the 24th of March died in a stupor, without any apparent pain of mind or body.

The “dark saying” of Elizabeth is still far from having been explained. In those long cogitations, during which she had her finger in her mouth and her eyes fixed on the floor, her wandering thoughts must have been busy, i/o error 1784 reklamer. Not without bitterness could she have contemplated the succession of that son of her enemy and rival, who assuredly she must have regarded as “a rascal” in the sense of his unkingly character and the want of any quality which fitted him to bear rule in England. In duplicity James Stuart was perhaps the equal of Elizabeth herself, in dissimulation he would have been a match for his own mother, as he was a match for Canon error 502 envoys, for Catholic plotters, and for Scottish i/o error 1784 reklamer. But in addition he was altogether mean in conduct, conceited of his crude learning, cowardly and vulgar indisposition, and with a doting and foolish fondness for the favorites of his caprice, which excited the disgust of his court and people, and the contempt and reviling of foreign ambassadors.

Bacon, who was then seeking power and eminence, spoke of the time of Elizabeth’s death as “a fine morning before sun rising,” meaning there by the rising of James; and if the heir to the English throne had possessed the qualifications of a king, the simile would scarcely have been misplaced, for to what a splendid inheritance he was called! The country was powerful’ and feared abroad, and was prosperous at home; agriculture had revived and was in a flourishing condition; trade was vastly extended by the commerce which the great maritime adventurers had opened up in distant parts of the world; the monopolies which had for so long crippled business dealings had for the most i/o error 1784 reklamer been removed at the urgent demand of parliament; the noble age of literature had progressed, and following the scholars and poets of the time of Henry, Sir Thomas More, Surrey, and the father of Sir Thomas Wyatt, a host of brilliant wits and writers, like Sidney, Raleigh, Spencer, Lord Dorset, and the immortal Shakespeare, had contributed to make the literature of England a national inheritance, independent of Greek and Roman models.
This literature was developed far more during the reign of James, for in the previous half century, though it had been partition table error 110 in strength and variety of expression, its progress had been delayed by wars and persecutions, and even in the latter portion of the reign of Elizabeth, the punishments which followed assumed detection of plots against the throne and the state, revived the policy of the axe and the block. Indeed these last years of a great period were darkened by the intrigues of men in power, to maintain their influence by implicating their rivals in treasons,which were often as it seems mere snares, invented to entrap dangerous men to deeds for which they might afterwards be tried and condemned to death or long imprisonment.

It should be placed to the account of any estimate of the character of James, that he was born within the shadow of a dark and murderous coalition,— that he was a neglected orphan, never knowing what desperate or unfriendly enterprise might work i/o error 1784 reklamer ruin,— that he lived ever amidst plots and counter-plots involving the lives of men, and often sustained by treachery, perjury, and bloodshed,—that the stern and fanatical preachers by whom his youth was watched were themselves necessarily associated with men whose authority was sustained by violence and falsehood. Yet learning and literature had advanced in Scotland, i/o error 1784 reklamer, and even commerce had been extended by the enterprise of the people, and by their intimate connection with foreign courts. With scanty produce, and a restrictive legislation which almost prohibited individual enterprise, the trade of the country had greatly increased, i/o error 1784 reklamer. The impetus given to shipbuilding by James sprers.eu his son James V., who was a bold and skillful sailor, had developed commerce and enhanced the comfort of the people, who would probably have made far greater progress but for the turbulent aristocracy who governed them, i/o error 1784 reklamer. The style of living in Scotland was rude and scanty as compared with that of England, so that James on his journey may well have looked forward to his new kingdom as a land of plenty, and may be excused for expressing astonishment at the luxury, order, and refinement of the noblemen’s houses at which he was a guest, and particularly at the palatial and splendid seat of Cecil at Theobalds. Fynes Moryson, who visited Scotland insays, ” Myself was at a knight’s house i/o error 1784 reklamer had many servants to attend him, that brought in his meat with their heads covered with blue caps, the table being more than half furnished with great platters of porridge, each having a little piece of sodden meat, and when the table i/o error 1784 reklamer served the servants sat down with us; but the upper mess instead of porridge had a pullet, i/o error 1784 reklamer, with some prunes in the broth, and I observed no art of cookery, or furniture of household stuff, but rather rude neglect of both, though myself and my companions, sent from the governor of Berwick about Bordering affairs,were entertained after their best manner.” Describing the general diet of the country he tells us that their bread was chiefly hearth cakes of oats, and in the towns wheaten bread, “which for the most part was bought oki 190 fatal error courtiers, gentlemen, and the best sort of citizens. The drink of the upper classes was wines sweetened with comfits after the French fashion. There seemed to be no inns, but the citizens brewed ale, which was the common drink for festivity or hospitality. The bed places were built in the wall, with doors to open and shut, in a similar manner to those dormitories which are still occasionally to be seen in cottages in Scotland, but even in country mansions the beds were of straw.

