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Cannabis Culture MagazineMarihemp Network Gallery&#;:: Thailand. extrajudicial drug-war killings of innocent sprers.eund War on Drugs Turns Murderous, Killed This Month -- Human Rights Groups Denounce Death Squads, ExecutionsSoutheast Asia: Probe into Thai Drug War Killings Getting Underway
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    Death squad

    Armed group that conducts extrajudicial killings

    German-employed death squad murders Soviet civilians,

    A death squad is an armed group whose primary activity is carrying out extrajudicial killings or forced disappearances as part of political repression, genocide, ethnic cleansing, or revolutionary terror. Except in rare cases in which they are formed by an insurgency, domestic or foreign governments actively participate in, support, or ignore the death squad's activities. Death squads are distinct from assassination from their permanent organization and the larger number of victims (typically thousands or more) who may not be prominent individuals. Other violence, such as rape, torture, arson, or bombings may be carried out alongside murders.[1][2] They may comprise a secret police force, paramilitarymilitia groups, government soldiers, policemen, or combinations thereof. They may also be organized as vigilantes, bounty hunters, mercenaries, or contract killers. When death squads are not controlled by the state, they may consist of insurgent forces or organized crime, such as the ones used by cartels.

    History[edit]

    Although the term "death squad" did not rise to notoriety until the activities of such groups became widely known in Central and South America during the s and 80s, death squads have been employed under different guises throughout history. The term was first used by the fascistIron Guard in Romania. It officially installed Iron Guard death squads in in order to kill political enemies.[3] It was also used during the Battle of Algiers by Paul Aussaresses.[4]

    Cold War usage[edit]

    In Latin America, death squads first appeared in Brazil where a group called Esquadrão da Morte (literally "Death Squad") emerged in the s; they subsequently spread to Argentina and Chile in the s, and they were later used in Central America during the s. Argentina used extrajudicial killings as a way of crushing the liberal and communist opposition to the military junta during the "Dirty War" of the s. For example, Alianza Anticomunista Argentina was a far-right death squad mainly active during the "Dirty War". The Chilean military regime of – also committed such killings. See Operation Condor for examples.

    During the Salvadoran Civil War, death squads achieved notoriety on 24 March , when a sniper assassinated Archbishop Óscar Romero as he said Mass inside a convent chapel. In December , three American nuns, Ita Ford, Dorothy Kazel, and Maura Clarke, and a lay worker, Jean Donovan, were gang raped and murdered by a military unit later found to have been acting on specific orders. Death squads were instrumental in killing hundreds of real and suspected Communists. Priests who were spreading liberation theology, such as Father Rutilio Grande, were often targeted as well. The murderers were found to have been soldiers of the Salvadoran military, which was receiving U.S. funding and military advisors during the Carter administration. These events prompted outrage in the U.S. and led to a temporary cutoff in military aid at the end of his presidency.[5] Death Squad activity stretched well into the Reagan years (–) as well.[citation needed]

    Honduras also had death squads active through the s, the most notorious of which was the army unit Battalion Hundreds of people, teachers, politicians, and union leaders were assassinated by government-backed forces. Battalion received substantial training from the United States Central Intelligence Agency.[6]

    In Southeast Asia, extrajudicial killings were conducted by both sides during the Vietnam War.

    After being caught dumping the bodies of his victims during the Tet Offensive in Saigon, Nguyễn Văn Lém, the commander of a Viet Cong unit tasked with murdering South Vietnamese police officers and their families, was extrajudicially executed on camera by Police General Nguyễn Ngọc Loan on 1 February

    Recent use[edit]

    As of [update], death squads have continued to be active in several locations, including Chechnya,[7]Afghanistan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Central African Republic, Nigeria, Colombia, Iraq, Yemen, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, South Sudan, Syria, Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar and the Philippines, among others.

    During the Russian invasion of Ukraine, Russian soldiers captured by the Ukrainian army stated that Russian death squads have been activated by Vladimir Putin to kill soldiers that returned after entering Ukraine. When contacting their parents, they learnt that they have started making preparations for the soldier's funeral. As a result, Russian soldiers who decide not to fight chose to surrender rather than desert.[8][9][10]

    By continent[edit]

    Africa[edit]

    Egypt[edit]

    Main article: Extrajudicial executions in Egypt

    The Iron Guard of Egypt was a pro-palace political movement or a secret palace organization of the Kingdom of Egypt which assassinated Farouk of Egypt's enemies or a secret unit with a licence to kill, which was believed to personally take orders from Farouk. It was involved in several deadly incidents.

    Ivory Coast[edit]

    Death squads are reportedly active in this country.[11][12]

    This has been condemned by the US[13] but appears to be difficult to stop. Moreover, there is no proof as to whom is behind the killings.[14]

    In an interview with the Pan-African magazine "Jeune Afrique", Laurent Gbagbo accused one of the opposition leaders, Alassane Ouattara (ADO), to be the main organizer of the media frenzy around his wife's involvement in the killing squads. He also successfully sued and won, in French courts, in cases against the French newspapers that made the accusations.[15]

    Kenya[edit]

    In December , Kenyan Anti-Terrorism Police Unit officers confessed to Al-Jazeera that they were responsible for almost of the extrajudicial killings. The murders reportedly totalled several hundred homicides every year. They included the assassination of Abubaker Shariff Ahmed "Makaburi", an Al-Shabaab associate from Kenya, who was among 21 Islamic extremists allegedly murdered by the Kenyan police force since According to the agents, they resorted to the killing after the Kenya Police could not successfully prosecute terror suspects. In doing so, the officers indicated that they were acting on the direct orders of Kenya's National Security Council, which consisted of the Kenyan President, Deputy President, Chief of the Defence Forces, Inspector General of Police, National Security Intelligence Service Director, Cabinet Secretary of Interior, and Principal Secretary of Interior. Kenyan President Uhuru Kenyatta and the National Security Council of Kenya members denied operating an extrajudicial assassination program. Additionally, the officers suggested that Western security agencies provided intelligence for the program, including the whereabouts and activities of government targets- alleging that the British government supplied further logistics in the form of equipment and training. One Kenyan officer within the council's General Service Unit also indicated that Israeli instructors taught them how to kill. The head of the International Bar Association, Mark Ellis, cautioned that any such involvement by foreign nations would constitute a breach of international law. The United Kingdom and Israel denied participation in the Kenyan National Security Council's reported death squads, with the UK Foreign Office indicating that it had approached the Kenyan authorities over the charges.[16]

    South Africa[edit]

    Beginning in the s, the African National Congress (ANC) and its ally, the South African Communist Party (SACP), and the Pan-Africanist Congress (PAC), began a campaign to topple South Africa's National Party (NP)-controlled Apartheid Government. Both the ANC's armed wing, Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK), and South African security forces routinely engaged in bombings and targeted killings, both at home and abroad. Particularly notorious apartheid death squads were the Civil Cooperation Bureau (CCB) and the South African Police's counter-insurgency unit C10, commanded by Colonel Eugene de Kock and based at the Vlakplaas farm west of Pretoria, itself also a center for torture of prisoners.

    After the end of Apartheid, death squad violence conducted by both the National Party and the ANC was investigated by the Truth and Reconciliation Commission.

    Uganda[edit]

    From to , Ugandan dictator Idi Amin set up death squads to murder enemies of the state.

    North America[edit]

    Dominican Republic[edit]

    Rafael Trujillo's Dominican government employed a death squad, known as la 42 and led by Miguel Angel Paulino, that tooled around in a stylish red Packard called the Carro de la Muerte (Death Car).[17] During the year regime of Joaquín Balaguer, the Frente Democrático Anticomunista y Antiterrorista, most known as La Banda Colorá, continued the practices of la 42. He was also known for having the SIM to kill Haitians in the Parsley massacre.

    Haiti[edit]

    Main article: Tonton Macoute

    The Tonton Macoute was a paramilitary force created in by Haitian dictator François "Papa Doc" Duvalier that murdered 30, to 60, Haitians.

    Mexico[edit]

    Cristero rebels publicly hanged on telegraph poles in Jalisco, Mexico. The bodies often remained on the poles until the puebloor town renounced public religious practice.

    In a way similar to the American Indian Wars, the Centralist Republic of Mexico struggled against Apache raids. Between and , only 15 years after the Mexican War of Independence and in the midst of the Texan Revolution, the Mexican state governments of Sonora and Chihuahua (that border with the U.S. states of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona ) put a bounty on the Apache bands that were in the area. In the case of Chihuahua the bounty attracted "bounty hunters" from the United States, that were often Anglo Americans, runaway slaves and even from other Indian tribes. It was paid based on Apache scalps, pesos per warrior, 50 pesos per woman, and 25 pesos per child.[18] As historian Donald E. Worcester wrote: "The new policy attracted a diverse group of men, including Anglos, runaway slaves led by Seminole John Horse, and Indians — Kirker used Delawares and Shawnees; others, such as Terrazas, used Tarahumaras; and Seminole Chief Coacoochee led a band of his own people who had fled from Indian Territory.".[19]

    During Benito Juarez's regime and his comeback as president, he used a death squad to kill Maximilian I of Mexico, Tomás Mejía, and Miguel Miramón for treason and reforms Maximilian made and for his support to French emperor Napoleon III. One of the soldiers on the death squad named Aureliano Blanquet would then later be sentenced to death by firing squad under Francisco I. Madero 45 years later in Francisco was then later executed a few months later in

    After the Mexican Revolution[edit]

    Main article: Cristero War

    For more than seven decades following the Mexican Revolution, Mexico was a one-party state ruled by the Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI). During this era, death squad tactics were routinely used against suspected enemies of the state.

    During the s and s, the PRI's founder, President Plutarco Elías Calles, used death squads against Mexico's Roman Catholic majority in the Cristero War. Calles explained his reasons in a private telegram to the Mexican Ambassador to the French Third Republic, Alberto J. Pani. "Catholic Church in Mexico is a political movement, and must be eliminated free of religious hypnotism which fools the people within one year without the sacraments, the people will forget the faith"[20]

    Calles and his adherents used the Mexican Army and police, as well as paramilitary forces like the Red Shirts, to abduct, torture, and execute priests, nuns, and actively religious laity. Mexican Catholics were also routinely hanged from telegraph poles along the railroad lines. Prominent victims of the Mexican State's campaign against Catholicism include the teenager Jose Sanchez del Rio, the Jesuit priest Father Miguel Pro, and the Christian PacifistAnacleto González Flores (see also Saints of the Cristero War).

    In response, an armed revolt against the Mexican State, the Cristero War, began in Composed largely of peasant volunteers and commanded by retired General Enrique Gorostieta Velarde, the Cristeros were also responsible for atrocities. Among them were the assassination of former Mexican President Álvaro Obregón, train robberies, and violent attacks against rural teachers. The uprising largely ended after the Holy See and the Mexican State negotiated a compromise agreement. Refusing to lay down his arms despite offers of amnesty, General Gorostieta was killed in action by the Mexican Army in Jalisco on 2 June Following the cessation of hostilities, more than 5, Cristeros were summarily executed by Mexican security forces. The events of the Cristero War are depicted in the film For Greater Glory.

    During the Cold War[edit]

    Main article: Mexican Dirty War

    During the s, s, s, and s, death squads continued to be used against anti-PRI activists, both Marxists and social conservatives. One example of this is the Tlatelolco massacre, in which an anti-regime protest rally was attacked by security forces in Mexico City. After this event, paramilitary groups like "Los Halcones" (The Hawks) and the "Brigada blanca" (White brigade) were used to attack, hunt and exterminate political dissidents.

    Allegations have been made by both journalists and American law enforcement of collusion between senior PRI statesmen and the Mexican drug cartels. It has even been alleged that, under PRI rule, no drug traffickers were ever successful without the permission of the Mexican State. If the same drug trafficker fell from favor, however, Mexican law enforcement would be ordered to move against their operation, as happened to Pablo Acosta Villarreal in Drug lords like Ernesto Fonseca Carrillo, Rafael Caro Quintero, and Juan José Esparragoza Moreno would use the Dirección Federal de Seguridad as a death squad to kill Drug Enforcement Administration agents and Federal Judicial Police commanders who investigated or destroyed drug plantations in the s and s in Mexico. One example was the murder (after torture) of DEA agent Kiki Camarena, who was killed in Guadalajara for his part in the Rancho Bufalo raid. The DFS also organized death squads to kill journalists including Manuel Buendía who was killed by orders of DFS chief José-Antonio Zorrilla.

    Regime change and "drug war tactics"[edit]

    Main article: Mexican drug war

    By the early s, the PRI started to lose the grip on its absolute political power, however, its corruption became so pervasive that Juárez Cartel boss Amado Carrillo Fuentes was even able to purchase a window in Mexico's air defense system. During this period, his airplanes were permitted to smuggle narcotics into the United States without the interference of the Mexican Air Force. As a result, Carillo Fuentes became known as "The Lord of the Skies." During the s drug cartels were on the rise in Mexico and groups like the Gulf Cartel would form death squads like Los Zetas to suppress, control, and uproot rival cartel factions.

    The PRI also used death squad tactics against the Zapatista Army of National Liberation in the Chiapas conflict. In , forty-five people were killed by a Mexican security forces in Chenalhó, Chiapas.[21][22]

    In , however, during an internal power struggle between former President Carlos Salinas de Gortari and President Zedillo, the PRI was peacefully voted out from power in the Mexican general election, until when they partially regained their influence and power, only to lose again in the Mexican general election. It is also alleged that, during the time they first lost the presidency, some of the most powerful PRI members were supporting and protecting drug cartels that they used as death squads against their criminal and political rivals, with it being one of the real reasons the National Action Party government accepted to start the Mexican drug war against the Cartels.[23][24] However, it is also alleged that during this period of time the turmoil of war has been used by the parties in power to exterminate even more political dissidents, activists and their own rivals. An example of this is the case of the forced disappearance and assassination of 43 activist rural students from the Ayotzinapa Teachers' College, in the hands of police officers colluded with the "Guerreros Unidos" drug cartel. Six years later in , it was confirmed that members from the Mexican Army base in town had worked with police and gang members to kidnap the students.[25][26][27] The Sinaloa Cartel has been known for having enforcer death squads like Gente Nueva, Los Ántrax, and enforcers forming their own death squads. From to ,the Jalisco New Generation Cartel under the name Los Matazetas did massacres in the states of Veracruz and Tamaulipas with their intention to remove the rival Los Zetas Cartel. One example was the Boca del Rio massacre in , were 35 corpses were found under a bridge in trucks covered with paper bags. Gente Nueva was accused of collaborating with the organization.

    United States[edit]

    During the California Gold Rush, the state government between and financed and organized militia units to hunt down and kill Indigenous Californians. Between and the state appropriated almost one million dollars for the activities of these militias, and between and the state appropriated another $,, almost half of which was reimbursed by the federal government.[28] By one estimate, at least 4, Californian Indians were killed in the California genocide between and [29] Contemporary historian Benjamin Madley has documented the numbers of Californian Indians killed between and ; he estimates that during this period at least 9, Californian Indians were killed by non-Indians. Most of the deaths took place in what he defined as more than massacres (defined as the "intentional killing of five or more disarmed combatants or largely unarmed noncombatants, including women, children, and prisoners, whether in the context of a battle or otherwise").[30] Some scholars contend that the state financing of these militias, as well as the US government's role in other massacres in California, such as the Bloody Island and Yontoket Massacres, in which up to or more natives were killed in each massacre, constitutes acts of genocide against the native people of California.[31][32]

    Quantrill's raid burned the town of Lawrenceand killed defenders.

    Beginning in the s, pro-slavery Bushwhackers and anti-slavery Jayhawkers waged war against each other in the Kansas Territory. Due to the horrific atrocities committed by both sides against civilians, the territory was dubbed "Bleeding Kansas". After the American Civil War began, the fraternal bloodshed increased.

    The most infamous atrocity which was committed in Kansas during the American Civil War was the Lawrence Massacre. A large force group of Partisan Rangers who were led by William Clarke Quantrill and Bloody Bill Anderson and affiliated with the Confederacy attacked and burned down the pro-Union town of Lawrence, Kansas in retaliation for the Jayhawkers' earlier destruction of Osceola, Missouri. The Bushwhackers shot down nearly unarmed men and boys.

    During the Reconstruction era, embittered Confederate veterans supported the Ku Klux Klan and similar vigilante organizations throughout the American South. The Klan and its counterparts terrorized and lynched African-Americans, northern carpetbaggers, and Southern "scalawags". This was often done with the unofficial support of the Democratic Party leadership. Historian Bruce B. Campbell has called the KKK, "one of the first proto-death squads". Campbell alleges that the difference between it and modern-day death-squads is the fact that the Ku Klux Klan was composed of members of a defeated regime rather than members of the ruling government. "Otherwise, in its murderous intent, its links to private elite interests, and its covert nature, it very closely resembles modern-day death squads."[33]

    President Ulysses S Grant pushed the Ku Klux Klan Act through Congress in and called on the United States Army to help federal officials the arrest and break up of the Klan. Klansmen were convicted and 65 men were sent to prison for as long as five years.[34][35]

    Human Rights Watch asserted in a report that the Central Intelligence Agency was backing death squads in the War in Afghanistan.[36] The report alleges that the CIA-supported Afghan Armed Forces committed "summary executions and other grave abuses without accountability" over the course of more than a dozen night raids that took place between and The death squads allegedly committed "extrajudicial killings of civilians, forced disappearances of detainees, and attacks on healthcare facilities that treat insurgents," according to Vice's reporting on the contents of the Human Rights Watch report.[37] According to the same article, "The forces are recruited, equipped, trained, and deployed under the auspices of the CIA to target insurgents from the Taliban, Al Qaeda, and ISIS." The article also states these Afghan forces have the ability to call in United States Air Force airstrikes, which have resulted in the deaths of civilians, including children, and have occurred in civilian areas, including at weddings, parks, and schools.

    In June , Los Angeles County Deputy Sheriff Austreberto "Art" Gonzalez filed a claim against the county, claiming that approximately twenty percent of the deputies operating in the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department's Compton station belonged to a secret death squad. Gonzales alleges that the group, named "The Executioners", carried out multiple extrajudicial killings over the years and that members followed initiation rituals, including being tattooed with skulls and Nazi imagery.[38][39][40]

    Central America[edit]

    El Salvador[edit]

    See also: murders of U.S. missionaries in El Salvador, Óscar Romero, and Death squads in El Salvador

    A billboard serving as a reminder of one of many massacresthat occurred during the civil war

    During the Salvadoran civil war, death squads (known in Spanish by the name of Escuadrón de la Muerte, "Squadron of Death") achieved notoriety when a sniper assassinated Archbishop Óscar Romero while he was performing Mass in March In December , three American nuns and a lay worker were gangraped and murdered by a military unit later found to have been acting on specific orders. Death squads were instrumental in killing thousands of peasants and activists. Funding for the squads came primarily from right-wing Salvadoran businessmen and landowners.[41] Because the death squads involved were found to have been soldiers of the Salvadoran Armed Forces, which were receiving U.S. arms, funding, training and advice during the Carter, Reagan and George H. W. Bush administrations, these events prompted some outrage in the U.S. Human rights activists criticized U.S. administrations for denying Salvadoran government links to the death squads. Veteran Human Rights Watch researcher Cynthia J. Arnson writes that "particularly during the years – when the killing was at its height (numbers of killings could reach as far as 35,), assigning responsibility for the violence and human rights abuses was a product of the intense ideological polarization in the United States. The Reagan administration downplayed the scale of abuse as well as the involvement of state actors. Because of the level of denial, as well as the extent of U.S. involvement with the Salvadoran military and security forces, the U.S. role in El Salvador- what was known about death squads, when it was known, and what actions the United States did or did not take to curb their abuses- became an important part of El Salvador's death squad story."[42] Some death squads, such as Sombra Negra, are still operating in El Salvador.[43]

    The Salvadoran Army's U.S.-trained Atlacatl Battalion was responsible for the El Mozote massacre where more than civilians were murdered, over half of them children, the El Calabozo massacre, and the murders of six Jesuits in [44]

    Honduras[edit]

    Honduras had death squads active through the s, the most notorious of which was Battalion 3– Hundreds of people, teachers, politicians, and union bosses were assassinated by government-backed forces. Battalion received substantial support and training from the United States Central Intelligence Agency.[45] At least 19 members were School of the Americas graduates.[46][47] Seven members, including Billy Joya, later played important roles in the administration of President Manuel Zelaya as of mid[48] Following the coup d'état, former Battalion 3–16 member Nelson Willy Mejía Mejía became Director-General of Immigration[49][50] and Billy Joya was de facto President Roberto Micheletti's security advisor.[51] Another former Battalion 3–16 member, Napoleón Nassar Herrera,[48][52] was high Commissioner of Police for the north-west region under Zelaya and under Micheletti, and also became a Secretary of Security spokesperson "for dialogue" under Micheletti.[53][54] Zelaya claimed that Joya had reactivated the death squad, with dozens of government opponents having been murdered since the ascent of the Michiletti and Lobo governments.[51]

    Guatemala[edit]

    Throughout the Guatemalan Civil War, both military and "civilian" governments utilized death squads as a counterinsurgency strategy. The use of "death squads" as a government tactic became particularly widespread after Throughout and the first three months of , within the framework of what military commentators referred to as "el-contra terror", government forces killed an estimated 8, civilians accused of "subversive" activity.[55] This marked a turning point in the history of the Guatemalan security apparatus, and brought about a new era in which mass murder of both real and suspected subversives by government "death squads" became a common occurrence in the country. A noted Guatemalan sociologist estimated the number of government killings between and at approximately 5, a year (for a total death toll of approximately 42, during the presidencies of Julio César Méndez Montenegro and Carlos Arana Osorio).[56] Killings by both official and unofficial security forces would climax in the late s and early s under the presidencies of Fernando Romeo Lucas García and Efraín Ríos Montt, with over 18, documented killings in alone.[57]

    Greg Grandin claims that "Washington, of course, publicly denied its support for paramilitarism, but the practice of political disappearances took a great leap forward in Guatemala in with the birth of a death squad created, and directly supervised, by U.S. security advisors."[58] An upsurge in rebel activity in Guatemala convinced the US to provide increased counterinsurgency assistance to Guatemala's security apparatus in the mid to late s. Documents released in details how United States military and police advisers had encouraged and assisted Guatemalan military officials in the use of repressive techniques, including helping establish a "safe house" from within the presidential palace as a location to coordinate counter insurgency activities.[59] In , it was reported by Amnesty International that this same "safe house" was in use by Guatemalan security officials to coordinate counterinsurgency activities involving the use of the "death squads."[60]

    According to a victim's brother, Mirtala Linares "He wouldn't tell us anything; he claimed they hadn't captured [Sergio], that he knew nothing of his whereabouts – and that maybe my brother had gone as an illegal alien to the United States! That was how he answered us."[61]

    Nicaragua[edit]

    Throughout the Ortega government, starting in , but escalating with the – Nicaraguan protests, Sandinista National Liberation Front government has employed death squads also known as "Turbas" or militia groups armed and aided by the National Police to attack pro-democracy protesters. The government's crackdown of lethal force was condemned by the international community, the Organization of American States, Human Rights Watch, and the local and international Catholic Church.[62][63][64]

    South America[edit]

    Argentina[edit]

    Main article: Argentine Dirty War

    Amnesty International reports that "the security forces in Argentina first started using "death squads" in late One example was Alianza Anticomunista Argentina, a far-right death squad mainly active during the "Dirty War". By the time military rule ended in some 1, people had been killed directly by "death squads", and over 9, named people and many more undocumented victims had been "disappeared"—kidnapped and murdered secretly—according to the officially appointed National Commission on Disappeared People (CONADEP).[65]

    Brazil[edit]

    The Esquadrão da Morte ("Death Squad" in Portuguese) was a paramilitary organization that emerged in the late s in the context of the Brazilian Military Dictatorship. It was the first group to have received the name "Death Squad" in Latin America, but its actions resembled traditional vigilantism as most executions were not exclusively politically related. The greater share of the political executions during the 21 years of Military Dictatorship (–) were carried out by the Brazilian Armed Forces itself. The purpose of the original "Death Squad" was, with the consent of the military government, to persecute, torture and kill suspected criminals (marginais) regarded as dangerous to society. It began in the former State of Guanabara led by Detective Mariel Mariscot, one of the "Twelve Golden Men of Rio de Janeiro's Police", and from there it spread throughout Brazil in the s. In general, its members were politicians, members of the judiciary, and police officials. As a rule, these groups were financed by members of the business community.[66]

    In the s and s, several other organizations were modeled after the s Esquadrão da Morte. The most famous such organization is Scuderie Detetive Le Cocq (English: Shield of Detective Le Cocq), named after deceased Detective Milton Le Cocq. The group was particularly active in the Brazilian Southeastern States of Guanabara and Rio de Janeiro, and remains active in the state of Espírito Santo. In the State of São Paulo, Death Squads and individual gunmen called justiceiros were pervasive and executions almost were exclusively the work of off-duty policemen. In , a police officer nicknamed "Cabo Bruno" was convicted of murdering more than 50 victims.[67]

    The "Death Squads" active under the rule of the military dictatorship continue as a cultural legacy of the Brazilian police. In the s, police officers remain linked with death squad-type executions. In , roughly 2, extrajudicial murders occurred in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, with Amnesty International claiming the numbers are likely far higher.[68][69] Brazilian politician Flávio Bolsonaro, the son of Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro, was accused of having ties to death squads.[70][71]

    Chile[edit]

    Further information: Dirección de Inteligencia Nacional, Chile under Pinochet, Operation Condor, and Caravan of Death

    One of the most notorious murder gangs operated by the Chilean Army was the Caravan of Death, whose members travelled by helicopter throughout Chile between 30 September and 22 October During this foray, members of the squad ordered or personally carried out the execution of at least 75 individuals held in Army custody in these garrisons.[72] According to the NGO Memoria y Justicia, the squad killed 26 in the South and 71 in the North, making a total of 97 victims.[73]Augusto Pinochet was indicted in December in this case, but he died four years later without having been convicted. The trial, however, is on-going as of September&#;[update], other militaries and a former military chaplain having been indicted in this case. On 28 November , Víctor Montiglio, charged of this case, ordered Pinochet's house arrest[74] According to the Chilean Government's own Truth and Reconciliation (Rettig) report, 2, people were killed in the operations of Pinochet's regime.[75] In June , judge Juan Guzmán Tapia ordered the arrest of five retired generals.

    Colombia[edit]

    See also: Right-wing paramilitarism in Colombia, Plan Colombia, Muerte a Secuestradores, and Colombian parapolitics scandal

    The United States supported death squads in Colombia, El Salvador and Guatemala during the s.[76] In , Amnesty International reported that clandestine military units began covertly operating as death squads in According to the report, throughout the s political killings rose to a peak of 3, in , averaging some 1, victims per year since then, and "over 1, civilians are also believed to have "disappeared" since "[77] The AUC, formed in , was the most prominent paramilitary group.

    According to a report published by Human Rights Watch (HRW) on Buenaventura, a port town in Colombia, "entire neighborhoods were dominated by powerful paramilitary successor groups" HRW reports that the groups "restrict residents' movements, recruit their children, extort businesses, and routinely engage in horrific acts of violence against anyone who defies their will." It is reported that scores of people have been "disappeared" from the town over the years. Bodies are dismembered before they are disposed of and residents have reported the existence of casas de pique, "chop-up houses" where people are slaughtered. Many residents have fled and are considered to have been "forcibly displaced": 22, residents fled in , 15, in , and 13, between January and October [76]

    In Colombia, the terms "death squads", "paramilitaries" or "self-defense groups" have been used interchangeably and otherwise, referring to either a single phenomenon, also known as paramilitarism, or to different but related aspects of the same.[78] There are reports that Los Pepes, the death squad led by brothers Fidel and Carlos Castaño, had ties to some members of the Colombian National Police, especially the Search Bloc (Bloque de Búsqueda) unit.[79]

    A report from the country's public prosecutors office at the end of reported the number of 28, disappeared by paramilitary and guerrilla groups. As of [update] only corpses were identified and in According to the prosecutor's office, it will take many more years before all the bodies recovered can be identified.[citation needed]

    At least 40% of the national legislature are said to have ties to paramilitary groups.[76] In August , prosecutors in Colombia charged 13 Chiquita brands with supporting the right wing death squad that killed hundreds in the Urabá Antioquia region between and [80][81]Salvatore Mancuso, a jailed paramilitary leader, has accused Del Monte, Dole and Chiquita of funding right wing death squads. Chiquita was fined $25&#;million after admitting they had paid $&#;million to paramilitaries over six years; the reason for the payments remains a matter of dispute, with Chiquita claiming the money was routine extortion money paid to paramilitary groups to protect workers. Activists, on the other hand, insist that a portion of the money paid by Chiquita was used to finance political assassinations.[82]

    Peru[edit]

    Further information: Grupo Colina and Rodrigo Franco Command

    Peruvian government death squads carried out massacres against radicals and civilians in their fight against Shining Path and Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement.[83][84][85]

    Venezuela[edit]

    Main articles: Extrajudicial killings in Venezuela and Colectivo (Venezuela)

    In its and world reports, Human Rights Watch reported the existence of death squads in several Venezuelan states, involving members of the local police, the DISIP and the National Guard. These groups were responsible for the extrajudicial killings of civilians and wanted or alleged criminals, including street criminals, looters and drug users.[86][87]

    In , amid the Crisis in Bolivarian Venezuela, the government of Nicolás Maduro was accused by a UN human rights report of using death squads to conduct thousands of extrajudicial executions. The report relayed a multitude of eyewitness accounts, describing the government's Special Action Forces (FAES) frequently arriving at homes in unmarked vehicles, executing male suspects on the spot, then planting drugs or weapons on the corpse to make it appear the victim died resisting arrest. According to the report, the executions were part of a campaign aimed at "neutralizing, repressing and criminalizing political opponents and people critical of the government".[88] The Maduro government condemned the report as "openly biased".[89]

    Asia[edit]

    Bangladesh[edit]

    Main article: Rapid Action Battalion

    In contemporary times, the Bangladeshi "Rapid Action Battalion" has been criticized by rights groups for its use of extrajudicial killings.[90] In addition, there have been many reports of torture in connection with the battalion's activities.[91][92] Several battalion members have been accused of murder and obstruction of justice during the Narayanganj Seven murder.[93][94] They've been known to kill civilian suspects for the explicit purpose of avoiding trials.[95] They have also been accused of carrying out a campaign of forced disappearances.[96]

    Cambodia[edit]

    Main article: Khmer Rouge

    The Khmer Rouge began employing death squads to purge Cambodia of non-communists after taking over the country in They rounded up their victims, questioned them and then took them out to killing fields.[97]

    India[edit]

    Main article: Secret killings of Assam

    The secret killings of Assam (–) was probably the darkest chapter in Assam's political history when relatives, friends, sympathisers of United Liberation Front of Asom insurgents were systematically killed by unknown assailants. These extrajudicial murders happened in Assam between and These extrajudicial killings were conducted by the Government of Assam using SULFA members and the security forces in the name of counter-insurgency operations. The victims of these killings were relatives, friends and colleagues of ULFA militants. The most apparent justification for the whole exercise was that it was a tit-for-tat response to the ULFA-sponsored terrorism, specially the killings of their old comrades—the SULFAs.[98][99][][][]

    Indonesia[edit]

    Main articles: Indonesian mass killings of – and Petrus killings

    During the transition to the New Order in –, with the backing of the United States government and its Western allies, the Indonesian National Armed Forces and right-wing paramilitary death squads massacred hundreds of thousands of leftists and those believed tied to the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI) after a failed coup attempt which was blamed on the Communists.[][][][] At least , to , people, perhaps as many as 3&#;million, were killed over a period of several months, with thousands more being interred in prisons and concentration camps under extremely inhumane conditions.[] The violence culminated in the fall of the "guided democracy" regime under President Sukarno and the commencement of Suharto's thirty-year authoritarian reign.[][]

    Iran[edit]

    Main article: Extrajudicial killings in Iran

    Further information: Chain Murders of Iran

    Under the reign of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (–) the SAVAK (Security and Intelligence Service) was founded. During the s and 70s, it was accused of using death squads.[citation needed] After the Islamic Revolution overthrew the Shah, Amnesty International continued to complain of human rights abuses in Iran.[] Suspected foes of the Ayatollah Khomeini, were imprisoned, tortured, tried by kangaroo courts, and executed. The most famous victim of the era's death squad violence remains Amir-Abbas Hoveida, a Prime Minister of Iran under the Shah. However, the same treatment was also meted out to senior officers in the Iranian military. Other cases exist of Iranian dissidents opposed to the Islamic Republic who have been tracked down and murdered abroad. One of the most notorious examples of this remains the Mykonos restaurant assassinations in Berlin, Germany.

    The Iranian government's victims include civilians who have been killed by "death squads" that operate under the control of government agents but these killing operations have been denied by the Iranian government. This was particularly the case during the s when more than 80 writers, translators, poets, political activists, and ordinary citizens who had been critical of the government in some way, disappeared or were found murdered.[] In the American Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) gave one of the leaders of Iran Khomeini information on Communist KGB agents in Iran. This information was almost certainly used. Later, The Iranian regime occasionally used death squads throughout the s, 80s, and 90s. However, by the s, it seems to have almost if not entirely ceased its operations. This partial Westernization of the country can be seen as paralleling similar events in Lebanon, the United Arab Emirates, and Northern Iraq beginning in the late s.

    Iraq[edit]

    Main articles: Extrajudicial killings in Iraq and Iraqi conflict (–present)

    Iraq was formed by the British Empire from three provinces of the Ottoman Empire following the empire's breakup after World War I. Its population is overwhelmingly Muslim but is divided into Shiites and Sunnis, with a Kurdish minority in the north. The new state leadership in the capital of Baghdad was formerly composed of, for the most part, the old SunniArab elite.

    After Saddam Hussein was overthrown by the US-led invasion of Iraq in , the secular socialist Baathist leadership were replaced with a provisional and later constitutional government that included leadership roles for the Shia and Kurds. This paralleled the development of ethnic militias by the Shia, Sunni, and the Kurdish Peshmerga.

    During the course of the Iraq War the country has increasingly become divided into three zones: a Kurdish ethnic zone to the north, a Sunni center and the Shia ethnic zone to the south.

    While all three groups have operated death squads,[] in the national capital of Baghdad some members of the now Shia Iraqi Police and Iraqi Army formed unofficial, unsanctioned, but long tolerated death squads.[] They possibly have links to the Interior Ministry and are popularly known as the 'black crows'. These groups operated either by night or by day. They usually arrested people, then either tortured[] or killed them.[citation needed]

    The victims of these attacks were predominantly young males who had probably been suspected of being members of the Sunni insurgency. Agitators such as Abdul Razaq al-Na'as, Dr. Abdullateef al-Mayah, and Dr. Wissam Al-Hashimi have also been killed. Women and children have also been arrested or killed.[] Some of these killings have also been simple robberies or other criminal activities.

    A feature in a May issue of the magazine of The New York Times accused the U.S. military of modelling the "Wolf Brigade", the Iraqi interior ministry police commandos, on the death squads that were used in the s to crush the Marxist insurgency in El Salvador.[]

    In , the US dispatched James Steele as an envoy and special training adviser to the Iraqi Special Police Commandos who were later accused of torture and death squad activities. Steele had served in El Salvador in the s, where he helped train government units involved in human rights violations death squads in their war against the FMLNF.[]

    Lebanon[edit]

    Death squads were active during the Lebanese Civil War from to The number of people who disappeared during the conflict is put around 17, Groups like Hezbollah have used death squads and elite wings to terrorize opponents and ISIS members.[][]

    Philippines[edit]

    Main article: Extrajudicial killings and forced disappearances in the Philippines

    There are certain vigilante death squads that are active in the Philippines, especially in Davao City where local death squads roam around the city to hunt criminals.

    After winning the Presidency in June , Rodrigo Duterte had urged, "If you know of any addicts, go ahead and kill them yourself as getting their parents to do it would be too painful."[] By March , the death toll for the Philippine Drug War passed 8, people.[]

    Saudi Arabia[edit]

    See also: Killing of Jamal Khashoggi and Tiger Squad

    South Korea[edit]

    Main article: Extrajudicial killings and forced disappearances in South Korea

    News reports on the use of death squads in Korea originated around the middle of the 20th century such as the Jeju Massacre[] and Daejeon.[] There were also the multiple deaths that made the news in in Gwangju.[]

    Thailand[edit]

    During the Cold War, in the short period of democracy in Thailand after the Thai popular uprising (–), three right-wing paramilitary groups, Nawaphon, Red Gaurs, and Village Scouts were founded and supported by Internal Security Operations Command and Border Patrol Police to promote national unity, loyalty to Thai royal family, and anti-communism. They were also heavily funded and backed by the United States government, and were under the patronage of the royal family themselves. Among their ranks were former soldiers, veterans of the Vietnam War, former mercenaries in Laos, and violent vocational students.

    These groups were first employed to counter protests of the pro-democracy and left-wing students movement, attacking them with firearms and grenades. When the ideological conflict escalated, they started assassinating labor and peasants union officials and progressive politicians, the most famous was Dr. Boonsanong Punyodyana, the general secretary of the Socialist Party of Thailand. The conflict reached its peak with the Thammasat University massacre in , which the Royal Thai Armed Forces and Royal Thai Police, supported by the three aforementioned paramilitary groups, stormed Thammasat University and shot mostly unarmed student protesters indiscriminately, resulting in at least 46 deaths. A military coup was staged later in the same day. During the military rule, the paramilitary groups' popularity diminished.

    In contemporary Thailand, many extrajudicial killings occurred during the anti-drug effort of Thailand's prime minister Thaksin Shinawatra were attributed to government-sponsored death squads. Rumors still persist that there is collusion between the government, rogue military officers and radical right wing/anti-drugs death squads, sprers.euiland: "The Corrupt Media Mogul v. The Crusading Journalist"CommitDeath Squad links. Drug war and more. Worldwide. Mostly U.S.-run or U.S.-aided terrorism. Millions killed over decades. Torture on an industrial scale. "Dirty wars," murder, corruption, destabilization, disinformation, subversion of democracy, etc.. AboveThailand's anti-drug death squads

    Software Packages in "bionic"