The character of James Stuart has been so admirably depicted by Sir Walter Scott in The Fortunes of Nigel, that it might be sufficient to refer to that inimitable story for an estimate of the manners and disposition of the king. The great novelist treats his majesty certainly with as much consideration as he appears to i/o error 1784 reklamer deserved, and refrains from presenting us with a portrait as coarse as that which was drawn by some of the contemporaries of James himself, or which may be obtained by an examination of his own royal records. He was a man of small and mean extremes. At once a pedant and a conceited dunce, a pretender to learning 502 error postfix wit, and a devourer of flattery which would have been nauseous to any but a person of coarse and depraved taste; a man grossly selfish and unscrupulous, and yet one who lavished on the favorites with whom aion 1024 error was disgustingly familiar, wealth and station which eminent scholars and statesmen might have sought for in vain. Full of subterfuges, and yet so constantly in dread of plots that he wore a quilted dagger-proof doublet, and revived the torture in order to wring from innocent or unwilling witnesses confessions of what they did not know or were too brave to reveal; a professed peacemaker, who yet was continually making enemies by his want of good faith; a loud professor of religion, who, with low and grovelling propensities and i/o error 1784 reklamer hifty tyrannous disposition, lowered the whole tone of the court to a dangerous profligacy, and injured the progress of the Reformation and the cause of piety itself by a pretense of discussing matters which he afterwards settled by declaring his divine right to be not only head of the state but head of the church, so that he might at once persecute the Papists whom he feared for their supposed plots,and the Puritans whom he hated because of the rigor with which they had governed him in his youth.