    » Ubuntu » Packages » bionic » All Packages

    0ad () [universe]
    Real-time strategy game of ancient warfare
    0ad-data () [universe]
    Real-time strategy game of ancient warfare (data files)
    0ad-data-common () [universe]
    Real-time strategy game of ancient warfare (common data files)
    0install () [universe]
    cross-distribution packaging system
    0install-core () [universe]
    cross-distribution packaging system (non-GUI parts)
    0xffff () [universe]
    Open Free Fiasco Firmware Flasher
    qt (build1) [universe]
    mathematics based puzzle game
    2ping () [universe]
    Ping utility to determine directional packet loss
    2to3 () [universe]
    2to3 binary using python3
    2vcard () [universe]
    perl script to convert an addressbook to VCARD file format
    common (ga) [universe]
    Common files for IBM emulators and pr
    admin () [universe]
    Directory Administration Server
    admin-console () [universe]
    admin server management console
    console () [universe]
    Management Console
    ds (ubuntu1) [universe]
    Directory Server suite - metapackage
    ds-base (ubuntu1) [universe]
    Directory Server suite - server
    ds-base-dev (ubuntu1) [universe]
    Directory Server suite - development files
    ds-base-libs (ubuntu1) [universe]
    Directory Server suite - libraries
    ds-console () [universe]
    Directory Server Management Console
    ds-console-doc () [universe]
    Directory Server Management Console -- documentation
    dsgw (build5) [universe]
    Directory Server Gateway
    3dchess () [universe]
    Play chess across 3 boards!
    3depict (build1) [universe]
    visualisation and analysis for single valued point data
    3dldf (+dfsg-7) [universe]
    3D drawing with MetaPost output -- interpreter
    3dldf-doc (+ndfsg-3) [multiverse]
    3D drawing with MetaPost output -- documentation
    3dldf-doc-examples (+dfsg-7) [universe]
    3D drawing with MetaPost output -- examples
    4digits (build1) [universe]
    guess-the-number game, aka Bulls and Cows
    4g8 () [universe]
    Packet Capture and Interception for Switched Networks
    4pane () [universe]
    four-pane detailed-list file manager
    4store (+build1) [universe]
    RDF database storage and query engine -- database daemon
    4ti2 (+ds-2build2) [universe]
    mathematical tool suite for problems on linear spaces -- tools
    4ti2-doc (+ds-2build2) [universe]
    mathematical tool suite for problems on linear spaces -- user guide
    6tunnel () [universe]
    TCP proxy for non-IPv6 applications
    7kaa (+dfsg-1) [universe]
    Seven Kingdoms Ancient Adversaries: real-time strategy game
    7kaa-data (+dfsg-1) [universe]
    Seven Kingdoms Ancient Adversaries - game data
    9base (build1) [universe]
    Plan 9 userland tools
    9menu (build1) [universe]
    Creates X menus from the shell
    9mount (build1) [universe]
    plan9 filesystem (v9fs) user mount utilities
    9wm () [universe]
    X11 window manager inspired by Plan 9's rio
    a11y-profile-manager (ubuntu4) [universe]
    Accessibility Profile Manager - Command-line utility
    a11y-profile-manager-doc (ubuntu4) [universe]
    Accessibility Profile Manager - (Documentation
    a11y-profile-manager-indicator (ubuntu4) [universe]
    Accessibility Profile Manager - Unity desktop indicator
    a2jmidid (8~dfsg) [universe]
    Daemon for exposing legacy ALSA MIDI in JACK MIDI systems
    a2ps () [universe]
    GNU a2ps - 'Anything to PostScript' converter and pretty-printer
    a52dec
    virtual package provided by libadev
    a52dec-dev
    virtual package provided by libadev
    a56 (+dfsg-9) [universe]
    Motorola DSP assembler
    a7xpg (dfsg) [universe]
    chase action game
    a7xpg-data (dfsg) [universe]
    chase action game - game data
    aa3d (build1) [universe]
    ASCII art stereogram generator
    aac-enc () [multiverse]
    Fraunhofer FDK AAC Codec Library - frontend binary
    aac-tactics
    virtual package provided by libaac-tactics-coq
    aajm () [universe]
    ASCII art version of jugglemaster
    aalib-bin
    virtual package provided by libaa-bin
    aalib1
    virtual package provided by libaa1
    aaphoto () [universe]
    Auto Adjust Photo, automatic color correction of photos
    aapt (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Android Asset Packaging Tool
    aapt
    virtual package provided by google-android-build-tools-installer
    abacas () [universe]
    Algorithm Based Automatic Contiguation of Assembled Sequences
    abcde () [universe]
    A Better CD Encoder
    abci (~gitf94ae5e-2) [universe]
    Tendermint's Serverside Blockchain API
    abcm2ps (build1) [universe]
    Translates ABC music description files to PostScript
    abcmidi () [universe]
    converter from ABC to MIDI format and back
    abe (+dfsg-2) [universe]
    side-scrolling game named "Abe's Amazing Adventure"
    abe-data (+dfsg-2) [universe]
    side-scrolling game named "Abe's Amazing Adventure" -- data
    abgate () [universe]
    LV2 noise gate plugin
    abi-compliance-checker (ubuntu1) [universe]
    tool to compare ABI compatibility of shared C/C++ library versions
    abi-dumper () [universe]
    tool to dump ABI of an ELF object containing DWARF debug info
    abi-monitor () [universe]
    monitor ABI of shared libraries
    abi-tracker () [universe]
    visualize ABI changes of a C/C++ library
    abicheck (ubuntu1) [universe]
    binary compatibility checking tool
    abigail-doc () [universe]
    ABI Generic Analysis and Instrumentation Library (documentation)
    abigail-tools () [universe]
    ABI Generic Analysis and Instrumentation Library (tools)
    abinit () [universe]
    package for electronic structure calculations
    abinit-data () [universe]
    package for electronic structure calculations (Data files)
    abinit-doc () [universe]
    package for electronic structure calculations (Documentation)
    abiword () [universe]
    efficient, featureful word processor with collaboration
    abiword-common () [universe]
    efficient, featureful word processor with collaboration -- common files
    abiword-plugin-grammar () [universe]
    grammar checking plugin for AbiWord
    ableton-link-dev (+dfsg-2) [universe]
    synchronizes musical applications on multiple devices - development
    ableton-link-utils (+dfsg-2) [universe]
    synchronizes musical applications on multiple devices - cmdline utils
    ableton-link-utils-gui (+dfsg-2) [universe]
    synchronizes musical applications on multiple devices - GUI utils
    abntex (~betaubuntu1) [universe]
    LaTeX class for writing documents in ABNT standard
    abook (build2) [universe]
    text-based ncurses address book application
    abootimg (build1) [universe]
    Tool to read/write/update android boot images
    abr2gbr (ubuntu2) [universe]
    Converts PhotoShop brushes to GIMP
    abs-guide () [multiverse]
    The Advanced Bash-Scripting Guide
    abw2epub () [universe]
    AbiWord to EPUB format converter
    abw2odt () [universe]
    AbiWord to OpenDocument converter
    abx (~bbuild1) [universe]
    audio ABX testing software
    abyss () [multiverse]
    de novo, parallel, sequence assembler for short reads
    actarball-installer () [universe] [ports]
    Installer script to put the ac rootfs tarball in place
    acbuild (+dfsg-2) [universe]
    utility to build and modify App Container Images
    acccheck () [multiverse]
    Password dictionary attack tool for SMB
    accerciser () [universe]
    interactive Python accessibility explorer for the GNOME desktop
    account-plugin-gadugadu
    virtual package provided by empathy
    account-plugin-groupwise
    virtual package provided by empathy
    account-plugin-icq
    virtual package provided by empathy
    account-plugin-irc
    virtual package provided by empathy
    account-plugin-jabber
    virtual package provided by empathy
    account-plugin-mxit
    virtual package provided by empathy
    account-plugin-myspace
    virtual package provided by empathy
    account-plugin-salut
    virtual package provided by empathy
    account-plugin-sametime
    virtual package provided by empathy
    account-plugin-sip
    virtual package provided by empathy
    account-plugin-yahoo
    virtual package provided by empathy
    account-plugin-yahoojp
    virtual package provided by empathy
    account-plugin-zephyr
    virtual package provided by empathy
    accounts-qml-module-doc (+ubuntu1) [universe]
    Online Accounts QML - documentation
    accountsservice (ubuntu [amd64, i], ubuntu1 [arm64, armhf, ppc64el, sx]) [security]
    query and manipulate user account information
    accountsservice-ubuntu-schemas (+ubuntu1) [universe]
    AccountsService schemas for Ubuntu
    accountsservice-ubuntu-touch-schemas (+ubuntu1) [universe]
    Transitional package for accountsservice-ubuntu-schemas
    accountwizard (ubuntu1) [universe]
    wizard for KDE PIM applications account setup
    acct ()
    GNU Accounting utilities for process and login accounting
    ace () [universe]
    HTML template engine for Go (command-line tool)
    ace-gperf (+dfsg-1build2) [universe]
    ACE perfect hash function generator
    ace-netsvcs (+dfsg-1build2) [universe]
    ACE network service implementations
    ace-of-penguins (~rcbuild1) [universe]
    penguin-themed solitaire games
    acedb-other (+dfsg) [universe]
    retrieval of DNA or protein sequences
    acedb-other-belvu (+dfsg) [universe]
    transitional package for belvu
    acedb-other-belvu
    virtual package provided by belvu
    acedb-other-dotter (+dfsg) [universe]
    transitional package for dotter
    acedb-other-dotter
    virtual package provided by dotter
    aces3 (build2) [universe]
    Advanced Concepts in Electronic Structure III
    aces3-data (build2) [universe]
    Advanced Concepts in Electronic Structure III
    acetoneiso () [universe]
    feature-rich application to mount and manage CD and DVD images
    acfax (build1) [universe]
    Receive faxes using your radio and sound card
    acheck () [universe]
    Check common localisation mistakes
    acheck-rules () [universe]
    Basic rules for acheck
    achilles () [universe]
    Artificial life and evolution simulator
    acidrip (ubuntu8) [universe]
    ripping and encoding DVD tool using mplayer and mencoder
    ack () [universe]
    grep-like program specifically for large source trees
    ack-grep () [universe]
    Transitional dummy package to pull in "ack"
    ack-grep
    virtual package provided by ack
    acl (build1)
    Access control list utilities
    acl-dev
    virtual package provided by libacl1-dev
    acl2 (dfsg-1) [universe]
    Computational Logic for Applicative Common Lisp: main binary
    acl2-books (dfsg-1) [universe]
    Computational Logic for Applicative Common Lisp: compiled libraries
    acl2-books-certs (dfsg-1) [universe]
    Computational Logic for Applicative Common Lisp: library certificates
    acl2-books-source (dfsg-1) [universe]
    Computational Logic for Applicative Common Lisp: library sources
    acl2-doc (dfsg-1) [universe]
    Computational Logic for Applicative Common Lisp: documentation
    acl2-emacs (dfsg-1) [universe]
    Computational Logic for Applicative Common Lisp: emacs interface
    acl2-infix (dfsg-1) [universe]
    Computational Logic for Applicative Common Lisp: infix interface
    acl2-infix-source (dfsg-1) [universe]
    Computational Logic for Applicative Common Lisp: infix source
    acl2-source (dfsg-1) [universe]
    Computational Logic for Applicative Common Lisp: source files
    sprers.eu (build4) [universe]
    Analog dockapp clock for GNUstep
    acm (ubuntu1) [universe]
    Multi-player classic air combat simulator
    acme-tiny () [universe]
    letsencrypt tiny Python client
    acmetool () [universe]
    automatic certificate acquisition tool for Let's Encrypt
    aconnectgui (rc) [universe]
    graphical ALSA sequencer connection manager
    acorn-fdisk () [universe]
    partition editor for Acorn/RISC OS machines
    acoustid-fingerprinter () [universe]
    Acoustid fingerprinter
    acpi () [universe]
    displays information on ACPI devices
    acpi-call
    virtual package provided by acpi-call-dkms
    acpi-call-dkms () [universe]
    Kernel module that enables you to call ACPI methods
    acpi-support ()
    scripts for handling many ACPI events
    acpica-tools () [universe]
    ACPICA tools for the development and debug of ACPI tables
    acpid (ubuntu1)
    Advanced Configuration and Power Interface event daemon
    acpidump
    virtual package provided by acpica-tools
    acpitail (build1) [universe]
    Show ACPI information in a tail-like style
    acpitool (build1) [universe]
    command line ACPI client
    acpitool-dbg (build1) [universe]
    command line ACPI client (debug)
    acr () [universe]
    autoconf like tool
    actiona (build2) [universe]
    emulate human activity through a powerful GUI and JavaScript
    actionaz (build2) [universe]
    transitional dummy package
    activemq (~) [universe] [security]
    Java message broker - server
    activity-log-manager (ubuntu26) [universe]
    blacklist configuration user interface for Zeitgeist
    activity-log-manager-control-center (ubuntu26) [universe]
    blacklist configuration for Zeitgeist (transitional package)
    ada-reference-manual () [universe]
    Ada language standard
    ada-reference-manual () [universe]
    Ada language standard
    adabrowse () [universe]
    HTML generator for Ada 95 library unit specifications
    adacontrol (r) [universe]
    Ada rules controller
    adacontrol-doc (r) [universe]
    Ada rules controller (documentation)
    adanaxisgpl (dfsg) [universe]
    Action game in four spatial dimensions
    adanaxisgpl-data (dfsg) [universe]
    Action game in four spatial dimensions
    adapt (ubuntu1) [universe]
    adapt package from one version of Ubuntu to another
    adapterremoval () [universe]
    rapid adapter trimming, identification, and read merging of gene sequences
    adapterremoval-examples () [universe]
    rapid adapter trimming, identification, and read merging (example data)
    adb (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Android Debug Bridge
    adcli (ubuntu [amd64, i], [arm64, armhf, ppc64el, sx]) [universe] [security]
    Tool for performing actions on an Active Directory domain
    add-apt-key () [universe]
    Command line tool to add GPG keys to the APT keyring
    addresses-goodies-for-gnustep () [universe]
    Personal Address Manager for GNUstep (Goodies)
    sprers.eu () [universe]
    Personal Address Manager for GNUstep
    adduser (ubuntu1)
    add and remove users and groups
    adequate (ubuntu5) [universe]
    Debian package quality testing tool
    adium-theme-ubuntu (ubuntu4)
    Adium message style for Ubuntu
    adjtimex () [universe]
    kernel time variables configuration utility
    adlibtracker2 () [universe]
    userfriendly tracker aimed for the OPL3 FM-chip
    adlint () [universe]
    open source and free source code static analyzer
    admesh () [universe]
    Tool for processing triangulated solid meshes. Binary
    adminer () [universe]
    Web-based database administration tool
    adns-tools (~rcubuntu1) [universe]
    Asynchronous-capable DNS client utilities
    adonthell () [universe]
    2D graphical roleplaying game
    adonthell-data () [universe]
    Data files needed by Adonthell
    adplay () [universe]
    console-based OPL2 audio player
    adplug-utils (+dfsg~build [amd64, i], +dfsg [arm64, armhf, ppc64el, sx]) [universe] [security]
    free AdLib sound library (utils)
    adql-java () [universe]
    Parse, manipulate and translate ADQL queries with Java
    adql-java-doc () [universe]
    Parse, manipulate and translate ADQL queries (API doc)
    adun-core (build1) [universe]
    Molecular Simulator
    sprers.eu (build1) [universe]
    Molecular Simulator for GNUstep (GUI)
    advv35x-dkms () [universe]
    dkms driver sources for Advantech PCI/PCIe ACOM Series adapters
    advancecomp (ubuntu [amd64, i], [arm64, armhf, ppc64el, sx]) [security]
    collection of recompression utilities
    adventure
    virtual package provided by colossal-cave-adventure, bsdgames
    advi (build1) [universe]
    active DVI previewer and presenter
    advi-examples (build1) [universe]
    example presentations for Active-DVI (advi)
    adwaita-icon-theme (ubuntu1)
    default icon theme of GNOME (small subset)
    adwaita-icon-theme (= )
    virtual package provided by lubuntu-icon-theme
    adwaita-icon-theme-full (ubuntu1) [universe]
    default icon theme of GNOME
    adwaita-icon-theme-full
    virtual package provided by lubuntu-icon-theme
    adwaita-qt () [universe]
    Qt 5 port of GNOME’s Adwaita theme
    aegean (+dfsg-1) [universe]
    integrated genome analysis toolkit
    aegean-dbg (+dfsg-1) [universe]
    integrated genome analysis toolkit, with debug symbols
    aeolus () [universe]
    Synthesised pipe organ emulator
    aephea () [universe]
    text-based authoring tool for HTML
    aeswy (ubuntu2) [universe]
    userspace software for usb aes fingerprint scanner
    aesfix () [universe]
    tool for correcting bit errors in an AES key schedule
    aeskeyfind () [universe]
    tool for locating AES keys in a captured memory image
    aeskulap (b1+git) [universe]
    medical image viewer and DICOM network client
    aeson-pretty (build3) [universe]
    JSON pretty-printing tool
    aespipe (d-1) [universe]
    AES-encryption tool with loop-AES support
    aevol () [universe]
    digital genetics model to run Evolution Experiments in silico
    aewan () [universe]
    ASCII-art Editor Without A Name
    aewm () [universe]
    minimalist window manager for X11
    aewm++ () [universe]
    minimal window manager written in C++
    aewm++-goodies () [universe]
    utilities to complement a minimal window manager
    afew () [universe]
    Tagging script for notmuch mail
    sprers.eu (build1) [universe]
    Application to "stick" little notes on the desktop
    afflib-tools (build2) [universe]
    Advanced Forensics Format Library (utilities)
    afio (+gitc8e) [multiverse]
    archive file manipulation program
    afl (b-2) [universe]
    instrumentation-driven fuzzer for binary formats
    afl-clang (b-2) [universe]
    instrumentation-driven fuzzer for binary formats - clang support
    afl-cov () [universe]
    code coverage for afl (American Fuzzy Lop)
    afl-doc (b-2) [universe]
    instrumentation-driven fuzzer for binary formats - documentation
    afnix () [universe]
    Compiler and run-time for the AFNIX programming language
    afnix-doc () [universe]
    Compiler and run-time for the AFNIX programming language (documentation)
    aft () [universe]
    "free form" document preparation system
    aften (+gitubuntu3) [universe]
    audio AC3 encoder
    afterstep () [universe]
    window manager with the NEXTSTEP look and feel
    afterstep-data () [universe]
    data files for AfterStep window manager
    afuse (build1) [universe]
    automounting file system implemented in user-space using FUSE
    agda (build1) [universe]
    dependently typed functional programming language
    agda-bin (build1) [universe]
    commandline interface to Agda
    agda-mode (build1) [universe]
    transitional dummy package for elpa-agda2-mode
    agda-mode
    virtual package provided by elpa-agda2-mode
    agda-stdlib () [universe]
    standard library for Agda
    agda-stdlib-doc () [universe]
    standard library for Agda — documentation
    agedu (build1) [universe]
    Unix utility for tracking down wasted disk space
    sprers.eu (build1) [universe]
    Calendar manager for GNUstep
    agent-transfer (ubuntu1) [universe]
    copy a secret key from GnuPG's gpg-agent to OpenSSH's ssh-agent
    aggregate (build1) [universe]
    ipv4 cidr prefix aggregator
    aghermann (build1) [universe]
    Sleep-research experiment manager
    aglfn () [universe]
    Adobe Glyph List For New Fonts
    agrep () [multiverse]
    text search tool with support for approximate patterns
    agtl (ubuntu1) [universe]
    Tool for paperless geocaching
    aha () [universe]
    ANSI color to HTML converter
    ahcpd (build1) [universe]
    Ad-Hoc Configuration Protocol
    aide (ubuntu [amd64, i], [arm64, armhf, ppc64el, sx]) [security]
    Advanced Intrusion Detection Environment - static binary
    aide-binary
    virtual package provided by aide, aide-xen, aide-dynamic
    aide-common (ubuntu) [security]
    Advanced Intrusion Detection Environment - Common files
    aide-dynamic (ubuntu [amd64, i], [arm64, armhf, ppc64el, sx]) [universe] [security]
    Advanced Intrusion Detection Environment - dynamic binary
    aide-xen (ubuntu [amd64, i], [arm64, armhf, ppc64el, sx]) [universe] [security]
    Advanced Intrusion Detection Environment - static binary for XEN
    aidl (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Binder generator of AIDL interfaces
    aiksaurus (+dev) [universe]
    This package provides an English-language thesaurus (utility)
    air-quality-sensor () [universe]
    user space driver for AppliedSensor's Indoor Air Monitor
    aircrack-ng (~rc) [universe]
    wireless WEP/WPA cracking utilities
    airgraph-ng (~rc) [universe]
    Tool to graph txt files created by aircrack-ng
    airport-utils () [universe]
    configuration and management utilities for Apple AirPort base stations
    airspy () [universe]
    Tiny and efficient software defined radio receiver - utilities
    airstrike (+pre6a-8) [universe]
    2d dogfight game in the tradition of 'Biplanes' and 'BIP'
    airstrike-common (+pre6a-8) [universe]
    2d dogfight game - data files
    aiscm () [universe]
    Guile numerical arrays and tensor extension
    aisleriot ()
    GNOME solitaire card game collection
    aj-snapshot () [universe]
    make snapshots of JACK connections
    ajaxterm () [universe]
    Web based terminal written in Python
    akonadi-backend-mysql (ubuntu3) [universe]
    MySQL storage backend for Akonadi
    akonadi-backend-postgresql (ubuntu3) [universe]
    PostgreSQL storage backend for Akonadi
    akonadi-backend-sqlite (ubuntu3) [universe]
    SQLite storage backend for Akonadi
    akonadi-import-wizard (ubuntu2) [universe]
    PIM data import wizard
    akonadi-server (ubuntu3) [universe]
    Akonadi PIM storage service
    akonadiconsole (ubuntu1) [universe]
    management and debugging console for akonadi
    akqml (+dfsg-7) [universe]
    full featured webcam capture application - qml module
    akregator (ubuntu1) [universe]
    RSS/Atom feed aggregator
    alac-decoder (ubuntu2) [universe]
    Apple Lossless audio codec decoder
    alacarte () [universe]
    easy GNOME menu editing tool
    aladin (+dfsg-1) [universe]
    Interactive sky atlas for astronomical images and datasets
    alarm-clock-applet (build1) [universe]
    alarm clock panel indicator
    albatross-gtk-theme () [universe]
    dark and light GTK+ theme from the Shimmer Project
    album () [multiverse]
    HTML photo album generator with theme support
    album-data () [multiverse]
    themes, plugins and translations for album
    aldo (build1) [universe]
    Morse code training program
    ale () [universe]
    synthetic capture engine and renderer
    alembic (ubuntu1)
    lightweight database migration tool for SQLAlchemy
    alevt (build1) [universe]
    X11 Teletext/Videotext browser
    alevt
    virtual package provided by dvb-apps
    alevtd (build1) [universe]
    HTTP daemon for teletext pages
    alex () [universe]
    lexical analyser generator for Haskell
    alex4 () [universe]
    Alex the Allegator 4 - a retro platform game
    alex4-data () [universe]
    Alex the Allegator 4 - game data
    alfa (build2) [universe]
    Automated Line Fitting Algorithm
    alfred (build1) [universe]
    Almighty Lightweight Fact Remote Exchange Daemon
    algobox (+dfsg-1) [universe]
    algorithmics introduction - French UI
    algol68g (build1) [universe]
    Implementation of Algol 68 as defined by the Revised Report
    algotutor () [universe]
    program for observing the intermediate steps of algorithm
    alice () [universe]
    Web browser (WebKit or Gecko) based IRC client
    alien () [universe]
    convert and install rpm and other packages
    alien-arena (+dfsg-4) [multiverse]
    Standalone 3D first person online deathmatch shooter
    alien-arena-data () [multiverse]
    Game data files for Alien Arena
    alien-arena-server (+dfsg-4) [multiverse]
    Dedicated server for Alien Arena
    alien-hunter () [universe]
    Interpolated Variable Order Motifs to identify horizontally acquired DNA
    alienblaster () [universe]
    Classic 2D shoot 'em up
    alienblaster-data () [universe]
    Game data for Alien Blaster
    aliki () [universe]
    Measurement tool for Impulse Responses
    all-knowing-dns () [universe]
    tiny DNS server for IPv6 Reverse DNS
    allegro4-doc () [universe]
    documentation for the Allegro library
    allegro5-doc () [universe]
    documentation for the Allegro 5 library
    alliance (build1) [universe]
    VLSI CAD Tools
    alljoyn-daemon (b+dfsg) [universe]
    AllJoyn daemon service
    alljoyn-daemon (a+dfsg) [universe]
    AllJoyn daemon service
    alljoyn-daemon (a+dfsg) [universe]
    AllJoyn daemon service
    alljoyn-gateway (~git) [universe]
    AllJoyn gateway agent for
    alljoyn-services () [universe]
    AllJoyn base services for
    alljoyn-services () [universe]
    AllJoyn base services for
    alljoyn-services (ubuntu1) [universe]
    AllJoyn base services for
    alljoyn-thin-client (b-3) [universe]
    AllJoyn thin client for
    alljoyn-thin-client (a-2ubuntu1) [universe]
    AllJoyn thin client for
    alljoyn-thin-client (ubuntu1) [universe]
    AllJoyn thin client for
    alltray (b) [universe]
    Dock any program into the system tray
    allure () [universe]
    near-future Sci-Fi roguelike and tactical squad game
    almanah () [universe]
    Application to ease management of a personal diary
    alot () [universe]
    Text mode MUA using notmuch mail
    alot-doc () [universe]
    Text mode MUA using notmuch mail - documentation
    alpine (+dfsgbuild1) [universe]
    Text-based email client, friendly for novices but powerful
    alpine-doc (+dfsgbuild1) [universe]
    Text-based email client's documentation
    alpine-pico (+dfsgbuild1) [universe]
    Simple text editor from Alpine, a text-based email client
    alqalam () [universe]
    Qur'an typesetting macros for TeX/LaTeX
    alsa
    virtual package provided by alsa-base, alsa-base-udeb
    alsa-base (+dfsg-0ubuntu5)
    ALSA driver configuration files
    alsa-base-udeb (+dfsg-0ubuntu5) [universe]
    ALSA driver configuration files
    alsa-firmware-loaders () [multiverse]
    ALSA software loaders for specific hardware
    alsa-oss (ubuntu1) [universe]
    ALSA wrapper for OSS applications
    alsa-source (+dfsg-0ubuntu5) [universe]
    ALSA driver sources
    alsa-tools () [universe]
    Console based ALSA utilities for specific hardware
    alsa-tools-gui () [universe]
    GUI based ALSA utilities for specific hardware
    alsa-utils (ubuntu1)
    Utilities for configuring and using ALSA
    alsa-utils-udeb (ubuntu1) [universe]
    Utilities for configuring and using ALSA (udeb)
    alsamixergui (rc) [universe]
    graphical soundcard mixer for ALSA soundcard driver
    alsaplayer
    virtual package provided by alsaplayer-common
    alsaplayer-alsa () [universe]
    alsaplayer output module for ALSA
    alsaplayer-common () [universe]
    audio player (common files)
    alsaplayer-daemon () [universe]
    alsaplayer daemon
    alsaplayer-gtk () [universe]
    alsaplayer gtk interface
    alsaplayer-interface
    virtual package provided by alsaplayer-xosd, alsaplayer-gtk, alsaplayer-daemon, alsaplayer-text
    alsaplayer-jack () [universe]
    alsaplayer output module for JACK
    alsaplayer-nas () [universe]
    alsaplayer output module for NAS
    alsaplayer-oss () [universe]
    alsaplayer output module for OSS
    alsaplayer-output
    virtual package provided by alsaplayer-oss, alsaplayer-nas, alsaplayer-alsa, alsaplayer-jack
    alsaplayer-text () [universe]
    alsaplayer text interface
    alsaplayer-xosd () [universe]
    alsaplayer XOSD display module
    alsoft-conf () [universe]
    OpenAL-Soft configuration utility
    alt-ergo (+dfsg) [universe]
    Automatic theorem prover dedicated to program verification
    alt-key () [universe]
    tool to help developers improve keyboard accelerators
    alter-sequence-alignment (+dfsg-1) [universe]
    genomic sequences ALignment Transformation EnviRonment
    altermime () [universe]
    utility used to alter mime-encoded mailpacks
    altos () [universe]
    Altus Metrum firmware and utilities
    altree () [universe]
    program to perform phylogeny-based association and localization analysis
    altree-examples () [universe]
    example files for ALTree
    alttab () [universe]
    task switcher for minimalistic WMs or standalone X session
    alure-doc (build1) [universe]
    AL Utilities REtooled (documentation)
    alure-utils (build1) [universe]
    AL Utilities REtooled (utilities)
    am-utils (+rcubuntu2) [universe]
    automounter utilities from BSD (includes amd)
    am-utils-doc (+rcubuntu2) [universe]
    automounter utilities documentation
    amanda-client (build2) [universe]
    Advanced Maryland Automatic Network Disk Archiver (Client)
    amanda-common (build2) [universe]
    Advanced Maryland Automatic Network Disk Archiver (Libs)
    amanda-server (build2) [universe]
    Advanced Maryland Automatic Network Disk Archiver (Server)
    amap-align () [universe]
    Protein multiple alignment by sequence annealing
    amarok (ubuntu2) [universe]
    easy to use media player based on the KDE Platform
    amarok-common (ubuntu2) [universe]
    architecture independent files for Amarok
    amarok-dbg (ubuntu2) [universe]
    debugging symbols for Amarok
    amarok-doc (ubuntu2) [universe]
    Amarok documentation (Handbook)
    amarok-utils (ubuntu2) [universe]
    utilities for Amarok media player
    amavis
    virtual package provided by amavisd-new
    amavisd-milter () [universe]
    amavisd-new interface for milter-capable MTAs
    amavisd-milter-dbg () [universe]
    amavisd-new interface for milter-capable MTAs - debugging symbols
    amavisd-new (ubuntu1)
    Interface between MTA and virus scanner/content filters
    amavisd-new-milter
    virtual package provided by amavisd-milter
    amavisd-new-postfix (ubuntu1) [universe]
    part of Ubuntu mail stack provided by Ubuntu server team
    amb-plugins () [universe]
    ambisonics LADSPA plugins
    ambdec () [universe]
    Ambisonic decoder for first and second order
    amber (~gitcdade1c-1) [universe]
    Elegant HTML templating engine for Go, inspired from HAML and Jade (CLI tool)
    amdmicrocode (+really~ubuntu) [security]
    Processor microcode firmware for AMD CPUs
    amide () [universe]
    software for Medical Imaging
    amideco (ebuild1) [universe]
    Decompress flashfiles equipped with an AMI BIOS
    amiga-fdisk-cross (build1) [universe]
    Partition editor for Amiga partitions (cross version)
    amispammer () [universe]
    Powerful Mail Server checker on blacklists
    amiwm (pl) [multiverse]
    Amiga look alike window manager
    amoeba (ubuntu1) [multiverse]
    fast-paced, polished OpenGL demonstration by Excess
    amoeba-data () [multiverse]
    Fast-paced, polished OpenGL demonstration by Excess (data)
    amoebax (+dfsg-3) [universe]
    Puyo Puyo-style puzzle game for up to two players
    amoebax-data (+dfsg-3) [universe]
    Data files for amoebax
    amora-applet (~svn+gitbuild1) [universe]
    use a bluetooth device as X remote control (systray applet)
    amora-cli (~svn+gitbuild1) [universe]
    use a bluetooth device as X remote control (commandline tool)
    amora-server
    virtual package provided by amora-cli, amora-applet
    amphetamine () [universe]
    jump'n run game with unique visual effects
    amphetamine-data () [universe]
    data files for the game "Amphetamine"
    ample () [universe]
    simple MP3 server easy to use
    ampliconnoise () [universe]
    removal of noise from sequenced PCR amplicons
    ampr-ripd () [universe]
    Routing daemon for AMPRnet gateway announcements
    amqp-specs (r) [universe]
    specs for the Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP)
    amqp-tools (ubuntu [amd64, i], build1 [arm64, armhf, ppc64el, sx]) [universe] [security]
    Command-line utilities for interacting with AMQP servers
    ams () [universe]
    Realtime modular synthesizer for ALSA
    amsynth () [universe]
    two oscillator software synthesizer
    amtterm () [universe]
    Serial-over-lan (sol) client for Intel AMT, console version
    amule () [universe]
    client for the eD2k and Kad networks, like eMule
    amule-common () [universe]
    common files for the rest of aMule packages
    amule-daemon () [universe]
    non-graphic version of aMule, a client for the eD2k and Kad networks
    amule-emc (build1) [universe]
    lists ed2k links inside emulecollection files
    amule-gnome-support () [universe]
    ed2k links handling support for GNOME web browsers
    amule-utils () [universe]
    utilities for aMule (command-line version)
    amule-utils-gui () [universe]
    graphic utilities for aMule
    an () [universe]
    very fast anagram generator
    anacron ()
    cron-like program that doesn't go by time
    anacron
    virtual package provided by systemd-cron
    anagramarama (ubuntu6) [universe]
    fast paced anagram puzzle game using SDL
    anagramarama-data (ubuntu6) [universe]
    fast paced anagram puzzle game using SDL (data files)
    analitza-common (ubuntu2) [universe]
    common files for Analitza
    analog () [universe]
    web server log analyzer
    anarchism () [universe]
    Exhaustive exploration of Anarchist theory and practice
    anc-api-tools (ubuntu1) [universe]
    command line interface to sprers.eu's cloud
    and (build1) [universe]
    Auto Nice Daemon
    andi () [universe]
    Efficient Estimation of Evolutionary Distances
    androguard (~rc) [universe]
    full Python tool to play with Android files
    android-androresolvd (build1) [universe]
    Daemon to transfer Android DNS property to sprers.eu
    android-framework-res (+r~) [universe] [security]
    Android platform framework resources
    android-headers (ubuntu4) [universe]
    Android Platform Headers from AOSP releases
    android-headers (ubuntu4) [universe]
    Android Platform Headers from AOSP releases
    android-headers (ubuntu4) [universe]
    Android Platform Headers from AOSP releases
    android-headers (ubuntu4) [universe]
    Android Platform Headers from AOSP releases
    android-headers (ubuntu4) [universe]
    Android Platform Headers from AOSP releases
    android-libaapt (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Android Asset Packaging Tool - Shared library
    android-libadb (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Library for Android Debug Bridge
    android-libadb-dev (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Library for Android Debug Bridge - Development files
    android-libandroidfw (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Android utility library
    android-libandroidfw-dev (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Android utility library - Development files
    android-libart (+r~) [universe] [security]
    Android Runtime
    android-libbacktrace (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Android backtrace library
    android-libbacktrace-dev (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Android backtrace library - Development files
    android-libbase (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Android base library
    android-libbase-dev (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Android base library - Development files
    android-libboringssl (+r~) [universe] [security]
    Google's internal fork of OpenSSL for the Android SDK
    android-libboringssl-dev (+r~) [universe] [security]
    Google's internal fork of OpenSSL for the Android SDK - devel
    android-libcrypto-utils (+r~) [universe] [security]
    Android crypto-utils library
    android-libcrypto-utils-dev (+r~) [universe] [security]
    Android crypto-utils library - Development files
    android-libcutils (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Android utils library for C
    android-libcutils-dev (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Android utils library for C - Development files
    android-libdex (+r) [universe]
    Dalvik Executable library
    android-libdex-dev (+r) [universe]
    Dalvik Executable library - Development files
    android-libetc1 (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    ETC1 compression library
    android-libetc1-dev (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    ETC1 compression library - Development files
    android-libext4-utils (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Android ext4 utility library
    android-libext4-utils-dev (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Android ext4 utility library - Development files
    android-libf2fs-utils (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Android F2FS utility library
    android-libf2fs-utils-dev (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Android F2FS utility library - Development files
    android-liblog (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Android NDK logger interfaces
    android-liblog-dev (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Android NDK logger interfaces - Development files
    android-libnativebridge (+r~) [universe] [security]
    Android native bridge library
    android-libnativebridge-dev (+r~) [universe] [security]
    Android native bridge library - Development files
    android-libnativehelper (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Support functions for Android's class libraries
    android-libnativehelper-dev (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Support functions for Android's class libraries - Development files
    android-libnativeloader (+r~) [universe] [security]
    Android native loader library
    android-libnativeloader-dev (+r~) [universe] [security]
    Android native loader library - Development files
    android-libselinux (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf, ppc64el, sx]) [universe] [security]
    Security-Enhanced Linux for Android
    android-libselinux-dev (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf, ppc64el, sx]) [universe] [security]
    Security-Enhanced Linux for Android - Development files
    android-libsepol (+r~) [universe] [security]
    Security-Policy Linux for Android
    android-libsepol-dev (+r~) [universe] [security]
    Security-Policy Linux for Android - Development files
    android-libsparse (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Library for sparse files
    android-libsparse-dev (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Library for sparse files - Development files
    android-libunwind (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    libunwind for Android
    android-libunwind-dev (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    libunwind for Android - Development files
    android-libutils (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Android Utility Function Library
    android-libutils-dev (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Android Utility Function Library - Development files
    android-libziparchive (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Library for ZIP archives
    android-libziparchive-dev (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Library for ZIP archives - Development files
    android-logtags-tools (+r~) [universe] [security]
    Tools from AOSP that process event-log-tags files
    android-platform-build-headers (+r) [universe]
    Transitional dummy package
    android-platform-frameworks-native-headers (+r~) [universe] [security]
    Headers of android-platform-frameworks-native
    android-platform-libcore-headers (+r~) [universe] [security]
    Header files in AOSP repository platform/libcore
    android-platform-system-core-headers (+r~) [universe] [security]
    Shared headers in AOSP repository platform/system/core
    android-platform-tools-base () [universe]
    base tools for developing applications for the Android system
    android-sdk (+10~ [amd64, i], +8 [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Software development kit for Android platform
    android-sdk-build-tools (+10~ [amd64, i], +8 [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Tools for building Android applications
    android-sdk-build-tools-common (+10~) [universe] [security]
    Tools for building Android applications - Common files
    android-sdk-common (+10~) [universe] [security]
    Common files of Android SDK base toolset
    android-sdk-ext4-utils (+r~) [universe] [security]
    Android ext4-utils tools
    android-sdk-helper () [universe]
    Helper tools for building Android apps using Debian's Android SDK
    android-sdk-libsparse-utils (+r~) [universe] [security]
    Android sparse image creation tool
    android-sdk-platform (+r~) [universe] [security]
    Android SDK Platform for API Level 23 ( Marshmallow)
    android-sdk-platform-tools (+10~ [amd64, i], +8 [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Tools for interacting with an Android platform
    android-sdk-platform-tools-common (+10~) [universe] [security]
    Tools for interacting with an Android platform - Common files
    android-src-vendor (ubuntu1) [multiverse]
    Vendor files to build Android Open Source Project
    android-system-dev
    virtual package provided by android-platform-system-core-headers
    android-tools-adb (+r~) [universe] [security]
    transitional package
    android-tools-adb
    virtual package provided by adb
    android-tools-adbd (r) [universe]
    Android Debug Bridge daemon
    android-tools-fastboot (+r~) [universe] [security]
    transitional package
    android-tools-fastboot
    virtual package provided by fastboot
    android-tools-fsutils (r) [universe]
    Android ext4 utilities with sparse support
    android-tools-mkbootimg (+r~ [all], r [amd64, arm64, armhf, i]) [universe] [security]
    transitional package
    androidsdk-ddms (+git~92d25d) [universe]
    Graphical debugging tool for Android
    androidsdk-hierarchyviewer (+git~92d25d) [universe]
    Tool to debug and optimize Android user interface
    androidsdk-traceview (+git~92d25d) [universe]
    Tool to profile performance of Android applications
    androidsdk-uiautomatorviewer (+git~92d25d) [universe]
    Tool to scan and analyze the UI components of an Android application
    anerd-server
    virtual package provided by pollen
    anfo () [universe]
    Short Read Aligner/Mapper from MPG
    angband () [universe]
    Single-player, text-based, dungeon simulation game
    angband-audio () [multiverse]
    Sound files for the roguelike game angband
    angband-data () [universe]
    Game data for angband
    angband-doc () [universe]
    Documentation for the roguelike game Angband
    angrydd () [universe]
    Angry Drunken Dwarves - falling blocks puzzle game
    animals () [universe]
    Traditional AI animal guessing engine using a binary tree DB
    anjuta () [universe]
    GNOME development IDE, for C/C++
    anjuta-common () [universe]
    GNOME development IDE, for C/C++ - data files
    anjuta-extras () [universe]
    plugins and extras for anjuta
    anki (+dfsg~b) [universe]
    extensible flashcard learning program
    ann-tools (+doc-6) [universe]
    Approximate Nearest Neighbor Searching library (tools)
    anna (ubuntu1)
    anna's not nearly apt, but for the Debian installer, it will do
    anomaly (build1) [universe]
    detect anomalous data in a numeric stream
    anope () [universe]
    IRC Services designed for flexibility and ease of use
    ansible (+dfsg-1ubuntu) [universe] [security]
    Configuration management, deployment, and task execution system
    ansible-lint (+git) [universe]
    lint tool for Ansible playbooks
    ansible-tower-cli () [universe]
    command line tool for Ansible Tower and AWX Project
    ansible-tower-cli-doc () [universe]
    documentation for tower-cli command line tool and library
    ansiweather () [universe]
    Weather in your terminal, with ANSI colors and Unicode symbols
    ant (~) [universe] [security]
    Java based build tool like make
    ant-contrib (~b3+svn~) [universe] [security]
    collection of tasks, types and other tools for Apache Ant
    ant-contrib-cpptasks (~b) [universe]
    C/C++ compilation tasks for Ant.
    ant-doc (~) [universe] [security]
    Java based build tool like make - API documentation and manual
    ant-optional (~) [universe] [security]
    Java based build tool like make - optional libraries
    antennavis (build1) [universe]
    antenna radiation pattern visualization software
    anthy (ubuntu1) [universe]
    Japanese kana-kanji conversion - utilities
    anthy-common (ubuntu1) [universe]
    Japanese kana-kanji conversion - dictionary
    anthy-el (ubuntu1) [universe]
    Japanese kana-kanji conversion - elisp frontend
    antigravitaattori () [universe]
    Multiplayer flying saucer racing game
    antiword (build1) [universe]
    Converts MS Word files to text, PS, PDF and XML
    antlr (+dfsg) [universe]
    language tool for constructing recognizers, compilers etc
    antlr-doc (+dfsg) [universe]
    language tool for constructing recognizers, compilers etc
    antlr3 () [universe]
    language tool for constructing recognizers, compilers etc
    antlr3-doc () [universe]
    language tool for constructing compilers etc - documentation
    antlr3-gunit-maven-plugin () [universe]
    Maven plugin for gUnit, a unit test framework for ANTLR grammars
    antlr3-maven-plugin () [universe]
    Maven plugin for ANTLR 3
    antlr () [universe]
    language tool for constructing recognizers, compilers etc
    antlrgunit-maven-plugin () [universe]
    Maven plugin for gUnit, a unit test framework for ANTLR grammars
    antlrmaven-plugin () [universe]
    Maven plugin for ANTLR
    antlr4 (~) [universe] [security]
    ANTLR Parser Generator
    antlr4-doc (~) [universe] [security]
    ANTLR Parser Generator (documentation)
    antlr4-maven-plugin (~) [universe] [security]
    Maven plugin for ANTLR 4
    antpm (build1) [universe]
    ANT+ information retrieval client for Garmin GPS products
    antpm-dbg (build1) [universe]
    ANT+ information retrieval client for Garmin GPS products
    ants (ubuntu1) [universe]
    advanced normalization tools for brain and image analysis
    anypaper (build1) [universe]
    front-end for wallpapersetter
    anyremote () [universe]
    Remote control daemon for applications using Bluetooth, IrDA or WiFi
    anyremote-data () [universe]
    architecture independent files for anyremote
    anyremote-doc () [universe]
    Documentation for anyremote
    anything-el () [universe]
    open anything / QuickSilver-like candidate-selection framework
    anytun (ubuntu1) [universe]
    secure anycast tunneling protocol
    aodh-api (ubuntu1)
    OpenStack Telemetry (Ceilometer) Alarming - API server
    aodh-common (ubuntu1)
    OpenStack Telemetry (Ceilometer) Alarming - common files
    aodh-doc (ubuntu1)
    OpenStack efficient metering counters system - doc
    aodh-evaluator (ubuntu1)
    OpenStack Telemetry (Ceilometer) Alarming - alarm evaluator
    aodh-expirer (ubuntu1)
    OpenStack Telemetry (Ceilometer) Alarming - expirer
    aodh-listener (ubuntu1)
    OpenStack Telemetry (Ceilometer) Alarming - listener
    aodh-notifier (ubuntu1)
    OpenStack Telemetry (Ceilometer) Alarming - alarm notifier
    aoetools () [universe]
    tools to assist in using ATA over Ethernet
    aoeui (+git4e5dee) [universe]
    lightweight, unobtrusive, Dvorak-optimized text editor
    aoflagger () [universe]
    Find RFI in radio astronomical observations
    aoflagger-dev () [universe]
    Find RFI in radio astronomical observations (development files)
    aolserver4
    virtual package provided by aolserver4-daemon
    aolserver4-core () [universe]
    AOL web server version 4 - core libraries
    aolserver4-core
    virtual package provided by aolserver4-core
    aolserver4-core
    virtual package provided by aolserver4-core
    aolserver4-daemon () [universe]
    AOL web server version 4 - program files
    aolserver4-dev () [universe]
    AOL web server version 4 - development files
    aolserver4-doc () [universe]
    AOL web server version 4 - documentation
    aolserver4-nsldap (build1) [universe]
    AOLServer 4 module for LDAP
    aolserver4-nsmysql () [universe]
    AOLserver 4 module: module for accessing MySQL databases
    aolserver4-nsopenssl (beta) [universe]
    AOLserver 4 module: module for SSL mode
    aolserver4-nspostgres (+) [universe]
    AOLserver 4 module: Postgres connector
    aolserver4-nssha1 (build1) [universe]
    AOLserver4 module: performs SHA1 hashes Provides a Tcl
    aolserver4-nssqlite3 (build1) [universe]
    AOLserver 4 module: module for accessing SQLite 3 databases
    aolserver4-nsxml () [universe]
    Module for XML support in aolsever4
    aolserver4-xotcl () [universe]
    Extended Object Tcl (XOTcl): Object orientation for AOLServer - module
    aosd-cat (ubuntu2) [universe]
    an on screen display tool which uses libaosd
    ap-utils () [universe]
    Access Point SNMP Utils for Linux
    apache-icons
    virtual package provided by open-infrastructure-apache-icons
    apache2 (ubuntu [amd64, i], ubuntu4 [arm64, armhf, ppc64el, sx]) [security]
    Apache HTTP Server
    apache2-api
    virtual package provided by apache2-bin
    apache2-apiopenssl
    virtual package provided by apache2-bin
    apache2-bin (ubuntu [amd64, i], ubuntu4 [arm64, armhf, ppc64el, sx]) [security]
    Apache HTTP Server (modules and other binary files)
    apache2-data (ubuntu) [security]
    Apache HTTP Server (common files)
    apache2-dbg (ubuntu [amd64, i], ubuntu4 [arm64, armhf, ppc64el, sx]) [security]
    Apache debugging symbols
    apache2-dev (ubuntu [amd64, i], ubuntu4 [arm64, armhf, ppc64el, sx]) [security]
    Apache HTTP Server (development headers)
    apache2-doc (ubuntu) [security]
    Apache HTTP Server (on-site documentation)
    apache2-ssl-dev (ubuntu [amd64, i], ubuntu4 [arm64, armhf, ppc64el, sx]) [security]
    Apache HTTP Server (mod_ssl development headers)
    apache2-suexec
    virtual package provided by apache2-suexec-pristine, apache2-suexec-custom
    apache2-suexec-custom (ubuntu [amd64, i], ubuntu4 [arm64, armhf, ppc64el, sx]) [universe] [security]
    Apache HTTP Server configurable suexec program for mod_suexec
    apache2-suexec-pristine (ubuntu [amd64, i], ubuntu4 [arm64, armhf, ppc64el, sx]) [universe] [security]
    Apache HTTP Server standard suexec program for mod_suexec
    apache2-utils (ubuntu [amd64, i], ubuntu4 [arm64, armhf, ppc64el, sx]) [security]
    Apache HTTP Server (utility programs for web servers)
    apachedex () [universe]
    Compute APDEX from Apache-style logs
    apacheds (~M~) [universe] [security]
    Apache Directory Server
    apachetop (build2) [universe]
    Realtime Apache monitoring tool
    apbs (build1) [universe]
    Adaptive Poisson Boltzmann Solver
    apcalc (build1) [universe]
    Arbitrary precision calculator (original name: calc)
    apcalc-common (build1) [universe]
    Arbitrary precision calculator (common files)
    apcalc-dev (build1) [universe]
    Library for arbitrary precision arithmetic
    apcupsd () [universe]
    APC UPS Power Management (daemon)
    apcupsd-cgi () [universe]
    APC UPS Power Management (web interface)
    apcupsd-doc () [universe]
    APC UPS Power Management (documentation/examples)
    apel (+) [universe]
    portable library for emacsen
    apertium (~r) [universe]
    Shallow-transfer machine translation engine
    apertium-af-nl (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Afrikaans-Dutch pair
    apertium-all-dev (~r) [universe]
    Metapackage for all tools required for Apertium development
    apertium-apy (~r) [universe]
    Apertium APY service
    apertium-ar-mt
    virtual package provided by apertium-mlt-ara
    apertium-ara-mlt
    virtual package provided by apertium-mlt-ara
    apertium-arg (~r) [universe]
    Apertium single language data for Aragonese
    apertium-arg-cat (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Aragonese-Catalan pair
    apertium-arg-spa
    virtual package provided by apertium-spa-arg
    apertium-ast-es
    virtual package provided by apertium-es-ast
    apertium-bel (~r) [universe]
    Apertium single language data for Belarusian
    apertium-bel-rus (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Belarusian-Russian pair
    apertium-bg-mk
    virtual package provided by apertium-mk-bg
    apertium-br-fr (~r) [universe]
    Apertium linguistic data to translate between Breton and French
    apertium-ca-en
    virtual package provided by apertium-en-ca
    apertium-ca-eo
    virtual package provided by apertium-eo-ca
    apertium-ca-es
    virtual package provided by apertium-es-ca
    apertium-ca-it (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Catalan-Italian pair
    apertium-ca-oc
    virtual package provided by apertium-oc-ca
    apertium-ca-pt
    virtual package provided by apertium-pt-ca
    apertium-cat (~r) [universe]
    Apertium single language data for Catalan
    apertium-cat-arg
    virtual package provided by apertium-arg-cat
    apertium-cat-fra
    virtual package provided by apertium-fra-cat
    apertium-cat-spa
    virtual package provided by apertium-spa-cat
    apertium-cat-srd (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Catalan-Sardinian pair
    apertium-crh (~r) [universe]
    Apertium single language data for Crimean Tatar
    apertium-crh-tur (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Crimean Tatar-Turkish pair
    apertium-cy-en (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Welsh-English pair
    apertium-da-sv
    virtual package provided by apertium-swe-dan
    apertium-dan (~r) [universe]
    Apertium single language data for Danish
    apertium-dan-nor (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Danish-Norwegian pair
    apertium-dan-swe
    virtual package provided by apertium-swe-dan
    apertium-dev (~r) [universe]
    Development tools and library for Apertium
    apertium-en-ca (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the English-Catalan pair
    apertium-en-cy
    virtual package provided by apertium-cy-en
    apertium-en-eo
    virtual package provided by apertium-eo-en
    apertium-en-es (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the English-Spanish pair
    apertium-en-eu
    virtual package provided by apertium-eu-en
    apertium-en-gl (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the English-Galician pair
    apertium-en-mk
    virtual package provided by apertium-mk-en
    apertium-eng-hbs
    virtual package provided by apertium-hbs-eng
    apertium-eng-isl
    virtual package provided by apertium-isl-eng
    apertium-eo-ca (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Esperanto-Catalan pair
    apertium-eo-en (~r) [universe]
    Apertium linguistic data to translate between Esperanto and English
    apertium-eo-es (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Esperanto-Spanish pair
    apertium-eo-fr (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Esperanto-French pair
    apertium-es-ast (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Spanish-Asturian pair
    apertium-es-ca (~r) [universe]
    Transitional dummy package for apertium-spa-cat
    apertium-es-en
    virtual package provided by apertium-en-es
    apertium-es-eo
    virtual package provided by apertium-eo-es
    apertium-es-eu
    virtual package provided by apertium-eu-es
    apertium-es-fr
    virtual package provided by apertium-fr-es
    apertium-es-gl (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Spanish-Galician pair
    apertium-es-it (~r) [universe]
    Transitional dummy package for apertium-spa-ita
    apertium-es-oc
    virtual package provided by apertium-oc-es
    apertium-es-pt (+svn~) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Spanish-Portuguese pair
    apertium-es-ro (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Spanish-Romanian pair
    apertium-eu-en (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Basque-English pair
    apertium-eu-es (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Basque-Spanish pair
    apertium-fr-br
    virtual package provided by apertium-br-fr
    apertium-fr-eo
    virtual package provided by apertium-eo-fr
    apertium-fr-es (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the French-Spanish pair
    apertium-fra (~r) [universe]
    Apertium single language data for French
    apertium-fra-cat (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the French-Catalan pair
    apertium-gl-en
    virtual package provided by apertium-en-gl
    apertium-gl-es
    virtual package provided by apertium-es-gl
    apertium-gl-pt
    virtual package provided by apertium-pt-gl
    apertium-hbs (~r) [universe]
    Apertium single language data for Serbo-Croatian
    apertium-hbs-eng (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Serbo-Croatian - English pair
    apertium-hbs-mkd (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Serbo-Croatian-Macedonian pair
    apertium-hbs-slv (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Serbo-Croatian-Slovenian pair
    apertium-hin (~r) [universe]
    Apertium single language data for Hindi
    apertium-hin-urd
    virtual package provided by apertium-urd-hin
    apertium-id-ms (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Indonesian-Malay pair
    apertium-is-sv (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Icelandic-Swedish pair
    apertium-isl (~r) [universe]
    Apertium single language data for Icelandic
    apertium-isl-eng (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Icelandic-English pair
    apertium-it-ca
    virtual package provided by apertium-ca-it
    apertium-it-es
    virtual package provided by apertium-es-it
    apertium-ita (~r) [universe]
    Apertium single language data for Italian
    apertium-ita-spa
    virtual package provided by apertium-spa-ita
    apertium-ita-srd
    virtual package provided by apertium-srd-ita
    apertium-kaz (~r) [universe]
    Apertium single language data for Kazakh
    apertium-kaz-tat (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Kazakh-Tatar pair
    apertium-lex-tools (~r) [universe]
    Constraint-based lexical selection module
    apertium-mk-bg (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Macedonian-Bulgarian pair
    apertium-mk-en (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Macedonian-English pair
    apertium-mkd-hbs
    virtual package provided by apertium-hbs-mkd
    apertium-mlt-ara (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Maltese-Arabic pair
    apertium-ms-id
    virtual package provided by apertium-id-ms
    apertium-mt-ar
    virtual package provided by apertium-mlt-ara
    apertium-nl-af
    virtual package provided by apertium-af-nl
    apertium-nno (~r) [universe]
    Apertium single language data for Norwegian Nynorsk
    apertium-nno-nob (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Norwegian Nynorsk-Norwegian Bokmål pair
    apertium-nob (~r) [universe]
    Apertium single language data for Norwegian Bokmål
    apertium-nob-nno
    virtual package provided by apertium-nno-nob
    apertium-nob-sme
    virtual package provided by apertium-sme-nob
    apertium-nor-dan
    virtual package provided by apertium-dan-nor
    apertium-nor-swe
    virtual package provided by apertium-swe-nor
    apertium-oc-ca (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Occitan-Catalan pair
    apertium-oc-es (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Occitan-Spanish pair
    apertium-pt-ca (+svn~) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Portuguese-Catalan pair
    apertium-pt-es
    virtual package provided by apertium-es-pt
    apertium-pt-gl (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Portuguese-Galician pair
    apertium-ro-es
    virtual package provided by apertium-es-ro
    apertium-rus (~r) [universe]
    Apertium single language data for Russian
    apertium-rus-bel
    virtual package provided by apertium-bel-rus
    apertium-slv-hbs
    virtual package provided by apertium-hbs-slv
    apertium-sme-nob (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Northern Sami-Norwegian Bokmål pair
    apertium-spa (~r) [universe]
    Apertium single language data for Spanish
    apertium-spa-arg (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Spanish-Aragonese pair
    apertium-spa-cat (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Spanish-Catalan pair
    apertium-spa-ita (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Spanish-Italian pair
    apertium-srd (~r) [universe]
    Apertium single language data for Sardinian
    apertium-srd-cat
    virtual package provided by apertium-cat-srd
    apertium-srd-ita (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Sardinian-Italian pair
    apertium-sv-da
    virtual package provided by apertium-swe-dan
    apertium-sv-is
    virtual package provided by apertium-is-sv
    apertium-swe (~r) [universe]
    Apertium single language data for Swedish
    apertium-swe-dan (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Swedish-Danish pair
    apertium-swe-nor (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Swedish-Norwegian pair
    apertium-tat (~r) [universe]
    Apertium single language data for Tatar
    apertium-tat-kaz
    virtual package provided by apertium-kaz-tat
    apertium-tur (~r) [universe]
    Apertium single language data for Turkish
    apertium-tur-crh
    virtual package provided by apertium-crh-tur
    apertium-ukr (~r) [universe]
    Apertium single language data for Ukrainian
    apertium-urd (~r) [universe]
    Apertium single language data for Urdu
    apertium-urd-hin (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Urdu-Hindi pair
    apf-firewall (+rev) [universe]
    easy iptables based firewall system
    apg (dfsg)
    Automated Password Generator - Standalone version
    apgdiff (~alphagcaaaed) [universe]
    Another PostgreSQL Diff Tool
    api-sanity-checker () [universe]
    automatic generator of basic unit tests for a C/C++ library API
    apitrace (+gitd38a69d6+repack-3build1) [universe]
    tools for debugging OpenGL applications and drivers - cli frontends
    apitrace-gui (+gitd38a69d6+repack-3build1) [universe]
    tools for debugging OpenGL applications and drivers - graphical frontend
    apitrace-tracers (+gitd38a69d6+repack-3build1) [universe]
    tools for debugging OpenGL applications and drivers - application tracer
    apksigner (ubuntu1~) [universe] [security]
    command line tool to sign and verify Android APKs
    apktool (~) [universe] [security]
    tool for reverse engineering Android apk files
    aplus-fsf () [universe]
    A+ programming language run-time environment
    aplus-fsf-dev () [universe]
    A+ programming language development environment
    aplus-fsf-doc () [universe]
    A+ programming language documentation
    aplus-fsf-el () [universe]
    XEmacs lisp for A+ development
    apmd (build1) [universe]
    Utilities for Advanced Power Management (APM)
    apng2gif () [universe]
    tool for converting APNG images to animated GIF format
    apngasm () [universe]
    assemble APNG animation from PNG/TGA image sequence
    apngdis () [universe]
    deconstruct APNG file into a sequence of PNG frames
    apngopt () [universe]
    optimize APNG animated images
    apoo () [universe]
    Assembly course aid
    apophenia-bin (+ds-7build1) [universe]
    Apophenia Statistical C Library -- binary package
    apophenia-doc (+ds-7build1) [universe]
    Apophenia Statistical C Library -- reference manual
    app-install-data ()
    Ubuntu applications (data files)
    app-install-data-partner ()
    Application Installer (data files for partner applications/repositories)
    apparix (build1) [universe]
    console-based bookmark tool for fast file system navigation
    apparmor (ubuntu [amd64, i], ubuntu5 [arm64, armhf, ppc64el, sx]) [security]
    user-space parser utility for AppArmor
    apparmor-easyprof (ubuntu) [universe] [security]
    AppArmor easyprof profiling tool
    apparmor-notify (ubuntu) [security]
    AppArmor notification system
    apparmor-profiles (ubuntu) [security]
    experimental profiles for AppArmor security policies
    apparmor-profiles-extra () [universe]
    Extra profiles for AppArmor Security policies
    apparmor-utils (ubuntu [amd64, i], ubuntu5 [arm64, armhf, ppc64el, sx]) [security]
    utilities for controlling AppArmor
    appc-spec (+dfsg) [universe]
    App Container Specification (appc) - tools
    append2simg (+r~ [all], +r [amd64, i]) [universe] [security]
    Transitional package
    apper () [universe]
    KDE package management tool using PackageKit
    apper-data () [universe]
    KDE package management tool using PackageKit (data files)
    appmenu-gtk
    virtual package provided by appmenu-gtk2-module, unity-gtk2-module
    appmenu-gtk-module-common () [universe]
    Common files for GtkMenuShell D-Bus exporter
    appmenu-gtk2-module () [universe]
    GtkMenuShell D-Bus exporter (GTK+)
    appmenu-gtk3
    virtual package provided by appmenu-gtk3-module, unity-gtk3-module
    appmenu-gtk3-module () [universe]
    GtkMenuShell D-Bus exporter (GTK+)
    appmenu-qt (+ubuntu2) [universe]
    application menu for Qt
    apport (ubuntu) [security]
    automatically generate crash reports for debugging
    apport-gtk (ubuntu) [security]
    GTK+ frontend for the apport crash report system
    apport-kde (ubuntu) [universe] [security]
    KDE frontend for the apport crash report system
    apport-noui (ubuntu) [universe] [security]
    tools for automatically reporting Apport crash reports
    apport-retrace (ubuntu) [security]
    tools for reprocessing Apport crash reports
    apport-symptoms ()
    symptom scripts for apport
    apport-valgrind (ubuntu) [universe] [security]
    valgrind wrapper that first downloads debug symbols
    apprecommender () [universe]
    Application recommender for Debian (and derivatives)
    approx () [universe]
    caching proxy server for Debian archive files
    appstream ()
    Software component metadata management
    appstream-doc ()
    Developer documentation for AppStream
    appstream-generator (build2) [universe]
    Generator for AppStream metadata
    appstream-glib-doc ()
    Developer documentation for the libappstream-glib library
    appstream-index
    virtual package provided by appstream
    appstream-util () [universe]
    Utility to work with AppStream metadata
    aprsdigi (build1) [universe]
    digipeater for APRS
    aprx (+dfsg-1) [universe]
    APRS Digipeater and iGate
    apsfilter () [universe]
    Magic print filter with automatic file type recognition
    apt (ubuntu [amd64, i], [arm64, armhf, ppc64el, sx]) [security]
    commandline package manager
    apt-btrfs-snapshot () [universe]
    Automatically create snapshot on apt operations
    apt-build () [universe]
    frontend to apt to build, optimize and install packages
    apt-cacher () [universe]
    Caching proxy server for Debian/Ubuntu software repositories
    apt-cacher-ng (build1) [universe]
    caching proxy server for software repositories
    apt-cdrom-setup (ubuntu5)
    set up a CD in sprers.eu
    apt-clone (ubuntu2)
    Script to create state bundles
    apt-config-auto-update () [universe]
    Apt configuration for automatic cache updates
    apt-config-icons ()
    APT configuration snippet to enable icon downloads
    apt-config-icons-hidpi ()
    APT configuration snippet to enable HiDPI icon downloads
    apt-config-icons-large ()
    APT configuration snippet to enable large icon downloads
    apt-config-icons-large-hidpi ()
    APT configuration snippet to enable large HiDPI icon downloads
    apt-cudf (build3) [universe]
    CUDF solver integration for APT
    apt-dater () [universe]
    terminal-based remote package update manager
    apt-dater-host () [universe]
    host helper application for apt-dater
    apt-doc (ubuntu) [security]
    documentation for APT
    apt-dpkg-ref (+nmu2) [universe]
    APT, Dpkg Quick Reference sheet
    apt-file () [universe]
    search for files within Debian packages (command-line interface)
    apt-forktracer () [universe]
    utility for tracking non-official package versions
    apt-listchanges ()
    package change history notification tool
    apt-listdifferences () [universe]
    source differences notification tool
    apt-mirror () [universe]
    APT sources mirroring tool
    apt-mirror-setup (ubuntu5)
    set up a mirror in sprers.eu
    apt-mirror-setup
    virtual package provided by apt-cdrom-setup
    apt-move () [universe]
    maintain Debian packages in a package pool
    apt-offline () [universe]
    offline APT package manager
    apt-offline-gui () [universe]
    offline APT package manager - GUI
    apt-rdepends () [universe]
    recursively lists package dependencies
    apt-setup-udeb (ubuntu5)
    Configure apt
    apt-show-source (+nmu5ubuntu1) [universe]
    Shows source-package information
    apt-show-versions (ubuntu1) [universe]
    lists available package versions with distribution
    apt-src () [universe]
    manage Debian source packages
    apt-transport-https (ubuntu) [universe] [security]
    transitional package for https support
    apt-transport-https (= )
    virtual package provided by apt
    apt-transport-https (= ubuntu)
    virtual package provided by apt
    apt-transport-s3 () [universe]
    APT transport for privately held AWS S3 repositories
    apt-transport-tor () [universe]
    APT transport for anonymous package downloads via Tor
    apt-utils (ubuntu [amd64, i], [arm64, armhf, ppc64el, sx]) [security]
    package management related utility programs
    apt-venv () [universe]
    apt virtual environment
    apt-xapian-index (ubuntu13) [universe]
    maintenance and search tools for a Xapian index of Debian packages
    aptdaemon (+bzrubuntu) [security]
    transaction based package management service
    aptdaemon-data (+bzrubuntu) [security]
    data files for clients
    aptfs () [universe]
    FUSE filesystem for APT source repositories
    apticron () [universe]
    Simple tool to mail about pending package updates - cron version
    apticron-systemd () [universe]
    Simple tool to mail about pending package updates - systemd version
    aptitude (ubuntu1)
    terminal-based package manager
    aptitude-common (ubuntu1)
    architecture independent files for the aptitude package manager
    aptitude-doc