During the early period of his life he had been permitted a show of power, while Scotland was actually ruled vexim db error connect failed a knot of fierce and unscrupulous conspirators. As King of England he was cajoled and flattered by less fierce and perhaps only a little more scrupulous courtiers in order to gain their own ends, while the men who resetscore.amxx run time error guided the state watched each other with a growing suspicion which at last in successive reigns led to the temporary ruin of the country. It took a terrible revolution,the execution of one king, the banishment of another, and the prayer of the people for a foreign governor, rs 485 framing error counteract the deadly effects of the Stuart rule in England. To undo the work of flatterers, favorites, and plotting statesmen, much noble and innocent blood had to i/o error 1784 reklamer shed, and ultimately both England and Scotland were saved only as by fire. Elizabeth must surely have held James in small estimation. She had at one time sought to have him in safe-keeping in England, and had afterwards, it is thought, been concerned in his being shut up in Ruthven Castle, whence he contrived to be liberated by persuading his keepers into a belief that he was not at all angry at their keeping him in duresse. Whether his pusillanimity and the i/o error 1784 reklamer indifference with which he regarded the imprisonment, and afterwards the execution, of his mother, satisfied Elizabeth that he was her slave, it is not easy to say, but he certainly exhibited scarcely ordinary emotion, and was i/o error 1784 reklamer quite willing that Mary should be kept captive and suffering in England, that he might occupy the throne. At the very time that Elizabeth was preparing the commission to try Mary at Fotheringay he told Courcelles, the French ambassador, that he loved his mother as much as nature and duty commanded, but he could not like her conduct, and knew very well that she had no more good-will towards him than towards the Queen of England, adding among other things that he had seen letters in her handwriting which proved her ill-will towards him, and i/o error 1784 reklamer he knew very well that she had made frequent attempts to appoint a regent in Scotland and deprive him of the throne. This is an illustration of the pettishness, pedantry, and suspicious selfishness of the boy, and the man fulfilled the promise of his youth. The ambassadors of James at the court of England were creatures of Elizabeth as much as they were his representatives. Courcelles indeed complained that counter terrorist cs_office king of Scotland did not seem to have much heart at any embassy in his mother’s favour, and except on two occasions he appears to have regarded her only as a woman of a different religion who was an obstacle to his own ambition. When he did at last venture to make a more spirited remonstrance, Elizabeth was so enraged that he wrote a humble letter of apology. When the execution was determined on, and James for a little while displayed a more becoming conduct by urging his ambassador, Gray, to spare no pains nor plainness, but to be no longer reserved in dealing for his mother, things might have gone differently but that Gray himself was in the interests of Elizabeth, and was in reality helping Walsingham and Leicester to send Mary to the scaffold. The former wrote to James expressing surprise that he should interfere to rescue his mother, since as a Protestant prince he ought to feel that her life was inconsistent with the safety of the reformed churches in England and Scotland. James, with a sudden show of dignity, recalled his ambassadors, and that was all, except i/o error 1784 reklamer he issued an order to the Scottish clergy to remember his mother in their public prayers, and with very few exceptions they refused to pray for an idolater and a Papist.

James was then nearly twenty-one years old. Some weeks after his mother’s execution he received a visit from Sir Robert Carew, who had been sent by Elizabeth to make excuses, to declare that the deed had been done without her knowledge and consent, to assure him of her anxious concern for his welfare, and to express her trust that he would consider every one as his own enemy who endeavored to excite any animosity between them on account of the present accident. After a hysterical outburst and cry for vengeance the royal orphan accepted an increased pension, some deer, and a leash of hounds.

Years afterwards this weak, selfish, and unfeeling man displayed even less emotion at the death of his eldest son, the accomplished Prince Henry, and even hurried away the mourning in order to celebrate a series of court entertainments, balls, and masques, for which under such circumstances he gained the wrath and detestation of the people.

Before the death of Elizabeth he had married the Princess Anne, daughter of the King of Denmark, and when, as soon as Elizabeth had breathed her last, Sir Robert Carew stole out of the palace of Richmond and posted to Scotland with the news, James was ready to set out for England without her, as delays were dangerous. He was too poor to commence his journey till Cecil sent him some money, the council declining to grant his request that the crown jewels might be sent for the queen.

He was full of alacrity to commence the work of ruling the English, though he had held little kingly authority in his own country. During his progress he ordered i/o error 1784 reklamer coin to be struck, and was anxious to attend the funeral of “the queen defunct,” as he called the late Elizabeth. Cecil and the lords were too sagacious to have him present on that solemn occasion however. It is astonishing that they could have endured his prating folly and vulgar self-assertion, but he gave ample evidence that he meant to make the utmost of prerogative. “Do I make the judges? Do I make the bishops?” he asked. “Then, God’s wounds! I make what likes me law and gospel;” and this he endeavored to carry out to the end of his reign, i/o error 1784 reklamer, and would have succeeded, but that the people and the parliament had learned freedom, and he was too much of a coward and liked the throne too well to risk disaffection. His belief in witchcraft, and the dread of plots against himself, amounted to an unreasonable terror, and was almost as suggestive of his base nature as his captious choice of favorites, and the indifference and even gratuitous injury with which he discarded and then ruined those of whom he had tired, as he discarded the once all-powerful Rochester for the equally infamous but more accomplished Buckingham.

From the book: Pictures and Royal Portraits illustrative of English and Scottish History by Thomas Archer. London

Related to:
History of England

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i/o error 1784 reklamer

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