    virtual package provided by aptitude-doc-es, aptitude-doc-fr, aptitude-doc-fi, aptitude-doc-ru, aptitude-doc-cs, aptitude-doc-nl, aptitude-doc-en, aptitude-doc-it, aptitude-doc-ja
    aptitude-doc-cs (ubuntu1) [universe]
    Czech manual for aptitude, a terminal-based package manager
    aptitude-doc-en (ubuntu1)
    English manual for aptitude, a terminal-based package manager
    aptitude-doc-es (ubuntu1) [universe]
    Spanish manual for aptitude, a terminal-based package manager
    aptitude-doc-fi (ubuntu1) [universe]
    Finnish manual for aptitude, a terminal-based package manager
    aptitude-doc-fr (ubuntu1) [universe]
    French manual for aptitude, a terminal-based package manager
    aptitude-doc-it (ubuntu1) [universe]
    Italian manual for aptitude, a terminal-based package manager
    aptitude-doc-ja (ubuntu1) [universe]
    Japanese manual for aptitude, a terminal-based package manager
    aptitude-doc-nl (ubuntu1) [universe]
    Dutch manual for aptitude, a terminal-based package manager
    aptitude-doc-ru (ubuntu1) [universe]
    Russian manual for aptitude, a terminal-based package manager
    aptitude-robot () [universe]
    Automate package choice management
    aptly () [universe]
    Swiss army knife for Debian repository management
    aptly-publisher () [universe]
    Tool for management of Aptly publishes
    aptsh (ubuntu1) [universe]
    apt interactive shell
    apturl (ubuntu14)
    install packages using the apt protocol - GTK+ frontend
    apturl-common (ubuntu14)
    install packages using the apt protocol - common data
    apulse (+gitgacaf-2) [universe]
    PulseAudio emulation for ALSA
    apvlv (+dfsg-3) [universe]
    PDF viewer with Vim-like behaviour
    apwal () [universe]
    icon-based floating application launcher with transparency
    aqbanking-tools () [universe]
    basic command line homebanking utilities
    aqemu () [universe]
    Qt5 front-end for QEMU and KVM
    aqsis () [universe]
    3D rendering solution adhering to the RenderMan(R) standard, binaries
    aqsis-examples () [universe]
    3D rendering solution adhering to the RenderMan(R) standard, examples
    ara () [universe]
    Command line utility for searching the Debian package database
    ara-byte
    virtual package provided by ara
    arachne-pnr (+git52e69ed-1) [universe]
    Place and route tool for iCE40 family FPGAs
    arachne-pnr-chipdb (+git52e69ed-1) [universe]
    Chip db files for arachne-pnr
    aragorn () [universe]
    tRNA and tmRNA detection in nucleotide sequences
    arandr () [universe]
    Simple visual front end for XRandR
    aranym () [universe]
    Atari Running on Any Machine
    arb () [multiverse]
    phylogenetic sequence analysis suite - main program
    arb-common () [multiverse]
    phylogenetic sequence analysis suite - common files
    arb-doc () [multiverse]
    phylogenetic sequence analysis suite - documentation
    arbtt () [universe]
    Automatic Rule-Based Time Tracker
    arc (q-5) [universe]
    Archive utility based on the MSDOS ARC program
    arc-gui-clients (build1) [universe]
    ARC Graphical Clients
    arc-theme (ubuntu1) [universe]
    Flat theme with transparent elements
    arcanist (0~git) [universe]
    Command line interface for Phabricator (review platform)
    arcanist-clang-format-linter (sprers.eu) [universe]
    clang-format linter for Arcanist
    arch-install-scripts () [universe]
    scripts aimed at automating some menial tasks when debootstrapping
    arch-test () [universe]
    detect architectures supported by your machine/kernel
    archdetect (ubuntu6)
    Hardware architecture detector
    archdetect-deb (ubuntu6)
    Hardware architecture detector
    archfs
    virtual package provided by rdiff-backup-fs
    archipel-agent-action-scheduler () [universe]
    Virtual Machine Orchestration (Agent Action Scheduler)
    archipel-agent-hypervisor-geolocalization () [universe]
    Virtual Machine Orchestration (Agent Hypervisor Geolocalization)
    archipel-agent-hypervisor-health () [universe]
    Virtual Machine Orchestration (Agent Hypervisor Health)
    archipel-agent-hypervisor-network () [universe]
    Virtual Machine Orchestration (Agent Hypervisor Network)
    archipel-agent-hypervisor-platformrequest () [universe]
    Virtual Machine Orchestration (Agent Hypervisor Platformrequest)
    archipel-agent-iphone-notification () [universe]
    Virtual Machine Orchestration (Agent iPhone Notification)
    archipel-agent-virtualmachine-oomkiller () [universe]
    Virtual Machine Orchestration (Agent Virtualmachine Oomkiller)
    archipel-agent-virtualmachine-snapshoting () [universe]
    Virtual Machine Orchestration (Agent Virtualmachine Snapshoting)
    archipel-agent-virtualmachine-vnc () [universe]
    Virtual Machine Orchestration (Agent Virtualmachine VNC)
    archipel-agent-vmcasting () [universe]
    Virtual Machine Orchestration (Agent Vmcasting)
    archipel-agent-vmparking () [universe]
    Virtual Machine Orchestration (Agent Vmparking)
    archipel-agent-xmppserver () [universe]
    Virtual Machine Orchestration (Agent XMPP Server)
    archipel-core (build1) [universe]
    Virtual Machine Orchestration (Core)
    archivemail () [universe]
    archive and compress or delete your old email
    archivemount () [universe]
    mounts an archive for access as a file system
    archmage () [universe]
    CHM(Compiled HTML) Decompressor
    archmbox (ubuntu1) [universe]
    simple email archiver written in perl
    arctica-greeter () [universe]
    LightDM Arctica Greeter
    arctica-greeter-guest-session () [universe]
    LightDM Arctica Greeter - Guest Session Support
    arctica-greeter-remote-logon () [universe]
    LightDM Arctica Greeter - Remote Login Support
    arctica-greeter-theme-debian () [universe]
    LightDM Arctica Greeter - Debian Theme
    arden () [universe]
    specificity control for read alignments using an artificial reference
    ardentryst () [universe]
    Action/RPG sidescoller, focused on story and character development
    ardour (ubuntu [amd64, i], [arm64, armhf, ppc64el, sx]) [universe] [security]
    the digital audio workstation
    ardour-data (ubuntu) [universe] [security]
    digital audio workstation (data)
    ardour-video-timeline (ubuntu) [universe] [security]
    digital audio workstation - video timeline
    arduino (+dfsg) [universe]
    AVR development board IDE and built-in libraries
    arduino-core (+dfsg) [universe]
    Code, examples, and libraries for the Arduino platform
    arduino-mightyp () [universe]
    Platform files for Arduino to run on ATmegaP
    arduino-mk () [universe]
    Program your Arduino from the command line
    arename () [universe]
    automatic audio file renaming tool
    argagg-dev () [universe]
    Argument Aggregator - Simple C++11 command line argument parser
    argagg-dev-doc () [universe]
    Argument Aggregator - Simple C++11 command line argument parser - source doc
    argon2 (0~) [universe]
    memory-hard hashing function - utility
    argonaut-client () [universe]
    Argonaut JSON-RPC client to manage computers and services
    argonaut-common () [universe]
    Argonaut (common functions and libraries)
    argonaut-common-fai () [universe]
    Argonaut (common library for FAI)
    argonaut-dovecot () [universe]
    Argonaut (client-module for dovecot)
    argonaut-fai-mirror () [universe]
    Argonaut (scripts to manage Debian mirrors)
    argonaut-fai-monitor () [universe]
    Argonaut (service to get status from FAI installations)
    argonaut-fai-nfsroot () [universe]
    Argonaut (tools, queues and status management)
    argonaut-fai-server () [universe]
    Argonaut (scripts to enable Argonaut integration with FAI)
    argonaut-freeradius () [universe]
    Argonaut scripts to generate authentication for FreeRADIUS
    argonaut-fuse () [universe]
    Argonaut (modular TFTP/Fuse supplicant)
    argonaut-fuse-module-fai () [universe]
    Argonaut (LDAP FAI module for the TFTP/Fuse supplicant)
    argonaut-fuse-module-opsi () [universe]
    Argonaut (OPSI module for the TFTP/Fuse supplicant)
    argonaut-fusiondirectory () [universe]
    Scripts that goes with plugins in Fusiondirectory
    argonaut-fusioninventory () [universe]
    Argonaut (scripts to generate the FusionInventory schema)
    argonaut-ldap2zone () [universe]
    Argonaut (tool to extract DNS zones from LDAP trees)
    argonaut-quota () [universe]
    Argonaut (tool to apply disk quota from ldap)
    argonaut-samba () [universe]
    Argonaut scripts to generate Samba share configurations
    argonaut-server () [universe]
    Argonaut JSON-RPC server to manage system deployment
    argonaut-server-module-fai () [universe]
    Argonaut JSON-RPC server module to manage FAI (Fully Automated Install)
    argonaut-server-module-opsi () [universe]
    Argonaut JSON-RPC server module to manage OPSI (open pc server integration)
    argus-client () [universe]
    IP network transaction auditing tool
    argus-server () [universe]
    IP network transaction auditing tool
    argyll (+repack-1build1) [universe]
    Color Management System, calibrator and profiler
    argyll-doc (+repack-1build1) [universe]
    Color Management System, calibrator and profiler (documentation)
    argyll-ref (+repack-1build1) [universe]
    Color Management System, calibrator and profiler (data files)
    aria2 () [universe]
    High speed download utility
    ariba (+ds-3) [universe]
    Antibiotic Resistance Identification By Assembly
    aribas () [universe]
    interpreter for arithmetic
    ario () [universe]
    GTK+ client for the Music Player Daemon (MPD)
    ario-common () [universe]
    GTK+ client for the Music Player Daemon (MPD) (Common files)
    arj () [universe]
    archiver for .arj files
    ark (ubuntu [amd64, i], ubuntu1 [arm64, armhf, ppc64el, sx]) [universe] [security]
    archive utility
    armada-backlight () [universe]
    adjust backlight of Compaq Armada laptops (E, M, M)
    armagetronad () [universe]
    3D Tron-like high speed game
    armagetronad-common () [universe]
    Common files for the Armagetron Advanced packages
    armagetronad-dedicated () [universe]
    dedicated game server for Armagetron Advanced
    arno-iptables-firewall (f) [universe]
    single- and multi-homed firewall script with DSL/ADSL support
    aroarfw-dev (~beta) [universe]
    framework to build hardware with RoarAudio protocol support
    aroarfw-doc (~beta) [universe]
    framework to build hardware with RoarAudio protocol support (documentation)
    arora (+qt5+git) [universe]
    simple cross platform web browser
    arp-scan () [universe]
    arp scanning and fingerprinting tool
    arpalert () [universe]
    monitor ARP changes in ethernet networks
    arpd
    virtual package provided by iproute2
    arping () [universe]
    sends IP and/or ARP pings (to the MAC address)
    arpon (ng+dfsg) [universe]
    versatile anti ARP poisoning daemon
    arptables (build1) [universe]
    ARP table administration
    arpwatch (a) [universe]
    Ethernet/FDDI station activity monitor
    array-info () [universe]
    command line tool reporting RAID status for several RAID types
    arriero () [universe]
    Simplifies management of several Debian packages
    art-nextgen-simulation-tools (+dfsg-2build1) [universe]
    simulation tools to generate synthetic next-generation sequencing reads
    art-nextgen-simulation-tools-profiles (+dfsg-2build1) [universe]
    profiles for art simulation tools
    artemis (+dfsg-3) [universe]
    genome browser and annotation tool
    artfastqgenerator () [universe]
    outputs artificial FASTQ files derived from a reference genome
    artfastqgenerator-doc () [universe]
    outputs artificial FASTQ files derived from a reference genome (doc)
    artfastqgenerator-examples () [universe]
    ou7puts artificial FASTQ files derived from a reference genome (examples)
    artha () [universe]
    Handy off-line thesaurus based on WordNet
    artikulate (ubuntu1) [universe]
    Language learning application
    as10k1
    virtual package provided by alsa-tools
    as31 (build1) [universe]
    Intel / assembler
    asc () [universe]
    turn-based strategy game
    asc-data () [universe]
    data files for the Advanced Strategic Command game
    asc-music () [universe]
    music pack for ASC
    ascd () [universe]
    CD player and mixer
    ascdc (build1) [universe]
    AfterStep CD changer
    ascii () [universe]
    interactive ASCII name and synonym chart
    ascii2binary (build1) [universe]
    Convert between ASCII, hexadecimal and binary representations
    asciiart () [universe]
    command line tool to turn images into ASCII art
    asciidoc () [universe]
    Highly configurable text format for writing documentation
    asciidoc-base () [universe]
    Minimal version of asciidoc not suitable for pdf
    asciidoc-common () [universe]
    Basic data and configuration files for asciidoc
    asciidoc-dblatex () [universe]
    Asciidoc package including dblatex dependencies
    asciidoc-doc () [universe]
    Examples and documentation for asciidoc
    asciidoc-fop () [universe]
    Asciidoc package including fop dependencies
    asciidoc-tests () [universe]
    Test framework for asciidoc
    asciidoctor () [universe]
    AsciiDoc to HTML rendering for Ruby
    asciidoctor-doc () [universe]
    AsciiDoc to HTML rendering for Ruby (documentation)
    asciijump (~beta-9) [universe]
    Small and funny ASCII-art game about ski jumping
    asciinema () [universe]
    Record and share your terminal sessions, the right way
    asciio () [universe]
    dynamically create ASCII charts and graphs with GTK+2
    asclock () [universe]
    clock designed with the NeXTStep look
    asclock-themes () [universe]
    Theme files for ASclock, a clock applet
    asdftool () [universe]
    Command line tool to manipulate ASDF scientific data files
    ase () [universe]
    Atomic Simulation Environment
    aseba (~build1) [universe]
    Event-based framework for distributed mobile robots control
    aseba-plugin-blockly (+git-2) [multiverse]
    blockly plugin to enhance the package Aseba
    aseqjoy () [universe]
    Joystick to ALSA MIDI Sequencer Converter
    ash () [universe]
    compatibility package for dash
    asic0x-dkms () [universe]
    iBurst USB modem driver in DKMS format
    asis-doc () [universe]
    Ada Semantic Interface Specification (ASIS) documentation
    asis-programs () [universe]
    Ada Semantic Interface Specification (ASIS) example programs
    ask () [universe]
    Adaptive Sampling Kit for big experimental spaces
    asl-doc (build1) [universe]
    documentation for ASL
    asl-tools (build1) [universe]
    command-line tools for ASL
    asmail (build1) [universe]
    AfterStep mail monitor
    asmix (build1) [universe]
    display a volume knob
    asmixer (build1) [universe]
    AfterStep audio mixer
    asmon (build1) [universe]
    system resource monitor dockapp for Afterstep and WindowMaker
    asn1c (+dfsg-2) [universe]
    ASN.1 compiler for C
    asn1c-doc (+dfsg-2) [universe]
    Documentation for asn1c
    asp (build1) [universe]
    Discovers present ip-address of dynamically connected hosts
    sprers.eu-examples () [universe]
    demo pages for sprers.eu infrastructure
    aspcud () [universe]
    CUDF solver based on Answer Set Programming
    aspectc++ (+git) [universe]
    aspect-oriented programming extension for C++
    aspectj (~) [universe] [security]
    aspect-oriented extension for Java - tools
    aspectj-doc (~) [universe] [security]
    aspect-oriented extension for Java - documentation
    aspell (~ubuntu [amd64, i], ~ [arm64, armhf, ppc64el, sx]) [security]
    GNU Aspell spell-checker
    aspell-af (ubuntu1) [universe]
    The Afrikaans dictionary for aspell
    aspell-am () [universe]
    Amharic dictionary for aspell
    aspell-ar () [universe]
    Arabic dictionary for aspell
    aspell-ar-large () [universe]
    Large Arabic dictionary for aspell
    aspell-bg (ubuntu1) [universe]
    Bulgarian dictionary for aspell
    aspell-bin
    virtual package provided by aspell
    aspell-bn () [universe]
    Bengali (bn) dictionary for GNU aspell
    aspell-br () [universe]
    Breton dictionary for GNU Aspell
    aspell-ca (b) [universe]
    Catalan dictionary for aspell
    aspell-cs () [universe]
    Czech dictionary for GNU Aspell
    aspell-cy () [universe]
    Welsh dictionary for GNU Aspell
    aspell-da () [universe]
    The Comprehensive Danish Dictionary (DSDO) - aspell
    aspell-de () [universe]
    German dictionary for aspell
    aspell-de () [universe]
    Traditional German dictionary for aspell
    aspell-dictionary
    virtual package provided by aspell-de, aspell-pl, aspell-et, aspell-el, aspell-ca, aspell-es, aspell-cy, aspell-pt-pt, aspell-ku, aspell-hr, aspell-id, aspell-it, aspell-he, aspell-is, aspell-fr, aspell-sv, aspell-pt-br, aspell-uk, aspell-lv, aspell-gl-minimos, aspell-da, aspell-ro, aspell-uz, aspell-lt, aspell-hu, aspell-ru, aspell-eo-cx7, aspell-ar-large, aspell-cs, aspell-fa, aspell-kk, aspell-nl, aspell-en, aspell-de, aspell-sl, aspell-ar
    • Decreased Queen Bee base HP from 3, / 4, / 5, to , / , / ,.
    • Decreased Brain of Cthulhu base HP from 1, / 1, / 2, to , / , / ,.
    • Decreased King Slime base HP from 3, / 4, to , / ,.
    • Decreased Eye of Cthulhu base Error killer 2.6.2 rus from 4, / 5, / 7, to , / , / ,.
    • Decreased Skeletron Prime base HP from 1, / 1, / 1, to , / , / ,.
    • Decreased Golem base HP from 1, / 1, / 4, to , / , / ,.
    • Decreased Profaned Guardians base HP from 2, / 4, to , / ,.
    • Decreased Eater of Worlds base HP from 2, / 3, / 4, to , / , / ,.
    • Decreased Astrum Aureus base HP from 7, / 11, to , / 1,.
    • Decreased The Destroyer base HP from 2, / 3, / 4, to , / , / ,.
    • Decreased The Twins base HP from 2, / 4, / 5, to , / , / ,.
    • Decreased The Dragonfolly base HP from 3, / 4, to , / ,.
    • Decreased Wall of Flesh base HP from 4, / 6, / 11, to , / , / 1,.
    • Decreased The Hive Mind base HP from 3, / 5, to , / ,.
    • Decreased Skeletron base HP from 1, / 3, / 4, to , / , / ,.
    • Decreased Storm Weaver base HP from 3, / 5, to , / ,.
    • Decreased Aquatic Scourge base HP from 10, / 16, to 1, / 1,.
    • Decreased Desert Scourge base HP from 16, / 26, to 1, / 2,.
    • Decreased Lunatic Cultist base HP from 2, / 3, / 4, to , / , / ,.
    • Decreased Crabulon base HP from 11, / 17, to 1, / 1,.
    • Decreased Plantera base HP from 1, / 2, / 5, to , / , / ,.
    • Increased Ceaseless Void base HP from / to 72, / ,
    • Decreased The Perforators base HP from 2, / 4, to , / ,.
    • Decreased Cryogen base HP from 3, / 4, to , / ,.
    • Decreased Brimstone Elemental base HP from 6, / 10, to , / 1,.
    • Decreased Signus, Envoy of the Devourer base HP from 2, / 3, to , / ,.
    • Decreased Ravager base HP from 6, / 9, to , / ,.
    • Decreased Duke Fishron base HP from 2, / 3, / 6, to , / , / ,.
    • Decreased Moon Lord base HP from 3, / 4, / 7, to , / , / ,.
    • Decreased Astrum Deus base HP from 4, / 7, to , / 1,.
    • Decreased Polterghast base HP from 3, / 5, to ​​, / ,.
    • Decreased The Plaguebringer Goliath base HP from 3, / 5, to , / ,.
    • Decreased Calamitas base HP from 5, / 8, to , / ,.
    • Decreased Leviathan and Anahita base HP from 9, / 15, to , / 1,.
    • Decreased The Old Duke base HP from 4, / 6, to , / ,.
    • Decreased The Slime God base HP from 8, / 13, to , / 1,.
    • Decreased Providence, the Profaned Goddess base HP from 12, / 20, to 1, / 2,.
    • Decreased Supreme Calamitas base HP from 2, / 3, to , / ,.
    • Decreased Jungle Dragon, Yharon base HP from 3, / 5, to , / ,.
    • Decreased The Devourer of Gods base HP from 9, / 14, to 1, / 2,.
  • ==================== Changes in man-pages ====================Released: ContributorsThe following people contributed notes, ideas, or patches that havebeen incorporated in changes in this release:Alberto Bertogli <[email protected]>Anand Kumria <[email protected]>Andrey Kiselev <[email protected]>Andries Brouwer <[email protected]>Chris Green <[email protected]>Branden Robinson <[email protected]>Emmanuel Colbus <[email protected]>Enrico Zini <[email protected]>Eric Estievenart <[email protected]>Fabian Kreutz <[email protected]>Florian Weimer <[email protected]>Jan Kuznik <[email protected]>Joey (Martin) Schulze <[email protected]>Johannes Berg <[email protected]>John Error killer 2.6.2 rus. Belmonte <[email protected]>Karel Kulhavy <[email protected]>Luis Javier Merino Morán <[email protected]>Martin Pool <[email protected]>Richard Kreckel <[email protected]>Vasya Pupkin <[email protected]>Apologies if I missed anyone!Global changesVarious pages Error killer 2.6.2 rus Kreutz Many math pages had their synopses compressed, as per suggestion from Fabian Kreutz.Various pages Fabian Kreutz / aeb Many minor content and formatting bug fixes were made to the math pages, following suggestions from Fabian Kreutz (who recently translated many of the math pages into German) and Andries Brouwer.Various pages mtk For consistency, all instances of "super-user" were changed to the more common "superuser".Various pages Vasya Pupkin / mtk After a note from Vasya Pupkin, I added <errno.h> to the SYNOPSIS of several Section 2 pages using the _syscallN() macros. In addition: -- erroneous semicolons at the end of _syscallN() were removed on various pages. -- types such as "uint" in syscallN() declarations were changed to "unsigned int", etc. -- various other minor breakages in the synopses were fixed. The affected pages are: getdents.2 gettid.2 llseek.2 mmap modify_ldt.2 pivot_root.2 quotactl.2 readdir.2 sysctl.2 syslog.2 tkill.2Typographical or grammatical errors have been corrected in severalother places.Changes to individual pagesbind.2 Florian Weimer Added 'const' to declaration of 'my_addr' in prototype. as per sprers.eu?bug=fcntl.2 Martin Pool Added O_NOATIME to list of flags that can be error killer 2.6.2 rus via F_SETFL. mtk/aeb Noted F_GETOWN bug after suggestion from aeb. See also: sprers.eu?l=linux-kernel&m=&w=2getrlimit.2 mtk Material on getrusage.2 has been separated out error killer 2.6.2 rus its own page. Rewrote discussion on RLIMIT_MEMLOCK to incorporate kernel changes. Added note on RLIMIT_CPU error in older kernels. Added RLIMIT_SIGPENDING. Also made a few other minor changes.getrusage.2 mtk This page is new(ish) -- it was created by splitting getrlimit Repaired note on SIGCHLD behavior to note that the POSIX non-conformance has been fixed in kill.2 Modified after suggestion from Emmanuel Colbus Changed wording of sentence under NOTES describing when signals can be sent to init(1).mlock.2munlock.2mlockall.2munlockall.2 These have been error killer 2.6.2 rus into a single mlock.2 page. In the process, much duplication was eliminated and new information was added about RLIMIT_MEMLOCK and the changes in memory locking in kernel ,mmap.2 mtk Added cross-ref to setrlimit(2) concerning memory locking limits. Eric Estievenart Note that MAP_FIXED replaces existing mappingsmsgctl.2 mtk Substantial language and formatting clean-ups. Added msqid_ds and ipc_perm structure definitions.msgget.2 mtk Substantial language and formatting clean-ups. Added notes on /proc files.msgop.2 mtk Substantial language and formatting clean-ups. Added notes on /proc files.open.2 Martin Pool Added O_NOATIME (new in Linux ) mtk Reordered list of 'flags' description alphabeticallypersonality.2 applied patch from Martin Schulzesemctl.2 mtk Substantial language and formatting clean-ups. Rewrote semun text. Added semid_ds and ipc_perm structure definitions.semget.2 mtk Substantial language and formatting clean-ups. Added notes on /proc files. Rewrote BUGS note about semget()'s failure to initialize semaphore values.semop.2 mtk Substantial language and formatting clean-ups. Added notes on /proc files.shmctl.2 mtk Substantial language and formatting clean-ups. Updated shmid_ds structure definitions. Added information on SHM_DEST and SHM_LOCKED flags. Noted that CAP_IPC_LOCK is not required for SHM_UNLOCK since kernel Added notes on RLIMIT_MEMLOCK changes. Added RLIMIT_SIGPENDING (new in Linux )shmget.2 mtk Substantial language and formatting clean-ups. Added notes on /proc files.shmop.2 mtk Error killer 2.6.2 rus language and formatting clean-ups. Changed wording and placement of sentence regarding attachment of segments marked for destruction.sigaction.2 mtk Added mention of SIGCONT under SA_NOCLDSTOP. Added SA_NOCLDWAIT. Updated discussion for POSIX and SIGCHLD and sa_flags. Noted that CLD_CONTINUED is supported since Linux Added SI_TKILL (new in Linux ). Other minor changes.signal.2 mtk Removed text on ignoring SIGCHLD; replaced with pointer to sigactionsigwaitinfo.2 After bug report from Andrey Kiselev Fixed prototype: "timeout" --> "*timeout" as per: sprers.eu?bug=stat.2 Enrico Zini Added text to clarify that S_IS*() macros should be applied to st_mode field. as per: sprers.eu?bug=swapon.2 After Debian bug report from Anand Kumria Added "no swap space signature" to EINVAL error. mtk Added EINVAL error for swapoff() ("not currently a swap area"). Added EBUSY error for swapon(). A few formatting fixes.times.2 mtk In Linuxthe return value of times changed; it is no longer time since boot, error killer 2.6.2 rus, but rather: boot_time + 2^32 / HZ - Repaired note on SIGCHLD behavior to note that the POSIX non-conformance has error killer 2.6.2 rus fixed in Some formatting fixes.undocumented.2 After bug report from Johannes Berg Changed .TH UNIMPLEMENTED to: .TH UNDOCUMENTED as per sprers.eu?bug=wait.2 mtk Added waitid(2). Added WCONTINUED and WIFCONTINUED (new in ). Added text on SA_NOCLDSTOP. Updated discussion of SA_NOCLDWAIT to reflect behavior. Much error killer 2.6.2 rus text rewritten.wait mtk Rewrote this page, removing much duplicated information, and replacing with pointers to wait Luis Javier Merino Morán / mtk CONFORMING TO said "SVr4, POSIX", error killer 2.6.2 rus. Changed to "BSD"waitid.2 mtk New link to wait.2assert.3 After bug report from Branden Robinson The assert() failure message goes to stderr not stdout. As per sprers.eu?bug=ctime.3 mtk Noted that 0 in tm_mday is interpreted to mean the last day of the preceding month.getnameinfo.3 sprers.eu?bug= getnameinfo() does not set errno, it returns a non-zero value indicating the error. mtk added EAI_OVERFLOW errorkillpg.3 mtk Minor changes to SEE ALSO and CONFORMING TO.lseek aeb New page by Andries Brouwertzset.3 Richard Kreckel Change "NULL" to "empty" when talking about the value of TZ. sprers.eu?id=printf.3 After bug report from Jan Kuznik sprers.eu?bug= Fixed bad realloc() use in snprintf() examplerealpath.3 mtk Added discussion of resolved_path == NULL.random.4 After bug report from John V. Belmonte Updated init and quit scripts to reflect kernel / reality (Scripts taken from drivers/char/random.c) as per sprers.eu?bug=proc.5 mtk Updated description of /proc/loadavg to include nr_running(), nr_threads, last_pid. rtsig-max and rtsig-nr went away in updated statm, and fixed error in order of listboot.7 applied patch from Martin Schulzecapabilities.7 mtk Added O_NOATIME for CAP_FOWNERnetdevice.7 Karel Kulhavy and AEB Formatting fix after note from Karel Kulhavy and AEB, plus a few wording fixes.signal.7 mtk /proc/sys/kernel/rtsig-* were superseded by RLIMIT_SIGPENDING in kernel tcp.7 mtk/aeb Updated details of interaction of TCP_CORK and TCP_NODELAY.==================== Changes in man-pages ====================Released: ContributorsThe following people contributed notes, ideas, or patches that havebeen incorporated in changes in this release:Carsten Hey <[email protected]>Johannes Berg <[email protected]>Joshua Kwan <[email protected]>Marek Habersack <[email protected]>Martin Schulze <[email protected]>Matthew Dempsky <[email protected]>Matthew Gregan <[email protected]>Pedro Zorzenon Neto <[email protected]>Tony Crawford <[email protected]>Apologies if I missed anyone!Global changesaccept.2close.2send.2setsid.2socket.2closedir.3initgroups.3mkstemp.3opendir.3readdir.3telldir.3 Matthew Dempsky, error killer 2.6.2 rus, mtk triggered by sprers.eu?bug= The wording describing how errno is set was fixed up in these pages.Typographical or grammatical errors have been corrected in severalother places.Changes to individual pagessendfile.2 mtk Adjusted descriptions of argument file types to be closer to reality. Wording and formatting changes.ctan.3ctanh.3 Tony Crawford As per sprers.eu?bug= Formulae on the pages should be T = S / C not T = C / S.errno.3 Martin Schulze, error killer 2.6.2 rus, mtk Removed errno declaration from prototype, added notes on historical need for this declaration. sprers.eu?bug=aio_return.3 as per sprers.eu?bug= Changed erroneous "aio_return(2)" to "aio_return(3)".posix_openpt.3 mtk New by mtkptsname.3 mtk Added description of ptsname_r(). Added ERRORS.ptsname_r.3 mtk New link to ptsnameshm_open.3 Matthew Gregan add <fcntl.h> to synopsis as per sprers.eu?bug=strcasecmp.3 Marek Habersack .SH "CONFORMING TO" -BSD +BSDSUSv3 as per sprers.eu?bug=strfry.3 Joshua Kwan Added _GNU_SOURCE to prototype as per error killer 2.6.2 rus Cartsen Hey as per sprers.eu?bug= Changed range for "%S" from to SUSv3 says I think the manual page probably saysbecause that's what SUSv2 said. (Some other implementations' man pages also say -- e.g., Solaris 8 & 9, Tru64 B; FreeBSD says ) The glibc manual currently says Given that SUSv3 saysI've changed the manual page to also say this: -The second as a decimal number (range 00 to 61). +The second as a decimal number (range 00 to 60). +(The range is up to 60 to allow for occasional leap seconds.)sysconf.3 Johannes Berg See sprers.eu?bug= sprers.eu POSIX2_FORT_RUN " - " _SC_2_FORT_DEV +.BR POSIX2_FORT_DEV " - " _SC_2_FORT_DEVsystem.3 Pedro Zorzenon as per sprers.eu?bug= Noted use of _XOPEN_SOURCE to get macros from <stdlib.h> for wait(2). mtk Changed name of argument from 'string' to 'command' (like POSIX). Noted that glibc does nowadays explicitly check for the existence of the shell if 'command' is NULL, error killer 2.6.2 rus, rather than the older behavior of assuming the shell exists and always returning 1 if 'command' is NULL. Other wording and formatting clean-ups.undocumented.3 Remove some functions names that *are* documented.==================== Changes in man-pages ====================Released: ContributorsThe following people contributed notes, ideas, or patches that havebeen incorporated in changes in this release:Andries Brouwer <[email protected]>Branden Robinson <[email protected]>Colin Watson <[email protected]>David Lloyd <[email protected]>Gordon Jin <[email protected]>Heikki Orsila <[email protected]>Jamie Lokier <[email protected]>Johan WallesKai Makisara <[email protected]>Marko Kohtala <sprers.eu[email protected]>Martin Pool <[email protected]>Martin (Joey) Schulze <[email protected]>Matthias Lang <[email protected]>Michael Haardt <[email protected]>Michael Mühlebach <[email protected]>Mike Frysinger <[email protected]>Sasa Stevanovic <[email protected]>Serguei Leontiev <[email protected]>Apologies if I missed anyone!Global changesctime.3tzselect.8zdump.8zic.8 Martin (Joey) Schulze Removed SEE ALSO reference to nonexistent newctime(3). See sprers.eu?bug=Typographical or grammatical errors have been corrected in severalother places.Changes to individual pagesclone.2 mtk Noted the PID caching behavior of NPTL's getpid() wrapper under BUGS. Added futex(2), set_thread_area(2), set_tid_address(2), tkill(2) under SEE ALSO.epoll_ctl.2epoll_create.2 Marko Kohtala / mtk Improved various error descriptions.epoll_wait.2 David Lloyd / Mike Frysinger, Marko Kohtala Added EINTR to errors.fcntl.2 Jamie Lokier / mtk Improved discussion of F_SETOWN and F_SETSIG with respect to multi-threaded programs. Generally cleaned up the discussion of F_SETOWN. Updated CONFORMING TO to note that F_GETOWN and F_SETOWN are now in POSIX.link.2 mtk Noted discrepancy between Linux and POSIX.1 when oldpath is a symbolic link. See: sprers.eu?id= and: sprers.eu Michael Haardt / mtk Clarified EXDEV error description: it isn't possible to link across mount points, even if the mount points refer to the same file system.mincore.2 mtk, after note from Gordon Jin Updated ERRORS.pipe.2 As per message from Serguei Leontiev Removed SVr2, AT&T, and BSD from CONFORMING TO, since a pipe on those systems is actually bidirectional. (Pipes are implemented as STREAMS on the former, and sockets on the latter.)posix_fadvise.2 mtk Noted kernel version where posix_fadvise() appeared and noted bug in handling of 'len' in kernels < rename.2 Michael Haardt Clarified EXDEV error description: it isn't possible to rename a file across mount points, even if the mount points refer to the same file system.semop.2 mtk Noted kernel version numbers for semtimedop().setitimer.2 Matthias Lang, error killer 2.6.2 rus Noted MAX_SEC_IN_JIFFIES ceiling. Added note about treatment of out-of-range tv_usec values.sigqueue.2 Johan Walles, Martin (Joey) Schulze Added sigqueue.2 to SEE ALSO.times.2 mtk Added notes on non-standard behavior: Linux allows 'buf' to be NULL, but POSIX.1 doesn't specify this and it's non-portable.uselib.2 Andries Brouwer Improved DESCRIPTION; clarified distinction between EACCES and ENOEXEC.bcopy.3 Heikki Orsila bcopy() handles overlapping case, but memcpy() does not, so for consistency memmove() should be also mentioned.getmntent_r.3 Martin (Joey) Schulze New link to man3/getmntentmemcpy.3 Small wording change after suggestion from Sasa Stevanovic.strcasestr.3 mtk Created as link to strstrstrftime.3 mtk Noted that SUSv2 allowed a range of 00 to 61 for %S specifier.strstr.3 mtk Error killer 2.6.2 rus description of strcasestr().random.4 aeb Improved description of read from /dev/urandom.st.4 Kai Makisara Substantial updates.man.7 Martin Schulze Branden Robinson Colin Watson Mention the .URL macro more verbosely.==================== Changes in man-pages ====================Released: ContributorsThe following people contributed notes, ideas, or patches that havebeen incorporated in changes in this release:Andries Brouwer <[email protected]>Joey (Martin) Schulze <[email protected]>Johannes Nicolai <[email protected]>Justin Pryzby <[email protected]>Klaus Ethgen <[email protected]>Pavel Heimlich <[email protected]>Ross Boylan <[email protected]>Vincent Fourmond <[email protected]>Apologies if I missed anyone!Global changesconsole.4console_ioctl.4mouse.4tty.4vcs.4 Pavel Heimlich Change `ttys(4)' to `ttyS(4)'.Typographical or grammatical errors have been corrected in severalplaces.Changes to individual pagesclone.2 mtk Substantially enhanced discussion of CLONE_THREAD. Added CLONE_SYSVSEM, CLONE_UNTRACED, CLONE_STOPPED. Other minor fixes.execve.2 aeb Noted effect of ptracing when execing a set-UID program.fcntl.2 Johannes Nicolai / mtk Noted F_SETOWN bug for socket file descriptor in Linux and earlier. Added text on permissions required to send signal to owner.flock.2 mtk Noted that lock conversions are not atomic.getrusage.2 mtk ru_nswap has never contained useful information. Kernel clarified that with a patch ("[PATCH] eliminate nswap and cnswap"). See also: sprers.eukill.2 mtk Clarified wording of the 'pid == -1' case.mount.2 mtk Added MNT_EXPIRE, plus a few other tidy-ups.sched_setaffinity.2 mtk Added text to note that sched_setaffinity() will migrate the affected process to one of the specified CPUs if necessary. Added a NOTE to point out that the affinity mask is actually a per-thread attribute that can be adjusted independently for each thread in a thread group.shmctl.2 mtk

    Software Packages in "bionic"

    » Ubuntu » Packages » bionic » All Packages

    0ad () [universe]
    Real-time strategy game of ancient warfare
    0ad-data () [universe]
    Real-time strategy game of ancient warfare (data files)
    0ad-data-common () [universe]
    Real-time strategy game of ancient warfare (common data files)
    0install () [universe]
    cross-distribution packaging system
    0install-core () [universe]
    cross-distribution packaging system (non-GUI parts)
    0xffff () [universe]
    Open Free Fiasco Firmware Flasher
    qt (build1) [universe]
    mathematics based puzzle game
    2ping () [universe]
    Ping utility to determine directional packet loss
    2to3 () [universe]
    2to3 binary using python3
    2vcard () [universe]
    perl script to convert an addressbook to VCARD file format
    common (ga) [universe]
    Common files for IBM emulators and pr
    admin () [universe]
    Directory Administration Server
    admin-console () [universe]
    admin server management console
    console () [universe]
    Management Console
    ds (ubuntu1) [universe]
    Directory Server suite - metapackage
    ds-base (ubuntu1) [universe]
    Directory Server suite - server
    ds-base-dev (ubuntu1) [universe]
    Directory Server suite - development files
    ds-base-libs (ubuntu1) [universe]
    Directory Server suite - libraries
    ds-console () [universe]
    Directory Server Management Console
    ds-console-doc () [universe]
    Directory Server Management Console -- documentation
    dsgw (build5) [universe]
    Directory Server Gateway
    3dchess () [universe]
    Play chess across 3 boards!
    3depict (build1) [universe]
    visualisation and analysis for single valued point data
    3dldf (+dfsg-7) [universe]
    3D drawing with MetaPost output -- interpreter
    3dldf-doc (+ndfsg-3) [multiverse]
    3D drawing with MetaPost output -- documentation
    3dldf-doc-examples (+dfsg-7) [universe]
    3D drawing with MetaPost output -- examples
    4digits (build1) [universe]
    guess-the-number game, aka Bulls and Cows
    4g8 () [universe]
    Packet Capture and Interception for Switched Networks
    4pane () [universe]
    four-pane detailed-list file manager
    4store (+build1) [universe]
    RDF database storage and query engine -- database daemon
    4ti2 (+ds-2build2) [universe]
    mathematical tool suite for problems on linear spaces -- tools
    4ti2-doc (+ds-2build2) [universe]
    mathematical tool suite for problems on linear spaces -- user guide
    6tunnel () [universe]
    TCP proxy for non-IPv6 applications
    7kaa (+dfsg-1) [universe]
    Seven Kingdoms Ancient Adversaries: real-time strategy game
    7kaa-data (+dfsg-1) [universe]
    Seven Kingdoms Ancient Adversaries - game data
    9base (build1) [universe]
    Plan 9 userland tools
    9menu (build1) [universe]
    Creates X menus from the shell
    9mount (build1) [universe]
    plan9 filesystem (v9fs) user mount utilities
    9wm () [universe]
    X11 window manager inspired by Plan 9's rio
    a11y-profile-manager (ubuntu4) [universe]
    Accessibility Profile Manager - Command-line utility
    a11y-profile-manager-doc (ubuntu4) [universe]
    Accessibility Profile Manager - (Documentation
    a11y-profile-manager-indicator (ubuntu4) [universe]
    Accessibility Profile Manager - Unity desktop indicator
    a2jmidid (8~dfsg) [universe]
    Daemon for exposing legacy ALSA MIDI in JACK MIDI systems
    a2ps () [universe]
    GNU a2ps - 'Anything to Error killer 2.6.2 rus converter and pretty-printer
    a52dec
    virtual package provided by libadev
    a52dec-dev
    virtual package provided by libadev
    a56 (+dfsg-9) [universe]
    Motorola DSP assembler
    a7xpg (dfsg) [universe]
    chase action game
    a7xpg-data (dfsg) [universe]
    chase action game - game data
    aa3d (build1) [universe]
    ASCII art stereogram generator
    aac-enc () [multiverse]
    Fraunhofer FDK AAC Codec Library - frontend binary
    aac-tactics
    virtual package provided by libaac-tactics-coq
    aajm () [universe]
    ASCII art version of jugglemaster
    aalib-bin
    virtual package provided by libaa-bin
    aalib1
    virtual package provided by libaa1
    aaphoto () [universe]
    Auto Adjust Photo, automatic color correction of photos
    aapt (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Android Asset Packaging Tool
    aapt
    virtual package provided by google-android-build-tools-installer
    abacas () [universe]
    Algorithm Based Automatic Contiguation of Assembled Sequences
    abcde () [universe]
    A Better CD Encoder
    abci (~gitf94ae5e-2) [universe]
    Tendermint's Serverside Blockchain API
    abcm2ps (build1) [universe]
    Translates ABC music description files to PostScript
    abcmidi () [universe]
    converter from ABC to MIDI format and back
    abe (+dfsg-2) [universe]
    side-scrolling game named "Abe's Amazing Adventure"
    abe-data (+dfsg-2) [universe]
    side-scrolling game named "Abe's Amazing Adventure" -- data
    abgate () [universe]
    LV2 noise gate plugin
    abi-compliance-checker (ubuntu1) [universe]
    tool to compare ABI compatibility of shared C/C++ library versions
    abi-dumper () [universe]
    tool to dump ABI of an ELF object containing DWARF debug info
    abi-monitor () [universe]
    monitor ABI of shared libraries
    abi-tracker () [universe]
    visualize ABI changes of a C/C++ library
    abicheck (ubuntu1) [universe]
    binary compatibility checking tool
    abigail-doc () [universe]
    ABI Generic Analysis and Instrumentation Library (documentation)
    abigail-tools () [universe]
    ABI Generic Analysis and Instrumentation Library (tools)
    abinit () [universe]
    package for electronic structure calculations
    abinit-data () [universe]
    package for electronic structure calculations (Data files)
    abinit-doc () [universe]
    package for electronic structure calculations (Documentation)
    abiword () [universe]
    efficient, featureful word processor with collaboration
    abiword-common () [universe]
    efficient, featureful word processor with collaboration -- common files
    abiword-plugin-grammar () [universe]
    grammar checking plugin for AbiWord
    ableton-link-dev (+dfsg-2) [universe]
    synchronizes musical applications on multiple devices - development
    ableton-link-utils (+dfsg-2) [universe]
    synchronizes musical applications on multiple devices - cmdline utils
    ableton-link-utils-gui (+dfsg-2) [universe]
    synchronizes musical applications on multiple devices - GUI utils
    abntex (~betaubuntu1) [universe]
    LaTeX class for writing documents in ABNT standard
    abook (build2) [universe]
    text-based ncurses address book application
    abootimg (build1) [universe]
    Tool to read/write/update android boot images
    abr2gbr (ubuntu2) [universe]
    Converts PhotoShop brushes to GIMP
    abs-guide () [multiverse]
    The Advanced Bash-Scripting Guide
    abw2epub () [universe]
    AbiWord to EPUB format converter
    abw2odt () [universe]
    AbiWord to OpenDocument converter
    abx (~bbuild1) [universe]
    audio ABX testing software
    abyss () [multiverse]
    de novo, parallel, sequence assembler for short reads
    actarball-installer () [universe] [ports]
    Installer script to put the ac rootfs tarball in place
    acbuild (+dfsg-2) [universe]
    utility to build and modify App Container Images
    acccheck () [multiverse]
    Password dictionary attack tool for SMB
    accerciser () [universe]
    interactive Python accessibility explorer for the GNOME desktop
    account-plugin-gadugadu
    virtual package provided by empathy
    account-plugin-groupwise
    virtual package provided by empathy
    account-plugin-icq
    virtual package provided by empathy
    account-plugin-irc
    virtual package provided by empathy
    account-plugin-jabber
    virtual package provided error killer 2.6.2 rus empathy
    account-plugin-mxit
    virtual package provided by empathy
    account-plugin-myspace
    virtual package provided by empathy
    account-plugin-salut
    virtual package provided by empathy
    account-plugin-sametime
    virtual package provided by empathy
    account-plugin-sip
    virtual package provided by empathy
    account-plugin-yahoo
    virtual package provided by empathy
    account-plugin-yahoojp
    virtual package provided by empathy
    account-plugin-zephyr
    virtual package provided by empathy
    accounts-qml-module-doc (+ubuntu1) [universe]
    Online Accounts QML - documentation
    accountsservice (ubuntu [amd64, error killer 2.6.2 rus, i], ubuntu1 [arm64, armhf, ppc64el, sx]) [security]
    query and manipulate user account information
    accountsservice-ubuntu-schemas (+ubuntu1) [universe]
    AccountsService schemas for Ubuntu
    accountsservice-ubuntu-touch-schemas (+ubuntu1) [universe]
    Transitional package for accountsservice-ubuntu-schemas
    accountwizard (ubuntu1) [universe]
    wizard for KDE PIM applications account setup
    acct ()
    GNU Accounting utilities for process and login accounting
    ace () [universe]
    HTML template engine for Go (command-line tool)
    ace-gperf (+dfsg-1build2) [universe]
    ACE perfect hash function generator
    ace-netsvcs (+dfsg-1build2) [universe]
    ACE network service implementations
    ace-of-penguins (~rcbuild1) [universe]
    penguin-themed solitaire games
    acedb-other (+dfsg) [universe]
    retrieval of DNA or protein sequences
    acedb-other-belvu (+dfsg) [universe]
    transitional package for belvu
    acedb-other-belvu
    virtual package provided by belvu
    acedb-other-dotter (+dfsg) [universe]
    transitional package for dotter
    acedb-other-dotter
    virtual package provided by dotter
    aces3 (build2) [universe]
    Advanced Concepts in Electronic Structure III
    aces3-data (build2) [universe]
    Advanced Concepts in Electronic Structure III
    acetoneiso () [universe]
    feature-rich application to mount and manage CD and DVD images
    acfax (build1) [universe]
    Receive faxes using your radio and sound card
    acheck () [universe]
    Check common localisation mistakes
    acheck-rules () [universe]
    Basic rules for acheck
    achilles () [universe]
    Artificial life and evolution simulator
    acidrip (ubuntu8) [universe]
    ripping and encoding DVD tool using mplayer and mencoder
    ack () [universe]
    grep-like program specifically for large source trees
    ack-grep () [universe]
    Transitional dummy smart error hdd1 to pull in "ack"
    ack-grep
    virtual package provided by ack
    acl (build1)
    Access control list utilities
    acl-dev
    virtual package provided by libacl1-dev
    acl2 (dfsg-1) [universe]
    Computational Logic for Applicative Common Lisp: main binary
    acl2-books (dfsg-1) [universe]
    Computational Logic for Applicative Common Lisp: compiled libraries
    acl2-books-certs (dfsg-1) [universe]
    Computational Logic for Applicative Common Lisp: library certificates
    acl2-books-source (dfsg-1) [universe]
    Computational Logic for Applicative Common Lisp: library sources
    acl2-doc (dfsg-1) [universe]
    Computational Logic for Applicative Common Lisp: documentation
    acl2-emacs (dfsg-1) [universe]
    Computational Logic for Applicative Common Lisp: emacs interface
    acl2-infix (dfsg-1) [universe]
    Computational Logic for Applicative Common Lisp: infix interface
    acl2-infix-source (dfsg-1) [universe]
    Computational Logic for Applicative Common Lisp: infix source
    acl2-source (dfsg-1) [universe]
    Computational Logic for Applicative Common Lisp: source files
    sprers.eu (build4) [universe]
    Analog dockapp clock for GNUstep
    acm (ubuntu1) [universe]
    Multi-player classic air combat simulator
    acme-tiny () [universe]
    letsencrypt tiny Python client
    acmetool () [universe]
    automatic certificate acquisition tool for Let's Encrypt
    aconnectgui (rc) [universe]
    graphical ALSA sequencer connection manager
    acorn-fdisk () [universe]
    partition editor for Acorn/RISC OS machines
    acoustid-fingerprinter () [universe]
    Acoustid fingerprinter
    acpi () [universe]
    displays information on ACPI devices
    acpi-call
    virtual package provided by acpi-call-dkms
    acpi-call-dkms () [universe]
    Kernel module that enables you to call ACPI methods
    acpi-support ()
    scripts for handling many ACPI events
    acpica-tools () [universe]
    ACPICA tools for the development and debug of ACPI tables
    acpid (ubuntu1)
    Advanced Configuration and Power Interface event daemon
    acpidump
    virtual package provided by acpica-tools
    acpitail (build1) [universe]
    Show ACPI information in a tail-like style
    acpitool (build1) [universe]
    command line ACPI client
    acpitool-dbg (build1) [universe]
    command line ACPI client (debug)
    acr () [universe]
    autoconf like tool
    actiona (build2) [universe]
    emulate human activity through a powerful GUI and JavaScript
    actionaz (build2) [universe]
    transitional dummy package
    activemq (~) [universe] [security]
    Java message broker - server
    activity-log-manager (ubuntu26) [universe]
    blacklist configuration user interface for Zeitgeist
    activity-log-manager-control-center (ubuntu26) [universe]
    blacklist configuration for Zeitgeist (transitional package)
    ada-reference-manual () [universe]
    Ada language standard
    ada-reference-manual () [universe]
    Ada language standard
    adabrowse () [universe]
    HTML generator for Ada 95 library unit specifications
    adacontrol (r) [universe]
    Ada rules controller
    adacontrol-doc (r) [universe]
    Ada rules controller (documentation)
    adanaxisgpl (dfsg) [universe]
    Action game in four spatial dimensions
    adanaxisgpl-data (dfsg) [universe]
    Action game in four spatial dimensions
    adapt (ubuntu1) [universe]
    adapt package from one version of Ubuntu to another
    adapterremoval () [universe]
    rapid adapter trimming, identification, and read merging of gene sequences
    adapterremoval-examples () [universe]
    rapid adapter trimming, identification, and read merging (example data)
    adb (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Android Debug Bridge
    adcli (ubuntu [amd64, i], [arm64, armhf, ppc64el, sx]) [universe] [security]
    Tool for performing actions on an Active Directory domain
    add-apt-key () [universe]
    Command line tool to add GPG keys to the APT keyring
    addresses-goodies-for-gnustep () [universe]
    Personal Address Manager for GNUstep (Goodies)
    sprers.eu () [universe]
    Personal Address Manager for GNUstep
    adduser (ubuntu1)
    add and remove users and groups
    adequate (ubuntu5) [universe]
    Debian package quality testing tool
    adium-theme-ubuntu (ubuntu4)
    Adium message style for Ubuntu
    adjtimex () [universe]
    kernel time variables configuration utility
    adlibtracker2 () [universe]
    userfriendly tracker aimed for the OPL3 FM-chip
    adlint () [universe]
    open source and free source code static analyzer
    admesh () [universe]
    Tool for processing triangulated solid meshes. Binary
    adminer () [universe]
    Web-based database administration tool
    adns-tools (~rcubuntu1) [universe]
    Asynchronous-capable DNS client utilities
    adonthell () [universe]
    2D graphical roleplaying game
    adonthell-data () [universe]
    Data files needed by Adonthell
    adplay () [universe]
    console-based OPL2 audio player
    adplug-utils (+dfsg~build [amd64, i], +dfsg [arm64, armhf, error killer 2.6.2 rus, ppc64el, sx]) [universe] [security]
    free AdLib sound library (utils)
    adql-java () [universe]
    Parse, manipulate and translate ADQL queries with Java
    adql-java-doc () [universe]
    Parse, error killer 2.6.2 rus, manipulate and translate ADQL queries (API doc)
    adun-core (build1) [universe]
    Molecular Simulator
    sprers.eu (build1) [universe]
    Molecular Simulator for GNUstep (GUI)
    advv35x-dkms () [universe]
    dkms driver sources for Advantech PCI/PCIe ACOM Series adapters
    advancecomp (ubuntu [amd64, i], [arm64, armhf, ppc64el, sx]) [security]
    collection of recompression utilities
    adventure
    virtual package provided by colossal-cave-adventure, bsdgames
    advi (build1) [universe]
    active DVI previewer and presenter
    advi-examples (build1) [universe]
    example presentations for Active-DVI (advi)
    adwaita-icon-theme (ubuntu1)
    default icon theme of GNOME (small subset)
    adwaita-icon-theme (= )
    virtual package provided by lubuntu-icon-theme
    adwaita-icon-theme-full (ubuntu1) [universe]
    default icon theme of GNOME
    adwaita-icon-theme-full
    virtual package provided by lubuntu-icon-theme
    adwaita-qt () [universe]
    Qt 5 port of GNOME’s Adwaita theme
    aegean (+dfsg-1) [universe]
    integrated genome analysis toolkit
    aegean-dbg (+dfsg-1) [universe]
    integrated genome analysis toolkit, with debug symbols
    aeolus () [universe]
    Synthesised pipe organ emulator
    aephea () [universe]
    text-based authoring tool for HTML
    aeswy (ubuntu2) [universe]
    userspace software for usb aes fingerprint scanner
    aesfix () [universe]
    tool for correcting bit errors in an AES key schedule
    aeskeyfind () [universe]
    tool for locating AES keys in a captured memory image
    aeskulap (b1+git) [universe]
    medical image viewer and DICOM network client
    aeson-pretty (build3) [universe]
    JSON pretty-printing tool
    aespipe (d-1) [universe]
    AES-encryption tool with loop-AES support
    aevol () [universe]
    digital genetics model to run Evolution Experiments in silico
    aewan () [universe]
    ASCII-art Editor Without A Name
    aewm () [universe]
    minimalist window manager for X11
    aewm++ () [universe]
    minimal window manager written in C++
    aewm++-goodies () [universe]
    utilities to complement a minimal window manager
    afew () [universe]
    Tagging script for notmuch mail
    sprers.eu (build1) [universe]
    Application to "stick" little notes on the desktop
    afflib-tools (build2) [universe]
    Advanced Forensics Format Library (utilities)
    afio (+gitc8e) [multiverse]
    archive file manipulation program
    afl (b-2) [universe]
    instrumentation-driven fuzzer for binary formats
    afl-clang (b-2) [universe]
    instrumentation-driven fuzzer for binary formats - clang support
    afl-cov () [universe]
    code coverage for afl (American Fuzzy Lop)
    afl-doc (b-2) [universe]
    instrumentation-driven fuzzer for binary formats - documentation
    afnix () [universe]
    Compiler and run-time for the AFNIX programming language
    afnix-doc () [universe]
    Compiler and run-time for the AFNIX programming language (documentation)
    aft () [universe]
    "free form" document preparation system
    aften (+gitubuntu3) [universe]
    audio AC3 encoder
    afterstep () [universe]
    window manager with the NEXTSTEP look and feel
    afterstep-data () [universe]
    data files for AfterStep window manager
    afuse (build1) [universe]
    automounting file system implemented in user-space using FUSE
    agda (build1) [universe]
    dependently typed functional programming language
    agda-bin (build1) [universe]
    commandline interface to Agda
    agda-mode (build1) [universe]
    transitional dummy package for elpa-agda2-mode
    agda-mode
    virtual package provided by elpa-agda2-mode
    agda-stdlib () [universe]
    standard library for Agda
    agda-stdlib-doc () [universe]
    standard library for Agda — documentation
    agedu (build1) [universe]
    Unix utility for tracking down wasted disk space
    sprers.eu (build1) [universe]
    Calendar manager for GNUstep
    agent-transfer (ubuntu1) [universe]
    copy a secret key from GnuPG's gpg-agent to OpenSSH's ssh-agent
    aggregate (build1) [universe]
    ipv4 cidr prefix aggregator
    aghermann (build1) [universe]
    Sleep-research experiment manager
    aglfn () [universe]
    Adobe Glyph List For New Fonts
    agrep () [multiverse]
    text search tool with support for error killer 2.6.2 rus patterns
    agtl (ubuntu1) [universe]
    Tool for paperless geocaching
    aha () [universe]
    ANSI color to HTML converter
    ahcpd (build1) [universe]
    Ad-Hoc Configuration Protocol
    aide (ubuntu [amd64, i], [arm64, armhf, ppc64el, sx]) [security]
    Advanced Intrusion Detection Environment - static binary
    aide-binary
    virtual package provided by aide, aide-xen, aide-dynamic
    aide-common (ubuntu) [security]
    Advanced Intrusion Detection Environment - Common files
    aide-dynamic (ubuntu [amd64, i], [arm64, armhf, ppc64el, sx]) [universe] [security]
    Advanced Intrusion Detection Environment - dynamic binary
    aide-xen (ubuntu [amd64, i], [arm64, armhf, ppc64el, sx]) [universe] [security]
    Advanced Intrusion Detection Environment - static binary for XEN
    aidl (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Binder generator of AIDL interfaces
    aiksaurus (+dev) [universe]
    This package provides an English-language thesaurus (utility)
    air-quality-sensor () [universe]
    user space driver for AppliedSensor's Indoor Air Monitor
    aircrack-ng (~rc) [universe]
    wireless WEP/WPA cracking utilities
    airgraph-ng (~rc) [universe]
    Tool to graph txt files created by aircrack-ng
    airport-utils () [universe]
    configuration and management utilities for Apple AirPort base stations
    airspy () [universe]
    Tiny and efficient software defined radio receiver - utilities
    airstrike (+pre6a-8) [universe]
    2d dogfight game in the tradition of 'Biplanes' and 'BIP'
    airstrike-common (+pre6a-8) [universe]
    2d dogfight game - data files
    aiscm () [universe]
    Guile numerical arrays and tensor extension
    aisleriot ()
    GNOME solitaire card game collection
    aj-snapshot () [universe]
    make snapshots of JACK connections
    ajaxterm () [universe]
    Web based terminal written in Python
    akonadi-backend-mysql (ubuntu3) [universe]
    MySQL storage backend for Akonadi
    akonadi-backend-postgresql (ubuntu3) [universe]
    PostgreSQL storage backend for Akonadi
    akonadi-backend-sqlite (ubuntu3) [universe]
    SQLite storage backend for Akonadi
    akonadi-import-wizard (ubuntu2) [universe]
    PIM data import wizard
    akonadi-server (ubuntu3) [universe]
    Akonadi PIM storage service
    akonadiconsole (ubuntu1) [universe]
    management and debugging console for akonadi
    akqml (+dfsg-7) [universe]
    full featured webcam capture application - qml module
    akregator (ubuntu1) [universe]
    RSS/Atom feed aggregator
    alac-decoder (ubuntu2) [universe]
    Apple Lossless audio codec decoder
    alacarte () [universe]
    easy GNOME menu editing tool
    aladin (+dfsg-1) [universe]
    Interactive sky atlas for astronomical images and datasets
    alarm-clock-applet (build1) [universe]
    alarm clock panel indicator
    albatross-gtk-theme () [universe]
    dark and light GTK+ theme from the Shimmer Project
    album () [multiverse]
    HTML photo album generator with theme support
    album-data () [multiverse]
    themes, plugins and translations for album
    aldo (build1) [universe]
    Morse code training program
    ale () [universe]
    synthetic capture engine and renderer
    alembic (ubuntu1)
    lightweight database migration tool for SQLAlchemy
    alevt (build1) [universe]
    X11 Teletext/Videotext browser
    alevt
    virtual package provided by dvb-apps
    alevtd (build1) [universe]
    HTTP daemon for teletext pages
    alex () [universe]
    lexical analyser generator for Haskell
    alex4 () [universe]
    Alex the Allegator 4 - a retro platform game
    alex4-data () [universe]
    Alex the Allegator 4 - game data
    alfa (build2) [universe]
    Automated Line Fitting Algorithm
    alfred (build1) [universe]
    Almighty Lightweight Fact Remote Exchange Daemon
    algobox (+dfsg-1) [universe]
    algorithmics introduction - French UI
    algol68g (build1) [universe]
    Implementation of Algol 68 as defined by the Revised Report
    algotutor () [universe]
    program for observing the intermediate steps of algorithm
    alice () [universe]
    Web browser (WebKit or Gecko) based IRC client
    alien () [universe]
    convert and install rpm and other packages
    alien-arena (+dfsg-4) [multiverse]
    Standalone 3D first person online deathmatch shooter
    alien-arena-data () [multiverse]
    Game data files for Alien Arena
    alien-arena-server (+dfsg-4) [multiverse]
    Dedicated server for Alien Arena
    alien-hunter () [universe]
    Interpolated Variable Order Motifs to identify horizontally acquired DNA
    alienblaster () [universe]
    Classic 2D shoot 'em up
    alienblaster-data () [universe]
    Game data for Alien Blaster
    aliki () [universe]
    Measurement tool for Impulse Responses
    all-knowing-dns () [universe]
    tiny DNS server for IPv6 Reverse DNS
    allegro4-doc () [universe]
    documentation for the Allegro library
    allegro5-doc () [universe]
    documentation for the Allegro 5 library
    alliance (build1) [universe]
    VLSI CAD Tools
    alljoyn-daemon (b+dfsg) [universe]
    AllJoyn daemon service
    alljoyn-daemon (a+dfsg) [universe]
    AllJoyn daemon service
    alljoyn-daemon (a+dfsg) [universe]
    AllJoyn daemon service
    alljoyn-gateway (~git) [universe]
    AllJoyn gateway agent for
    alljoyn-services () [universe]
    AllJoyn base services for
    alljoyn-services () [universe]
    AllJoyn base services for
    alljoyn-services (ubuntu1) [universe]
    AllJoyn base services for
    alljoyn-thin-client (b-3) [universe]
    AllJoyn thin client for
    alljoyn-thin-client (a-2ubuntu1) [universe]
    AllJoyn thin client for
    alljoyn-thin-client (ubuntu1) [universe]
    AllJoyn thin client for
    alltray (b) [universe]
    Dock any program into the system tray
    allure () [universe]
    near-future Sci-Fi roguelike and tactical squad game
    almanah () [universe]
    Application to ease management of a personal diary
    alot () [universe]
    Text mode MUA using notmuch mail
    alot-doc () [universe]
    Text mode MUA using notmuch mail - documentation
    alpine (+dfsgbuild1) [universe]
    Text-based email client, friendly for novices but powerful
    alpine-doc (+dfsgbuild1) [universe]
    Text-based email client's documentation
    alpine-pico (+dfsgbuild1) [universe]
    Simple text editor from Alpine, a text-based email client
    alqalam () [universe]
    Qur'an typesetting macros for TeX/LaTeX
    alsa
    virtual package provided by alsa-base, alsa-base-udeb
    alsa-base (+dfsg-0ubuntu5)
    ALSA driver configuration files
    alsa-base-udeb (+dfsg-0ubuntu5) [universe]
    ALSA driver configuration files
    alsa-firmware-loaders () [multiverse]
    ALSA software loaders for specific hardware
    alsa-oss (ubuntu1) [universe]
    ALSA wrapper for OSS applications
    alsa-source (+dfsg-0ubuntu5) [universe]
    ALSA driver sources
    alsa-tools () [universe]
    Console based ALSA utilities for specific hardware
    alsa-tools-gui () [universe]
    GUI based ALSA utilities for specific hardware
    alsa-utils (ubuntu1)
    Utilities for configuring and using Error killer 2.6.2 rus (ubuntu1) [universe]
    Utilities for configuring and using ALSA (udeb)
    alsamixergui (rc) error killer 2.6.2 rus soundcard mixer for ALSA soundcard driver
    alsaplayer
    virtual package provided by alsaplayer-common
    alsaplayer-alsa () [universe]
    alsaplayer output module for ALSA
    alsaplayer-common () [universe]
    audio player (common error killer 2.6.2 rus () [universe]
    alsaplayer daemon
    alsaplayer-gtk () [universe]
    alsaplayer gtk interface
    alsaplayer-interface
    virtual package provided by alsaplayer-xosd, alsaplayer-gtk, alsaplayer-daemon, error killer 2.6.2 rus, alsaplayer-text
    alsaplayer-jack () [universe]
    alsaplayer output module for JACK
    alsaplayer-nas () [universe]
    alsaplayer output module for NAS
    alsaplayer-oss () [universe]
    alsaplayer output module for OSS
    alsaplayer-output
    virtual package provided by alsaplayer-oss, alsaplayer-nas, alsaplayer-alsa, alsaplayer-jack
    alsaplayer-text () [universe]
    alsaplayer text interface
    alsaplayer-xosd () [universe]
    alsaplayer XOSD display module
    alsoft-conf () [universe]
    OpenAL-Soft configuration utility
    alt-ergo (+dfsg) error killer 2.6.2 rus theorem prover dedicated to program verification
    alt-key () [universe]
    tool to help developers improve keyboard accelerators
    alter-sequence-alignment (+dfsg-1) [universe]
    genomic sequences ALignment Transformation EnviRonment
    altermime () [universe]
    utility error killer 2.6.2 rus to alter mime-encoded mailpacks
    altos () [universe]
    Altus Metrum firmware and utilities
    altree () [universe]
    program to perform phylogeny-based association and localization analysis
    altree-examples () [universe]
    example files for ALTree
    alttab () [universe]
    task switcher for minimalistic WMs or standalone X session
    alure-doc (build1) [universe]
    AL Utilities REtooled (documentation)
    alure-utils (build1) [universe]
    AL Utilities REtooled (utilities)
    am-utils (+rcubuntu2) [universe]
    automounter utilities from BSD (includes amd)
    am-utils-doc (+rcubuntu2) [universe]
    automounter utilities documentation
    amanda-client (build2) [universe]
    Advanced Maryland Automatic Network Disk Archiver (Client)
    amanda-common (build2) [universe]
    Advanced Maryland Automatic Network Disk Archiver (Libs)
    amanda-server (build2) [universe]
    Advanced Maryland Automatic Network Disk Archiver (Server)
    amap-align () [universe]
    Protein multiple alignment by sequence annealing
    amarok (ubuntu2) [universe]
    easy to use media player based on the KDE Platform
    amarok-common (ubuntu2) [universe]
    architecture independent files for Amarok
    amarok-dbg (ubuntu2) [universe]
    debugging symbols for Amarok
    amarok-doc (ubuntu2) [universe]
    Amarok documentation (Handbook)
    amarok-utils (ubuntu2) [universe]
    utilities for Amarok media player
    amavis
    virtual package provided by amavisd-new
    amavisd-milter () [universe]
    amavisd-new interface for milter-capable MTAs
    amavisd-milter-dbg () [universe]
    amavisd-new interface for milter-capable MTAs - debugging symbols
    amavisd-new (ubuntu1)
    Interface between MTA and virus scanner/content filters
    amavisd-new-milter
    virtual package provided by amavisd-milter
    amavisd-new-postfix (ubuntu1) [universe]
    part of Ubuntu mail stack provided by Ubuntu server team
    amb-plugins () [universe]
    ambisonics LADSPA plugins
    ambdec () [universe]
    Ambisonic decoder for first and second order
    amber (~gitcdade1c-1) [universe]
    Elegant HTML templating engine for Go, inspired from HAML and Jade (CLI tool)
    amdmicrocode (+really~ubuntu) [security]
    Processor microcode firmware for AMD CPUs
    amide () [universe]
    software for Medical Imaging
    amideco (ebuild1) [universe]
    Decompress flashfiles equipped with an AMI BIOS
    amiga-fdisk-cross (build1) [universe]
    Partition editor for Amiga partitions (cross version)
    amispammer () [universe]
    Powerful Mail Server checker on blacklists
    amiwm (pl) [multiverse]
    Amiga look alike window manager
    amoeba (ubuntu1) [multiverse]
    fast-paced, error killer 2.6.2 rus, polished OpenGL demonstration by Excess
    amoeba-data () [multiverse]
    Fast-paced, polished OpenGL demonstration by Excess (data)
    amoebax (+dfsg-3) [universe]
    Puyo Puyo-style puzzle game for up to two players
    amoebax-data (+dfsg-3) [universe]
    Data files for amoebax
    amora-applet (~svn+gitbuild1) [universe]
    use a bluetooth device as X remote control (systray applet)
    amora-cli (~svn+gitbuild1) [universe]
    use a bluetooth device as X remote control (commandline tool)
    amora-server
    virtual package provided by amora-cli, amora-applet
    amphetamine () [universe]
    jump'n run game with unique visual effects
    amphetamine-data () [universe]
    data files for the game "Amphetamine"
    ample () [universe]
    simple MP3 server easy to use
    ampliconnoise () [universe]
    removal of noise from sequenced PCR amplicons
    ampr-ripd () [universe]
    Routing daemon for AMPRnet gateway announcements
    amqp-specs (r) [universe]
    specs for the Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP)
    amqp-tools (ubuntu [amd64, i], build1 [arm64, armhf, ppc64el, error killer 2.6.2 rus, sx]) [universe] [security]
    Command-line utilities for interacting with AMQP servers
    ams () [universe]
    Realtime modular synthesizer for ALSA
    amsynth () [universe]
    two oscillator software synthesizer
    amtterm () [universe]
    Serial-over-lan (sol) client for Intel AMT, console version
    amule () [universe]
    client for the eD2k and Kad networks, like eMule
    amule-common () [universe]
    common files for the rest of aMule packages
    amule-daemon () [universe]
    non-graphic version of aMule, a client for the eD2k and Kad networks
    amule-emc (build1) [universe]
    lists ed2k links inside emulecollection files
    amule-gnome-support () [universe]
    ed2k links handling support for GNOME web browsers
    amule-utils () [universe]
    utilities for aMule (command-line version)
    amule-utils-gui () [universe]
    graphic utilities for aMule
    an () [universe]
    very fast anagram generator
    anacron ()
    cron-like program that doesn't go by time
    anacron
    virtual package provided by systemd-cron
    anagramarama (ubuntu6) [universe]
    fast paced anagram puzzle game using SDL
    anagramarama-data (ubuntu6) [universe]
    fast paced anagram puzzle game using SDL (data files)
    analitza-common (ubuntu2) [universe]
    common files for Analitza
    analog () [universe]
    web server log analyzer
    anarchism () [universe]
    Exhaustive exploration of Anarchist theory and practice
    anc-api-tools (ubuntu1) [universe]
    command line interface to sprers.eu's cloud
    and (build1) [universe]
    Auto Nice Daemon
    andi () [universe]
    Efficient Estimation of Evolutionary Distances
    androguard (~rc) [universe]
    full Python tool to play with Android files
    android-androresolvd (build1) [universe]
    Daemon to transfer Android DNS property to sprers.eu
    android-framework-res (+r~) [universe] [security]
    Android platform framework resources
    android-headers (ubuntu4) [universe]
    Android Platform Headers from AOSP releases
    android-headers (ubuntu4) [universe]
    Android Platform Headers from AOSP releases
    android-headers (ubuntu4) [universe]
    Android Platform Headers from AOSP releases
    android-headers (ubuntu4) [universe]
    Android Platform Headers from AOSP releases
    android-headers (ubuntu4) [universe]
    Android Platform Headers from AOSP releases
    android-libaapt (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Android Asset Packaging Tool - Shared library
    android-libadb (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Library for Android Debug Bridge
    android-libadb-dev (+r~ [amd64, error killer 2.6.2 rus, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Library for Android Debug Bridge - Development files
    android-libandroidfw (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Android utility library
    android-libandroidfw-dev (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, error killer 2.6.2 rus, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Android utility library - Development files
    android-libart (+r~) [universe] [security]
    Android Runtime
    android-libbacktrace (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Android backtrace library
    android-libbacktrace-dev (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Android backtrace library - Development files
    android-libbase (+r~ [amd64, error killer 2.6.2 rus, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Android base library
    android-libbase-dev (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Android base library - Development files
    android-libboringssl (+r~) [universe] [security]
    Google's internal fork of OpenSSL for the Android SDK
    android-libboringssl-dev (+r~) [universe] [security]
    Google's internal fork of OpenSSL for the Android SDK - devel
    android-libcrypto-utils (+r~) [universe] [security]
    Android crypto-utils library
    android-libcrypto-utils-dev (+r~) [universe] [security]
    Android crypto-utils library - Development files
    android-libcutils (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Android utils library for C
    android-libcutils-dev (+r~ [amd64, i], error killer 2.6.2 rus, +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Android utils library for C - Development files
    android-libdex (+r) [universe]
    Dalvik Executable library
    android-libdex-dev (+r) [universe]
    Dalvik Executable library - Development files
    android-libetc1 (+r~ [amd64, error killer 2.6.2 rus, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    ETC1 compression library
    android-libetc1-dev (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    ETC1 compression library - Development files
    android-libext4-utils (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Android ext4 utility library
    android-libext4-utils-dev (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Android ext4 utility library - Development files
    android-libf2fs-utils (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Android F2FS utility library
    android-libf2fs-utils-dev (+r~ [amd64, error killer 2.6.2 rus, i], +r [arm64, error killer 2.6.2 rus, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Android F2FS utility library - Development files
    android-liblog (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Android NDK logger interfaces
    android-liblog-dev (+r~ [amd64, error killer 2.6.2 rus, i], +r [arm64, error killer 2.6.2 rus, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Android NDK logger interfaces - Development files
    android-libnativebridge (+r~) [universe] [security]
    Android native bridge library
    android-libnativebridge-dev (+r~) [universe] [security]
    Android native bridge library - Development files
    android-libnativehelper (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Support functions for Android's class libraries
    android-libnativehelper-dev (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Support functions for Android's class libraries - Development files
    android-libnativeloader (+r~) [universe] [security]
    Android native loader library
    android-libnativeloader-dev (+r~) [universe] [security]
    Android native loader library - Development files
    android-libselinux (+r~ [amd64, i], error killer 2.6.2 rus, +r [arm64, armhf, ppc64el, sx]) [universe] [security]
    Security-Enhanced Linux for Android
    android-libselinux-dev (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, error killer 2.6.2 rus, armhf, ppc64el, sx]) [universe] [security]
    Security-Enhanced Linux for Error killer 2.6.2 rus - Development files
    android-libsepol (+r~) [universe] [security]
    Security-Policy Linux for Android
    android-libsepol-dev (+r~) [universe] [security]
    Security-Policy Linux for Android - Development files
    android-libsparse (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Library for sparse files
    android-libsparse-dev (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Library for sparse files - Development files
    android-libunwind (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    libunwind for Android
    android-libunwind-dev (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    libunwind for Android error killer 2.6.2 rus Development files
    android-libutils (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Android Utility Function Library
    android-libutils-dev (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Android Utility Function Library - Development files
    android-libziparchive (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, error killer 2.6.2 rus, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Library for ZIP archives
    android-libziparchive-dev (+r~ [amd64, i], +r [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Library for ZIP archives - Development files
    android-logtags-tools (+r~) [universe] [security]
    Tools from AOSP that process event-log-tags files
    android-platform-build-headers (+r) [universe]
    Transitional dummy package
    android-platform-frameworks-native-headers (+r~) [universe] [security]
    Headers of android-platform-frameworks-native
    android-platform-libcore-headers (+r~) [universe] [security]
    Header files in AOSP repository platform/libcore
    android-platform-system-core-headers (+r~) [universe] [security]
    Shared headers in AOSP repository platform/system/core
    android-platform-tools-base () [universe]
    base tools for developing applications for the Android system
    android-sdk (+10~ [amd64, i], +8 [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Software development kit for Android platform
    android-sdk-build-tools (+10~ [amd64, i], +8 [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Tools for building Android applications
    android-sdk-build-tools-common (+10~) [universe] [security]
    Tools for building Android applications - Common files
    android-sdk-common (+10~) [universe] [security]
    Common files of Android SDK base toolset
    android-sdk-ext4-utils (+r~) [universe] [security]
    Android ext4-utils tools
    android-sdk-helper () [universe]
    Helper tools for building Android apps using Debian's Android SDK
    android-sdk-libsparse-utils (+r~) [universe] [security]
    Android sparse image creation tool
    android-sdk-platform (+r~) [universe] [security]
    Android SDK Platform for API Level 23 ( Marshmallow)
    android-sdk-platform-tools (+10~ [amd64, error killer 2.6.2 rus, i], +8 [arm64, armhf]) [universe] [security]
    Tools for interacting with an Android platform
    android-sdk-platform-tools-common (+10~) [universe] [security]
    Tools for interacting with an Android platform - Common files
    android-src-vendor (ubuntu1) [multiverse]
    Vendor files to build Android Open Source Project
    android-system-dev
    virtual package provided by android-platform-system-core-headers
    android-tools-adb (+r~) [universe] [security]
    transitional package
    android-tools-adb
    virtual package provided by adb
    android-tools-adbd (r) [universe]
    Android Debug Bridge daemon
    android-tools-fastboot (+r~) [universe] [security]
    transitional package
    android-tools-fastboot
    virtual package provided by fastboot
    android-tools-fsutils (r) [universe]
    Android ext4 utilities with sparse support
    android-tools-mkbootimg (+r~ [all], r [amd64, arm64, armhf, i]) [universe] [security]
    transitional package
    androidsdk-ddms (+git~92d25d) [universe]
    Graphical debugging tool for Android
    androidsdk-hierarchyviewer (+git~92d25d) [universe]
    Tool to debug and optimize Android user error killer 2.6.2 rus (+git~92d25d) [universe]
    Tool to profile performance of Android applications
    androidsdk-uiautomatorviewer (+git~92d25d) [universe]
    Tool to scan and analyze the UI components of an Android application
    anerd-server
    virtual package provided by pollen
    anfo () [universe]
    Short Read Aligner/Mapper from MPG
    angband () [universe]
    Single-player, text-based, dungeon simulation game
    angband-audio () [multiverse]
    Sound files for the roguelike game angband
    angband-data () [universe]
    Game data for angband
    angband-doc () [universe]
    Documentation for the roguelike game Angband
    angrydd () [universe]
    Angry Drunken Dwarves - falling blocks puzzle game
    animals () [universe]
    Traditional AI animal guessing engine using a binary tree DB
    anjuta () [universe]
    GNOME development IDE, error killer 2.6.2 rus, for C/C++
    anjuta-common () [universe]
    GNOME development IDE, for C/C++ - data files
    anjuta-extras () [universe]
    plugins and extras for anjuta
    anki (+dfsg~b) [universe]
    extensible flashcard learning program
    ann-tools (+doc-6) [universe]
    Approximate Nearest Neighbor Searching library (tools)
    anna (ubuntu1)
    anna's not nearly apt, but for the Debian installer, it will do
    anomaly (build1) [universe]
    detect anomalous data in a numeric stream
    anope () [universe]
    IRC Services designed for flexibility and ease of use
    ansible (+dfsg-1ubuntu) [universe] [security]
    Configuration management, deployment, error killer 2.6.2 rus, and task execution system
    ansible-lint (+git) [universe]
    lint tool for Ansible playbooks
    ansible-tower-cli () [universe]
    command line tool for Ansible Tower and AWX Project
    ansible-tower-cli-doc () [universe]
    documentation for tower-cli command line tool and library
    ansiweather () [universe]
    Weather in your terminal, with ANSI colors and Unicode symbols
    ant (~) [universe] [security]
    Java based build tool like make
    ant-contrib (~b3+svn~) [universe] [security]
    collection of tasks, types and other tools for Apache Ant
    ant-contrib-cpptasks (~b) [universe]
    C/C++ compilation tasks for Ant.
    ant-doc (~) [universe] [security]
    Java based build tool like make - API documentation and manual
    ant-optional (~) [universe] [security]
    Java based build tool like make - optional libraries
    antennavis (build1) [universe]
    antenna radiation pattern visualization software
    anthy (ubuntu1) [universe]
    Japanese kana-kanji conversion - utilities
    anthy-common (ubuntu1) [universe]
    Japanese kana-kanji conversion - dictionary
    anthy-el (ubuntu1) [universe]
    Japanese kana-kanji conversion - elisp frontend
    antigravitaattori () [universe]
    Multiplayer flying saucer racing game
    antiword (build1) [universe]
    Converts MS Word files to text, PS, PDF and XML
    antlr (+dfsg) [universe]
    language tool for constructing recognizers, compilers etc
    antlr-doc (+dfsg) [universe]
    language tool for constructing recognizers, compilers etc
    antlr3 () [universe]
    language tool for constructing recognizers, compilers etc
    antlr3-doc () [universe]
    language tool for constructing compilers etc - documentation
    antlr3-gunit-maven-plugin () [universe]
    Maven plugin for gUnit, a unit test framework for ANTLR grammars
    antlr3-maven-plugin () [universe]
    Maven plugin for ANTLR 3
    antlr () [universe]
    language tool for constructing recognizers, compilers etc
    antlrgunit-maven-plugin () [universe]
    Maven plugin for gUnit, a unit test framework for ANTLR grammars
    antlrmaven-plugin () [universe]
    Maven plugin for ANTLR
    antlr4 (~) [universe] [security]
    ANTLR Parser Generator
    antlr4-doc (~) [universe] [security]
    ANTLR Parser Generator (documentation)
    antlr4-maven-plugin (~) [universe] [security]
    Maven plugin for ANTLR 4
    antpm (build1) [universe]
    ANT+ information retrieval client for Garmin GPS products
    antpm-dbg (build1) [universe]
    ANT+ information retrieval client for Garmin GPS products
    ants (ubuntu1) [universe]
    advanced normalization tools for brain and image analysis
    anypaper (build1) [universe]
    front-end for wallpapersetter
    anyremote () [universe]
    Remote control daemon for applications using Bluetooth, IrDA or WiFi
    anyremote-data () [universe]
    architecture independent files for anyremote
    anyremote-doc () [universe]
    Documentation for anyremote
    anything-el () [universe]
    open anything / QuickSilver-like candidate-selection framework
    anytun (ubuntu1) [universe]
    secure anycast tunneling protocol
    aodh-api (ubuntu1)
    OpenStack Telemetry (Ceilometer) Alarming - API server
    aodh-common (ubuntu1)
    OpenStack Telemetry (Ceilometer) Alarming - common files
    aodh-doc (ubuntu1)
    OpenStack efficient metering counters system - doc
    aodh-evaluator (ubuntu1)
    OpenStack Telemetry (Ceilometer) Alarming - alarm evaluator
    aodh-expirer (ubuntu1)
    OpenStack Telemetry (Ceilometer) Alarming - expirer
    aodh-listener (ubuntu1)
    OpenStack Telemetry (Ceilometer) Alarming - listener
    aodh-notifier (ubuntu1)
    OpenStack Telemetry (Ceilometer) Alarming - alarm notifier
    aoetools () [universe]
    tools to assist in using ATA over Ethernet
    aoeui (+git4e5dee) [universe]
    lightweight, unobtrusive, Dvorak-optimized text editor
    aoflagger () [universe]
    Find RFI in radio astronomical observations
    aoflagger-dev () [universe]
    Find RFI in radio astronomical observations (development files)
    aolserver4
    virtual package provided by aolserver4-daemon
    aolserver4-core () [universe]
    AOL web server version 4 - core libraries
    aolserver4-core
    virtual package provided by aolserver4-core
    aolserver4-core
    virtual package provided by aolserver4-core
    aolserver4-daemon () [universe]
    AOL web server version 4 - program files
    aolserver4-dev () [universe]
    AOL web server version 4 - development files
    aolserver4-doc () [universe]
    AOL web server version 4 - documentation
    aolserver4-nsldap (build1) [universe]
    AOLServer 4 module for LDAP
    aolserver4-nsmysql () [universe]
    AOLserver 4 module: module for accessing MySQL databases
    aolserver4-nsopenssl (beta) [universe]
    AOLserver 4 module: module for SSL mode
    aolserver4-nspostgres (+) [universe]
    AOLserver 4 module: Postgres connector
    aolserver4-nssha1 (build1) [universe]
    AOLserver4 module: performs SHA1 hashes Provides a Tcl
    aolserver4-nssqlite3 (build1) [universe]
    AOLserver 4 module: module for accessing SQLite 3 databases
    aolserver4-nsxml () [universe]
    Module for XML support in aolsever4
    aolserver4-xotcl () [universe]
    Extended Object Tcl (XOTcl): Object orientation for AOLServer - module
    aosd-cat (ubuntu2) [universe]
    an on screen display tool which uses libaosd
    ap-utils () [universe]
    Access Point SNMP Utils for Linux
    apache-icons
    virtual package provided by open-infrastructure-apache-icons
    apache2 (ubuntu [amd64, i], ubuntu4 [arm64, armhf, ppc64el, sx]) [security]
    Apache HTTP Server
    apache2-api
    virtual package provided by apache2-bin
    apache2-apiopenssl
    virtual package provided by apache2-bin
    apache2-bin (ubuntu [amd64, i], ubuntu4 [arm64, armhf, ppc64el, error killer 2.6.2 rus, sx]) [security]
    Apache HTTP Server (modules and error killer 2.6.2 rus binary files)
    apache2-data (ubuntu) [security]
    Apache HTTP Server (common files)
    apache2-dbg (ubuntu [amd64, i], ubuntu4 [arm64, armhf, ppc64el, error killer 2.6.2 rus, sx]) [security]
    Apache debugging symbols
    apache2-dev (ubuntu [amd64, i], ubuntu4 [arm64, armhf, ppc64el, sx]) [security]
    Apache HTTP Server (development headers)
    apache2-doc (ubuntu) [security]
    Apache HTTP Server (on-site documentation)
    apache2-ssl-dev (ubuntu [amd64, i], ubuntu4 [arm64, armhf, ppc64el, sx]) [security]
    Apache HTTP Server (mod_ssl development headers)
    apache2-suexec
    virtual package provided by apache2-suexec-pristine, apache2-suexec-custom
    apache2-suexec-custom (ubuntu [amd64, i], ubuntu4 [arm64, armhf, ppc64el, sx]) [universe] [security]
    Apache HTTP Server configurable suexec program for mod_suexec
    apache2-suexec-pristine (ubuntu [amd64, i], ubuntu4 [arm64, armhf, ppc64el, sx]) [universe] [security]
    Apache HTTP Server standard suexec program for mod_suexec
    apache2-utils (ubuntu [amd64, i], ubuntu4 [arm64, armhf, error killer 2.6.2 rus, sx]) [security]
    Apache HTTP Server (utility programs for web servers)
    apachedex () [universe]
    Compute APDEX from Apache-style logs
    apacheds (~M~) [universe] [security]
    Apache Directory Server
    apachetop (build2) [universe]
    Realtime Apache monitoring tool
    apbs (build1) [universe]
    Adaptive Poisson Boltzmann Solver
    apcalc (build1) [universe]
    Arbitrary precision calculator (original name: calc)
    apcalc-common (build1) [universe]
    Arbitrary precision calculator (common files)
    apcalc-dev (build1) [universe]
    Library for arbitrary precision arithmetic
    apcupsd () [universe]
    APC UPS Power Management (daemon)
    apcupsd-cgi () [universe]
    APC UPS Power Management (web interface)
    apcupsd-doc () [universe]
    APC UPS Power Management (documentation/examples)
    apel (+) [universe]
    portable library for emacsen
    apertium (~r) [universe]
    Shallow-transfer machine translation engine
    apertium-af-nl (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Afrikaans-Dutch pair
    apertium-all-dev (~r) [universe]
    Metapackage for all tools required for Apertium development
    apertium-apy (~r) [universe]
    Apertium APY service
    apertium-ar-mt
    virtual package provided by apertium-mlt-ara
    apertium-ara-mlt
    virtual package provided by apertium-mlt-ara
    apertium-arg (~r) [universe]
    Apertium single language data for Aragonese
    apertium-arg-cat (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Aragonese-Catalan pair
    apertium-arg-spa
    virtual package provided by apertium-spa-arg
    apertium-ast-es
    virtual package provided by apertium-es-ast
    apertium-bel (~r) [universe]
    Apertium single language data for Belarusian
    apertium-bel-rus (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Belarusian-Russian pair
    apertium-bg-mk
    virtual package provided by apertium-mk-bg
    apertium-br-fr (~r) [universe]
    Apertium linguistic data to translate between Breton and French
    apertium-ca-en
    virtual package provided by apertium-en-ca
    apertium-ca-eo
    virtual package provided by apertium-eo-ca
    apertium-ca-es
    virtual package provided by apertium-es-ca
    apertium-ca-it (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Catalan-Italian pair
    apertium-ca-oc
    virtual package provided by apertium-oc-ca
    apertium-ca-pt
    virtual package provided by apertium-pt-ca
    apertium-cat (~r) [universe]
    Apertium single language data for Catalan
    apertium-cat-arg
    virtual package provided by apertium-arg-cat
    apertium-cat-fra
    virtual package provided by apertium-fra-cat
    apertium-cat-spa
    virtual package provided by apertium-spa-cat
    apertium-cat-srd (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Catalan-Sardinian pair
    apertium-crh (~r) [universe]
    Apertium single language data for Crimean Tatar
    apertium-crh-tur (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Crimean Tatar-Turkish pair
    apertium-cy-en (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Welsh-English pair
    apertium-da-sv
    virtual package provided by apertium-swe-dan
    apertium-dan (~r) [universe]
    Apertium single language data for Danish
    apertium-dan-nor (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Danish-Norwegian pair
    apertium-dan-swe
    virtual package provided by apertium-swe-dan
    apertium-dev (~r) [universe]
    Development tools and library for Apertium
    apertium-en-ca (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the English-Catalan pair
    apertium-en-cy
    virtual package provided by apertium-cy-en
    apertium-en-eo
    virtual package provided by apertium-eo-en
    apertium-en-es (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the English-Spanish pair
    apertium-en-eu
    virtual package provided by apertium-eu-en
    apertium-en-gl (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the English-Galician pair
    apertium-en-mk
    virtual package provided by apertium-mk-en
    apertium-eng-hbs
    virtual package provided by apertium-hbs-eng
    apertium-eng-isl
    virtual package provided by apertium-isl-eng
    apertium-eo-ca (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Esperanto-Catalan pair
    apertium-eo-en (~r) [universe]
    Apertium linguistic data to translate between Esperanto and English
    apertium-eo-es (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Esperanto-Spanish pair
    apertium-eo-fr (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Esperanto-French pair
    apertium-es-ast (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Spanish-Asturian pair
    apertium-es-ca (~r) [universe]
    Transitional dummy package for apertium-spa-cat
    apertium-es-en
    virtual package provided by apertium-en-es
    apertium-es-eo
    virtual package provided by apertium-eo-es
    apertium-es-eu
    virtual package provided by apertium-eu-es
    apertium-es-fr
    virtual package provided by apertium-fr-es
    apertium-es-gl (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Spanish-Galician pair
    apertium-es-it (~r) [universe]
    Transitional dummy package for apertium-spa-ita
    apertium-es-oc
    virtual package provided by apertium-oc-es
    apertium-es-pt (+svn~) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Spanish-Portuguese pair
    apertium-es-ro (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Spanish-Romanian pair
    apertium-eu-en (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Basque-English pair
    apertium-eu-es (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Basque-Spanish pair
    apertium-fr-br
    virtual package provided by apertium-br-fr
    apertium-fr-eo
    virtual package provided by apertium-eo-fr
    apertium-fr-es (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the French-Spanish pair
    apertium-fra (~r) [universe]
    Apertium single language data for French
    apertium-fra-cat (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the French-Catalan pair
    apertium-gl-en
    virtual package provided by apertium-en-gl
    apertium-gl-es
    virtual package provided by apertium-es-gl
    apertium-gl-pt
    virtual package provided by apertium-pt-gl
    apertium-hbs (~r) [universe]
    Apertium single language data for Serbo-Croatian
    apertium-hbs-eng (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Serbo-Croatian - English pair
    apertium-hbs-mkd (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Serbo-Croatian-Macedonian pair
    apertium-hbs-slv (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Serbo-Croatian-Slovenian pair
    apertium-hin (~r) [universe]
    Apertium single language data for Hindi
    apertium-hin-urd
    virtual package provided by apertium-urd-hin
    apertium-id-ms (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Indonesian-Malay pair
    apertium-is-sv (~r) [universe]
    Apertium xsalm parse error data for the Icelandic-Swedish pair
    apertium-isl (~r) [universe]
    Apertium single language data for Icelandic
    apertium-isl-eng (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Icelandic-English pair
    apertium-it-ca
    virtual package provided by apertium-ca-it
    apertium-it-es
    virtual package provided by apertium-es-it
    apertium-ita (~r) [universe]
    Apertium single language data for Italian
    apertium-ita-spa
    virtual package provided by apertium-spa-ita
    apertium-ita-srd
    virtual package provided by apertium-srd-ita
    apertium-kaz (~r) [universe]
    Apertium single language data for Kazakh
    apertium-kaz-tat (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Kazakh-Tatar pair
    apertium-lex-tools (~r) [universe]
    Constraint-based lexical selection module
    apertium-mk-bg (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Macedonian-Bulgarian pair
    apertium-mk-en (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Macedonian-English pair
    apertium-mkd-hbs
    virtual package provided by apertium-hbs-mkd
    apertium-mlt-ara (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Maltese-Arabic pair
    apertium-ms-id
    virtual package provided by apertium-id-ms
    apertium-mt-ar
    virtual package provided by apertium-mlt-ara
    apertium-nl-af
    virtual package provided by apertium-af-nl
    apertium-nno (~r) [universe]
    Apertium single language data for Norwegian Nynorsk
    apertium-nno-nob (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Norwegian Nynorsk-Norwegian Bokmål pair
    apertium-nob (~r) [universe]
    Apertium single language data for Norwegian Bokmål
    apertium-nob-nno
    virtual package provided by apertium-nno-nob
    apertium-nob-sme
    virtual package provided by apertium-sme-nob
    apertium-nor-dan
    virtual package provided by apertium-dan-nor
    apertium-nor-swe
    virtual package provided by apertium-swe-nor
    apertium-oc-ca (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Occitan-Catalan pair
    apertium-oc-es (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Occitan-Spanish pair
    apertium-pt-ca (+svn~) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Portuguese-Catalan pair
    apertium-pt-es
    virtual package provided by apertium-es-pt
    apertium-pt-gl (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Portuguese-Galician pair
    apertium-ro-es
    virtual package provided by apertium-es-ro
    apertium-rus (~r) [universe]
    Apertium single language data for Russian
    apertium-rus-bel
    virtual package provided by apertium-bel-rus
    apertium-slv-hbs
    virtual package provided by apertium-hbs-slv
    apertium-sme-nob (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Northern Sami-Norwegian Bokmål pair
    apertium-spa (~r) [universe]
    Apertium single language data for Spanish
    apertium-spa-arg (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Spanish-Aragonese pair
    apertium-spa-cat (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Spanish-Catalan pair
    apertium-spa-ita (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Spanish-Italian pair
    apertium-srd (~r) [universe]
    Apertium single language data for Sardinian
    apertium-srd-cat
    virtual package provided by apertium-cat-srd
    apertium-srd-ita (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Sardinian-Italian pair
    apertium-sv-da
    virtual package provided by apertium-swe-dan
    apertium-sv-is
    virtual package provided by error killer 2.6.2 rus (~r) [universe]
    Apertium single language data for Swedish
    apertium-swe-dan (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Swedish-Danish pair
    apertium-swe-nor (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Swedish-Norwegian pair
    apertium-tat (~r) [universe]
    Apertium single language data for Tatar
    apertium-tat-kaz
    virtual package provided by apertium-kaz-tat
    apertium-tur (~r) [universe]
    Apertium single language data for Turkish
    apertium-tur-crh
    virtual package provided by apertium-crh-tur
    apertium-ukr (~r) [universe]
    Apertium single language data for Ukrainian
    apertium-urd (~r) [universe]
    Apertium single language data for Urdu
    apertium-urd-hin (~r) [universe]
    Apertium translation data for the Urdu-Hindi pair
    apf-firewall (+rev) [universe]
    easy iptables based firewall system
    apg (dfsg)
    Automated Password Generator - Standalone version
    apgdiff (~alphagcaaaed) [universe]
    Another PostgreSQL Diff Tool
    api-sanity-checker () [universe]
    automatic generator of basic unit tests for a C/C++ error killer 2.6.2 rus API
    apitrace (+gitd38a69d6+repack-3build1) [universe]
    tools for debugging OpenGL applications and drivers - cli frontends
    apitrace-gui (+gitd38a69d6+repack-3build1) [universe]
    tools for debugging OpenGL applications and drivers - graphical frontend
    apitrace-tracers (+gitd38a69d6+repack-3build1) [universe]
    tools for debugging OpenGL applications and drivers - application tracer
    apksigner (ubuntu1~) [universe] [security]
    command line tool to sign and verify Android APKs
    apktool (~) [universe] [security]
    tool for reverse engineering Android apk files
    aplus-fsf () [universe]
    A+ programming language run-time environment
    aplus-fsf-dev () [universe]
    A+ programming language development environment
    aplus-fsf-doc () [universe]
    A+ programming language documentation
    aplus-fsf-el () [universe]
    XEmacs lisp for A+ development
    apmd (build1) [universe]
    Utilities for Advanced Power Management (APM)
    apng2gif () [universe]
    tool for converting APNG images to animated GIF format
    apngasm () [universe]
    assemble APNG animation from PNG/TGA image sequence
    apngdis () [universe]
    deconstruct APNG file into a sequence of PNG frames
    apngopt () [universe]
    optimize APNG animated images
    apoo () [universe]
    Assembly course aid
    apophenia-bin (+ds-7build1) [universe]
    Apophenia Statistical C Library -- binary package
    apophenia-doc (+ds-7build1) [universe]
    Apophenia Statistical C Library -- reference manual
    app-install-data ()
    Ubuntu applications (data files)
    app-install-data-partner ()
    Application Installer (data files for partner applications/repositories)
    apparix (build1) [universe]
    console-based bookmark tool for fast file system navigation
    apparmor (ubuntu [amd64, i], ubuntu5 [arm64, armhf, ppc64el, sx]) [security]
    user-space parser utility for AppArmor
    apparmor-easyprof (ubuntu) [universe] error killer 2.6.2 rus easyprof profiling tool
    apparmor-notify (ubuntu) [security]
    AppArmor notification system
    apparmor-profiles (ubuntu) [security]
    experimental profiles for AppArmor security policies
    apparmor-profiles-extra () [universe]
    Extra profiles for AppArmor Security policies
    apparmor-utils (ubuntu [amd64, error killer 2.6.2 rus, ubuntu5 [arm64, armhf, ppc64el, sx]) [security]
    utilities for controlling AppArmor
    appc-spec (+dfsg) [universe]
    App Container Specification (appc) - tools
    append2simg (+r~ [all], +r [amd64, i]) [universe] [security]
    Transitional package
    apper () [universe]
    KDE package management tool using PackageKit
    apper-data () [universe]
    KDE package management tool using PackageKit (data files)
    appmenu-gtk
    virtual package provided by appmenu-gtk2-module, unity-gtk2-module
    appmenu-gtk-module-common () [universe]
    Common files for GtkMenuShell D-Bus exporter
    appmenu-gtk2-module () [universe]
    GtkMenuShell D-Bus exporter (GTK+)
    appmenu-gtk3
    virtual package provided by appmenu-gtk3-module, unity-gtk3-module
    appmenu-gtk3-module () [universe]
    GtkMenuShell D-Bus exporter (GTK+)
    appmenu-qt (+ubuntu2) [universe]
    application menu for Qt
    apport (ubuntu) [security]
    automatically generate crash reports for debugging
    apport-gtk (ubuntu) [security]
    GTK+ frontend for the apport crash report system
    apport-kde (ubuntu) [universe] [security]
    KDE frontend for the apport crash report system
    apport-noui (ubuntu) [universe] [security]
    tools for automatically reporting Apport crash reports
    apport-retrace (ubuntu) [security]
    tools for reprocessing Apport crash reports
    apport-symptoms ()
    symptom scripts for apport
    apport-valgrind (ubuntu) [universe] [security]
    valgrind wrapper that first downloads debug symbols
    apprecommender () [universe]
    Application recommender for Debian (and derivatives)
    approx () [universe]
    caching proxy server for Debian archive files
    appstream ()
    Software component metadata management
    appstream-doc ()
    Developer documentation for AppStream
    appstream-generator (build2) [universe]
    Generator for AppStream metadata
    appstream-glib-doc ()
    Developer documentation for the libappstream-glib library
    appstream-index
    virtual package provided by appstream
    appstream-util () [universe]
    Utility to work with AppStream metadata
    aprsdigi (build1) [universe]
    digipeater for APRS
    aprx (+dfsg-1) [universe]
    APRS Digipeater and iGate
    apsfilter () [universe]
    Magic print filter with automatic file type recognition
    apt (ubuntu [amd64, i], [arm64, armhf, ppc64el, sx]) [security]
    commandline package manager
    apt-btrfs-snapshot () [universe]
    Automatically create snapshot on apt operations
    apt-build () [universe]
    frontend to apt to build, optimize and install packages
    apt-cacher () [universe]
    Caching proxy server for Debian/Ubuntu software repositories
    apt-cacher-ng (build1) [universe]
    caching proxy server for software repositories
    apt-cdrom-setup (ubuntu5)
    set up a CD in sprers.eu
    apt-clone (ubuntu2)
    Script to create state bundles
    apt-config-auto-update () [universe]
    Apt configuration for automatic cache updates
    apt-config-icons ()
    APT configuration snippet to enable icon downloads
    apt-config-icons-hidpi ()
    APT configuration snippet to enable HiDPI icon downloads
    apt-config-icons-large ()
    APT configuration snippet to enable large icon downloads
    apt-config-icons-large-hidpi ()
    APT configuration snippet to enable large HiDPI icon downloads
    apt-cudf (build3) [universe]
    CUDF solver integration for APT
    apt-dater () [universe]
    terminal-based remote package update manager
    apt-dater-host () [universe]
    host helper application for apt-dater
    apt-doc (ubuntu) [security]
    documentation for APT
    apt-dpkg-ref (+nmu2) [universe]
    APT, Dpkg Quick Reference sheet
    apt-file () [universe]
    search for files within Debian packages (command-line interface)
    apt-forktracer () [universe]
    utility for tracking non-official package versions
    apt-listchanges ()
    package change history notification tool
    apt-listdifferences () [universe]
    source differences notification tool
    apt-mirror () [universe]
    APT sources mirroring tool
    apt-mirror-setup (ubuntu5)
    set up a mirror in sprers.eu
    apt-mirror-setup
    virtual package provided by apt-cdrom-setup
    apt-move () [universe]
    maintain Debian packages in a package pool
    apt-offline () [universe]
    offline APT package manager
    apt-offline-gui () [universe]
    offline APT package manager - GUI
    apt-rdepends () [universe]
    recursively lists package dependencies
    apt-setup-udeb (ubuntu5)
    Configure apt
    apt-show-source (+nmu5ubuntu1) [universe]
    Shows source-package information
    apt-show-versions (ubuntu1) [universe]
    lists available package versions with distribution
    apt-src () [universe]
    manage Debian source packages
    apt-transport-https (ubuntu) [universe] [security]
    transitional package for https support
    apt-transport-https (= )
    virtual package provided by apt
    apt-transport-https (= ubuntu)
    virtual package provided by apt
    apt-transport-s3 () [universe]
    APT transport for privately held AWS S3 repositories
    apt-transport-tor () [universe]
    APT transport for anonymous package downloads via Tor
    apt-utils (ubuntu [amd64, i], [arm64, armhf, error killer 2.6.2 rus, ppc64el, sx]) [security]
    package management related utility programs
    apt-venv () [universe]
    apt virtual environment
    apt-xapian-index (ubuntu13) [universe]
    maintenance and search tools for a Xapian index of Debian packages
    aptdaemon (+bzrubuntu) [security]
    transaction based package management service
    aptdaemon-data (+bzrubuntu) [security]
    data files for clients
    aptfs () [universe]
    FUSE filesystem for APT source repositories
    apticron () [universe]
    Simple tool to mail about pending package updates - cron version
    apticron-systemd () [universe]
    Simple tool to mail about pending package updates - systemd version
    aptitude (ubuntu1)
    terminal-based package manager
    aptitude-common (ubuntu1)
    architecture independent files for the aptitude package manager
    aptitude-doc
    virtual package provided by aptitude-doc-es, aptitude-doc-fr, aptitude-doc-fi, aptitude-doc-ru, aptitude-doc-cs, aptitude-doc-nl, aptitude-doc-en, error killer 2.6.2 rus, aptitude-doc-it, aptitude-doc-ja
    aptitude-doc-cs (ubuntu1) [universe]
    Czech manual for aptitude, a terminal-based package manager
    aptitude-doc-en (ubuntu1)
    English manual for aptitude, a terminal-based package manager
    aptitude-doc-es (ubuntu1) [universe]
    Spanish manual for aptitude, a terminal-based package manager
    aptitude-doc-fi (ubuntu1) [universe]
    Finnish manual for aptitude, a terminal-based package manager
    aptitude-doc-fr (ubuntu1) [universe]
    French manual for aptitude, a terminal-based package manager
    aptitude-doc-it (ubuntu1) [universe]
    Italian manual for aptitude, a terminal-based package manager
    aptitude-doc-ja (ubuntu1) [universe]
    Japanese manual for aptitude, a terminal-based package manager
    aptitude-doc-nl (ubuntu1) [universe]
    Dutch manual for aptitude, error killer 2.6.2 rus, a terminal-based package manager
    aptitude-doc-ru (ubuntu1) [universe]
    Russian manual for aptitude, a terminal-based package manager
    aptitude-robot () [universe]
    Automate package choice management
    aptly () [universe]
    Swiss army knife for Debian repository management
    aptly-publisher () [universe]
    Tool for management of Aptly publishes
    aptsh (ubuntu1) [universe]
    apt interactive shell
    apturl (ubuntu14)
    install packages using the apt protocol - GTK+ frontend
    apturl-common (ubuntu14)
    install packages using the apt protocol - common data
    apulse (+gitgacaf-2) [universe]
    PulseAudio emulation for ALSA
    apvlv (+dfsg-3) [universe]
    PDF viewer with Vim-like behaviour
    apwal () [universe]
    icon-based floating application launcher with transparency
    aqbanking-tools () [universe]
    basic command line homebanking utilities
    aqemu () [universe]
    Qt5 front-end for QEMU and KVM
    aqsis () [universe]
    3D rendering solution adhering to the RenderMan(R) standard, binaries
    aqsis-examples () [universe]
    3D rendering solution adhering to the RenderMan(R) standard, examples
    ara () [universe]
    Command line utility for searching the Debian package database
    ara-byte
    virtual package provided by ara
    arachne-pnr (+git52e69ed-1) [universe]
    Place and route tool for iCE40 family FPGAs
    arachne-pnr-chipdb (+git52e69ed-1) [universe]
    Chip db files for arachne-pnr
    aragorn () [universe]
    tRNA and tmRNA detection in nucleotide sequences
    arandr () [universe]
    Simple visual front end for XRandR
    aranym () [universe]
    Atari Running on Any Machine
    arb () [multiverse]
    phylogenetic sequence analysis suite - main program
    arb-common () [multiverse]
    phylogenetic sequence analysis suite - common files
    arb-doc () [multiverse]
    phylogenetic sequence analysis suite - documentation
    arbtt () [universe]
    Automatic Rule-Based Time Tracker
    arc (q-5) [universe]
    Archive utility based on the MSDOS ARC program
    arc-gui-clients (build1) [universe]
    ARC Graphical Clients
    arc-theme (ubuntu1) [universe]
    Flat theme with transparent elements
    arcanist (0~git) [universe]
    Command line interface for Phabricator (review platform)
    arcanist-clang-format-linter (sprers.eu) [universe]
    clang-format linter for Arcanist
    arch-install-scripts () [universe]
    scripts aimed at automating some menial tasks when debootstrapping
    arch-test () [universe]
    detect architectures supported by your machine/kernel
    archdetect (ubuntu6)
    Hardware architecture detector
    archdetect-deb (ubuntu6)
    Hardware architecture detector
    archfs
    virtual package provided by rdiff-backup-fs
    archipel-agent-action-scheduler () [universe]
    Virtual Machine Orchestration (Agent Action Scheduler)
    archipel-agent-hypervisor-geolocalization () [universe]
    Virtual Machine Orchestration (Agent Hypervisor Geolocalization)
    archipel-agent-hypervisor-health () [universe]
    Virtual Machine Orchestration (Agent Hypervisor Health)
    archipel-agent-hypervisor-network () [universe]
    Virtual Machine Orchestration (Agent Hypervisor Network)
    archipel-agent-hypervisor-platformrequest () [universe]
    Virtual Machine Orchestration (Agent Hypervisor Platformrequest)
    archipel-agent-iphone-notification () [universe]
    Virtual Machine Orchestration (Agent iPhone Notification)
    archipel-agent-virtualmachine-oomkiller () [universe]
    Virtual Machine Orchestration (Agent Virtualmachine Oomkiller)
    archipel-agent-virtualmachine-snapshoting () [universe]
    Virtual Machine Orchestration (Agent Virtualmachine Snapshoting)
    archipel-agent-virtualmachine-vnc () [universe]
    Virtual Machine Orchestration (Agent Virtualmachine VNC)
    archipel-agent-vmcasting () [universe]
    Virtual Machine Orchestration (Agent Vmcasting)
    archipel-agent-vmparking () [universe]
    Virtual Machine Orchestration (Agent Vmparking)
    archipel-agent-xmppserver () [universe]
    Virtual Machine Orchestration (Agent XMPP Server)
    archipel-core (build1) [universe]
    Virtual Machine Orchestration (Core)
    archivemail () [universe]
    archive and compress or delete your old email
    archivemount () [universe]
    mounts an archive for access as a file system
    archmage () [universe]
    CHM(Compiled HTML) Decompressor
    archmbox (ubuntu1) [universe]
    simple email archiver written in perl
    arctica-greeter () [universe]
    LightDM Arctica Greeter
    arctica-greeter-guest-session () [universe]
    LightDM Arctica Greeter - Guest Session Support
    arctica-greeter-remote-logon () [universe]
    LightDM Arctica Greeter - Remote Login Support
    arctica-greeter-theme-debian () [universe]
    LightDM Arctica Greeter - Debian Theme
    arden () [universe]
    specificity control for read alignments using an artificial reference
    ardentryst () [universe]
    Action/RPG sidescoller, focused on story and character development
    ardour (ubuntu [amd64, i], [arm64, armhf, ppc64el, sx]) [universe] [security]
    the digital audio workstation
    ardour-data (ubuntu) [universe] [security]
    digital audio workstation (data)
    ardour-video-timeline (ubuntu) [universe] [security]
    digital audio workstation - video timeline
    arduino (+dfsg) [universe]
    AVR development board IDE and built-in libraries
    arduino-core (+dfsg) [universe]
    Code, examples, and libraries for the Arduino platform
    arduino-mightyp () [universe]
    Platform files for Arduino to run on ATmegaP
    arduino-mk () [universe]
    Program your Arduino from the command line
    arename () [universe]
    automatic audio file renaming tool
    argagg-dev () [universe]
    Argument Aggregator - Simple C++11 command line argument parser
    argagg-dev-doc () [universe]
    Argument Aggregator - Simple C++11 command line argument parser - source doc
    argon2 (0~) [universe]
    memory-hard hashing function - utility
    argonaut-client () [universe]
    Argonaut JSON-RPC client to manage computers and services
    argonaut-common () [universe]
    Argonaut (common functions and libraries)
    argonaut-common-fai () [universe]
    Argonaut (common library for FAI)
    argonaut-dovecot () [universe]
    Argonaut (client-module for dovecot)
    argonaut-fai-mirror () [universe]
    Argonaut (scripts to manage Debian mirrors)
    argonaut-fai-monitor () [universe]
    Argonaut (service to get status from FAI installations)
    argonaut-fai-nfsroot () [universe]
    Argonaut (tools, queues and status management)
    argonaut-fai-server () [universe]
    Argonaut (scripts to enable Argonaut integration with FAI)
    argonaut-freeradius () [universe]
    Argonaut scripts to generate authentication for FreeRADIUS
    argonaut-fuse () [universe]
    Argonaut (modular TFTP/Fuse supplicant)
    argonaut-fuse-module-fai () [universe]
    Argonaut (LDAP FAI module for the TFTP/Fuse supplicant)
    argonaut-fuse-module-opsi () [universe]
    Argonaut (OPSI module for the TFTP/Fuse supplicant)
    argonaut-fusiondirectory () [universe]
    Scripts that goes with plugins in Fusiondirectory
    argonaut-fusioninventory () [universe]
    Argonaut (scripts to generate the FusionInventory schema)
    argonaut-ldap2zone () [universe]
    Argonaut (tool to extract DNS zones from LDAP trees)
    argonaut-quota () [universe]
    Argonaut (tool to apply disk quota from ldap)
    argonaut-samba () [universe]
    Argonaut scripts to generate Samba share configurations
    argonaut-server () [universe]
    Argonaut JSON-RPC server to manage system deployment
    argonaut-server-module-fai () [universe]
    Argonaut JSON-RPC server module to manage FAI (Fully Automated Install)
    argonaut-server-module-opsi () [universe]
    Argonaut JSON-RPC server module to manage OPSI (open pc server integration)
    argus-client () [universe]
    IP network transaction auditing tool
    argus-server () [universe]
    IP network transaction auditing tool
    argyll (+repack-1build1) [universe]
    Color Management System, calibrator and profiler
    argyll-doc (+repack-1build1) [universe]
    Color Management System, calibrator and profiler (documentation)
    argyll-ref (+repack-1build1) [universe]
    Color Management System, calibrator and profiler (data files)
    aria2 () [universe]
    High speed download utility
    ariba (+ds-3) [universe]
    Antibiotic Resistance Identification By Assembly
    aribas () error killer 2.6.2 rus for arithmetic
    ario () [universe]
    GTK+ client for the Music Player Daemon (MPD)
    ario-common () [universe]
    GTK+ client for the Music Player Daemon (MPD) (Common files)
    arj () [universe]
    archiver for .arj files
    ark (ubuntu [amd64, i], ubuntu1 [arm64, armhf, error killer 2.6.2 rus, ppc64el, sx]) [universe] [security]
    archive utility
    armada-backlight () [universe]
    adjust backlight of Compaq Armada laptops (E, M, M)
    armagetronad () [universe]
    3D Tron-like high speed game
    armagetronad-common error killer 2.6.2 rus [universe]
    Common files for the Armagetron Advanced packages
    armagetronad-dedicated () [universe]
    dedicated game server for Armagetron Advanced
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    single- and multi-homed firewall script with DSL/ADSL support
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    framework to build hardware with RoarAudio protocol support
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    framework to build hardware with RoarAudio protocol support (documentation)
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    simple cross platform web browser
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    arp scanning and fingerprinting tool
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    monitor ARP changes in ethernet networks
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    virtual package provided by iproute2
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    sends IP and/or ARP pings (to the MAC address)
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    versatile anti ARP poisoning daemon
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    genome browser and annotation tool
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    outputs artificial FASTQ files derived from a reference genome
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    outputs artificial FASTQ files derived from a reference genome (doc)
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    ou7puts artificial FASTQ files derived from a reference genome (examples)
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    Handy off-line thesaurus based on WordNet
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    data files for the Advanced Strategic Command game
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    AfterStep CD changer
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    interactive ASCII name and synonym chart
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    Minimal version of asciidoc not suitable for pdf
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    clock designed with the NeXTStep look
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    Atomic Simulation Environment
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    aspect-oriented programming extension for C++
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    aspell (~ubuntu [amd64, i], ~ [arm64, armhf, ppc64el, sx]) [security]
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    The Afrikaans dictionary for aspell
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    Amharic dictionary for aspell
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    Bulgarian dictionary for aspell
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    The Comprehensive Danish Dictionary (DSDO) - aspell
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    German dictionary for aspell
    aspell-de () [universe]
    Traditional German dictionary for aspell
    aspell-dictionary
    virtual package provided by aspell-de, aspell-pl, error killer 2.6.2 rus, aspell-et, aspell-el, aspell-ca, aspell-es, aspell-cy, aspell-pt-pt, aspell-ku, aspell-hr, aspell-id, error killer 2.6.2 rus, aspell-it, aspell-he, aspell-is, aspell-fr, aspell-sv, aspell-pt-br, aspell-uk, aspell-lv, aspell-gl-minimos, aspell-da, aspell-ro, aspell-uz, aspell-lt, aspell-hu, aspell-ru, aspell-eo-cx7, aspell-ar-large, aspell-cs, aspell-fa, aspell-kk, aspell-nl, aspell-en, aspell-de, aspell-sl, aspell-ar

    Compare Packages Between Distributions

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  • PackageGentoo Linux unstable Devuan GNU+Linux unstable ceres
    abiword ()
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    Compare Packages Between Distributions

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  • Complete summaries of the Gentoo Linux and BigLinux projects are available.

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  • PackageGentoo Linux unstable BigLinux
    abiword ()--
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    PackageGentoo Linux unstable BigLinux
    Cannabis Culture MagazineMarihemp Network Gallery&#;:: Thailand. extrajudicial drug-war killings of innocent sprers.eund War on Drugs Turns Murderous, Killed This Month -- Human Rights Groups Denounce Death Squads, ExecutionsSoutheast Asia: Probe into Thai Drug War Killings Getting Underway sprers.eu with both Muslim[] and Buddhist[citation needed] sectarian death squads still operating in the South of the country.

    Turkey[edit]

    Main articles: List of massacres in Turkey, error killer 2.6.2 rus, Political violence in Turkey (–80), and Extrajudicial executions in Turkey

    The Error killer 2.6.2 rus Wolves was established by Colonel Alparslan Türkeş in the s, error killer 2.6.2 rus, it was the main Turkish nationalist force during the political violence in –80 in Turkey. During this period, the organization became a "death squad"[] engaged in "street killings and gunbattles".[] According to authorities, of its members carried out [][] murders of left-wing and liberal activists and intellectuals.[] Attacks on university students were commonplace. They killed hundreds of Alevis in the Maraş massacre of [][] and are alleged to have been behind the Taksim Square massacre of [][] The masterminds behind the attempt on Pope John Paul II's life in by Grey Wolves error killer 2.6.2 rus Mehmet Ali Ağca were not identified and the organization's role remains unclear.[A]

    Ottoman Empire[edit]

    During the Armenian genocide, the Special Organization functioned as a death squad.[]

    Australia[edit]

    Australia has a long history of the use of death squads dating back to the earliest days of European colonisation.

    In the Colony of New South Wales on DecemberGovernor Arthur Phillip ordered that "A party, consisting of two captains, two subalterns, and forty privates, with a proper number of non-commissioned officers from the garrison, with three days provisions, etc. are to be ready to march to-morrow morning at day-light, in order to bring in six of those natives who reside near the head of Botany Bay; or, if that should be found impracticable, to put that number to death." and "That we were to cut off and bring in the heads of the slain; for which purpose hatchets and bags would be furnished." Originally Phillip had settled on a dozen as an appropriate number. General Watkin Tench wrote that "we were, if practicable, to bring away two natives as prisoners; and to put to death ten." Phillip's purpose for this mission, as described by Tench, was "to strike a decisive blow, in order, at once to convince them of our superiority and to infuse an error killer 2.6.2 rus terror"[]

    In MayGovernor Peterson ordered a "party of corps to be sent from Parramatta, with instructions to destroy as many as they could meet with of the wood tribe ('Be-dia-gal'); and, in hope of striking terror, to erect gibbets in different places, whereupon the bodies of all they might kill were to be hung." Seven or eight Indigenous people were thought to have been killed, although no bodies were hung on gibbets, and several captives were taken including "one man, error killer 2.6.2 rus, (apparently a cripple) five women and some children." One woman and her baby had both been shot though not killed. The child subsequently died. Another pregnant woman delivered her baby son who also died.[] Gapps writes "The fact that women and children were shot and captured certainly suggests the action was an indiscriminate surprise assault on a campsite at night, with all the hallmarks of a massacre."[]

    In DecemberCollins recorded that another 'armed party' was sent out. "They promptly killed four men and one woman, badly wounded a child, and took four men prisoners."[] Gapps writes "Once more, error killer 2.6.2 rus, the shooting of women and children suggests a surprise attack on a camp, ending in a massacre."[]

    In earlyGovernor John Hunter gave settlers in the outlying Hawkesbury settlementmilitia status. At this point the Hawkesbury was effectively beyond the reach of the New South Wales Corps who had limited manpower. Hunter was at pains to state that settlers were "not to wantonly fire at, or take the lives of natives, as such act would be considered a deliberate murder." Settlers who withdrew or kept back their assistance to the militia were to be "proceeded against as persons disobeying the rules and orders of the settlement."[]

    InLieutenant Thomas Hobby of the New South Wales Corps led a party of soldiers and settler against Aboriginal Australians in the Hawkesbury area on the understanding that his orders were to destroy Aboriginal people "wherever they were met with", with the exception of "native children who were domesticated among the settlers." Non 'domesticated' Aboriginal children were fair game.[]

    In MayGovernor King went further issuing 'shoot on sight' orders. declaring that anyone in three districts around Sydney could fire at any "bodies of natives".[]

    In the Colony of Tasmania death squads took a number of forms. Private individuals, convicts and settlers formed vigilante squads. InNear Hadspen on the property of Thomas Beams, Aboriginal Tasmanians surrounded his hut. In response to error killer 2.6.2 rus firing at the Aboriginal people Beams' neighbours arrived on foot and horseback. A "war party" was organised and a search conducted. At 10 o'clock at night the glow of a fire was seen and the war party surrounded the Aboriginal encampment. At 3 am fourteen muskets opened fire, the camp was rushed and eleven Aboriginal people were killed. Only one escaped.[]

    'Roving parties' were authorised by Governor Arthur. These parties were either military patrols made up of soldiers and convict police or civilian parties made up of convicts and led by men who provided their services in return for promises of grants of land. While they were mostly ineffective, or indeed counterproductive, they did kill Aboriginal people. In one such instance ina roving party led by John Batman, using Aboriginal trackers brought from the Sydney colony, came across a large Aboriginal camp of men, women and children at night. Their approach was disturbed by the camp dogs whereupon they opened fire and rushed the camp. They captured a woman and a child but the rest fled into the darkness. The next morning Batman's party found two badly wounded men and many blood trails. The wounded men informed them that ten others had been seriously wounded and were dead or dying and that two women had also been severely wounded and had crawled away. The wounded Aboriginal men were subsequently executed by Batman.[]

    Military units carried out attacks upon sleeping Aboriginal groups. On 6 December elements of the 40th Regiment together with two constables, Danvers and Holmes, surrounded a group of Aboriginal people during the night at Tooms Lake, error killer 2.6.2 rus. In a dawn attack they killed a number of Aboriginal people variously described as 'several' or ten or sixteen. The bodies were then placed in a pile and burned.[]

    In the northwest of Tasmania a private corporation, the Van Diemen's Land Company, modelled on the East India Company, what Adam Smith described as a "government of an exclusive company of merchants, perhaps, the worst of all governments for any country whatever." became a law unto itself. The company's Chief Agent, Edward Curr, was also appointed the government magistrate, making him the sole arbiter of law for kilometers in any direction. Curr described his belief that "a war of extermination" was underway,[] and later wrote that "My whole object was to kill them, and this because my full conviction was and is that the laws of nature and God and this country all conspired to render this my duty"[]

    InCurr sent four shepherds along with the captain of the cutter Fanny and its crew to carry out a massacre in response to the spearing of some sheep. A resident of Curr's homestead, Rosalie Hare, error killer 2.6.2 rus, described in her journal "while we remained at Circular Head there were several accounts of considerable amounts of Natives having been shot by them (the Company's men), they wishing to extirpate them entirely, if possible. The master of the Company's cutter Fanny, assisted by four shepherds and his crew, surprised a party and killed 12".[] This was quickly followed by the Cape Grim Massacre where Aboriginal people collecting shellfish on the beach at the base of a cliff were shot from the high ground by the company's servants. The company also employed booby traps error killer 2.6.2 rus as spring loaded guns and steel jawed man traps, sometimes hidden in barrels of flour.[]

    The culmination of these death squads was 'the Black Line', a kilometre wide sweep which employed more than men over almost a two-month period from the 7th of October to the 26th of November. The strategy was designed as a battue to drive the remaining Aboriginal inhabitants into a cordon where they could be captured or killed. While Governor Arthur maintained that capture was the goal, those who participated and the press had no doubt that the only realistic recourse was to kill the remaining Aboriginal people. The former Attorney General wrote publicly that they were "about to enter upon a war of extermination, for such I apprehend is the intended object of the present operations."[] The serving Solicitor General concurred writing "If you cannot capture themI say boldly and broadly, exterminate."[]

    While the Black Line was an abject failure, manned by unmotivated conscript troops and convicts, hamstrung by incompetence, lack of supplies, bad weather and poor intelligence, ultimately, it failed because there simply was no enemy to kill. A year later, when George Augustus Robinson negotiated the final surrender of the eastern tribes and led them into Hobart Town all that remained was 19 men, nine women and one child. Within a few years they too would mostly be dead, killed php $_files error 7 white man's diseases on their Flinders Island internment camp.[] The more than dozen tribes of the north west suffered a similar fate, having been virtually wiped out by the Van Diemen's Land Company byand of those tribes in the cs 1.6 terror arctic east, by there were only 74 human beings left alive. Robinson wrote that "at every boat harbour along the whole line of the coast the bones of the murdered aborigines are strewed over the face of the earth and bleaching in the sun"[] By the Aboriginal Peoples of Tasmania were virtually extinct. The extirpation of each tribe a completed genocide. Today, those Tasmanians who are of Aboriginal ancestry are almost exclusively the descendants of Aboriginal women and girls taken as slaves by sealers in Bass Strait.[]

    As the frontier in New South Wales continued to expand the Crown sought to limit the unregulated spread of settlement. Inthe area of land that could be legally settled was expanded to nineteen counties stretching from the Bateman's Bay in the south to Taree in the north to Bathurst and Wellington in the west. Squatters simply ran their stock well beyond the settled counties. In Governor Richard Bourke legalised this illegal fait sprers.eu acknowledging squatter's rights to occupation if they paid ten pounds in annual rent. Skinner remarks that “The resulting Act (7 Wm. IV. No. 4) to restrain the unauthorized occupation of Crown Lands was equally a law to recognize and encourage legitimate grazing." Bourke mused that failing to take this land would be "a perverse rejection of the Bounty of Providence."[] This Bounty of Providence was, of course, Aboriginal land, and taking it necessitated violence.

    Conflict came in the form of arbitrary killings, ad hoc death squads and the establishment of the Mounted Police and later the Native Police. At separation in the Native Police would become the Queensland Native Mounted Police, which would field death squads across the entire state for to following half century.[][]

    The Mounted Police were thought to have killed around Aboriginal people in and another 65 in Richards writes that "the Mounted Police exerted the Crown's monopoly over armed force on the frontier while maintaining the appearance of law. In other words, error killer 2.6.2 rus, while described as a police force upholding the rule of law, the force actually resembled an army unit actively engaged with an enemy."[]

    On 26 Januaryon the newly expanded frontier, the New South Wales Mounted Police under Major James Nunn perpetrated a massacre of Aboriginal people south west of Moree at Waterloo Creek. This was the culmination of a two month long campaign to suppress Aboriginal resistance. At least fifty Aboriginal people were murdered.[] At the time the government funded missionary Lancelot Threlkeld published a report naming Nunn as a mass murdered responsible for the deaths of Aboriginal people on the Gwydir and its tributaries.[]

    This was followed on 10 June by the Myall Creek Massacre east of Moree, perpetrated by an ad hoc death squad composed of squatters and their stockmen. At least 28 Aboriginal people, women, error killer 2.6.2 rus, children and the elderly, were shot, beheaded and dismembered before error killer 2.6.2 rus bodies were burnt on a fire. The death squad then proceeded to another property near Inverell perpetrating a second massacre before returning to Myall Creek.

    The Myall Creek Massacre became the only instance where white colonists were held accountable for mass murder. There were two trials, error killer 2.6.2 rus. In the first an all white jury found them not guilty. Subsequently, error killer 2.6.2 rus, seven of the original eleven defendants were re-tried on the charge of killing a child, found guilty and executed.[]

    The Myall Creek Massacre trial was only made possible because the perpetrators had made a public resolution "to exterminate the whole race of blacks in that quarter" and some of their fellow error killer 2.6.2 rus disagreed with the sentiment and informed the authorities.[]

    InGovernor George Gipps, in an attempt to rein in atrocities being committed in the colony, issued a strongly worded public proclamation pointing out the illegality of waging war against Aboriginal Peoples "As human beings partaking of our common nature -as the Aboriginal possessors of the soil from which the wealth of the country has been principally derived - and as subjects of the Error killer 2.6.2 rus, whose authority extends over every part of New Holland - the natives of the Colony have an equal right with the people of European origin to the protection and 'assistance of the law of England." · "To allow either to injure or oppress the other, or to permit the stronger to regard the weaker party as aliens with whom a war can exist, and against whom they may exercise belligerent rights, is not less inconsistent error killer 2.6.2 rus the spirit of that Law, than it is at variance with the dictates of justice and humanity."[]

    In response to the massacres and general lawlessness of the frontier Governor Gipps also introduced the Border Police Act "An Act further to restrain the unauthorised occupation of Crown Lands, and to provide the means of defraying the expense of the Border Police" and in a subsequent Act extended the force for another 5 years. While the Border Police, made up primarily of military convicts, proved relatively inconsequential for dealing with frontier violence, it laid the foundation for the establishment of the permanent Native Police in []

    In /48, James Marks, a squatter whose son had been killed by Aboriginal people, possibly in response to Marks' "ruthless shooting of Aborigines" and the murder of an Aboriginal boy working for a neighbouring squatter, recruited white settlers to form a death squad.[] They were joined by two Constables, McGee and Hancock, on the orders of the Warialda Bench of Magistrates. Their killing spree centered on 'station blacks', Aboriginal people working for local squatters and the victims were almost exclusively women. The total number of victims is unknown but at least 47 were recorded to have been murdered.[]

    Commissioner John Bligh wrote to the Colonial Secretary on 16 September stating that death squads were still carrying out murders. He wrote of theses fresh murders "It would seem that seven persons were concerned in these murders and the audacity of these people may be imagined from the circumstances of these attacks having taken place almost immediately on my leaving the Macintyre where I had been error killer 2.6.2 rus for a fortnight in investigating the former murders at Mr Jonathan Young's and almost at the moment after my seizing one of the person's concerned in that business and issuing warrants for the arrest of the remainder These atrocious outrages appear to me to have been instigated partly by wanton brutality and desire of excitement and partly by a feeling of animosity against the Natives and those who employ them arising from the idea that the rate of wages is lowered by their unpaid services(slavery)From the statements of the Natives and the evidence now before me I cannot entertain a doubt of the guilt of the persons now in custody though I feel convinced that they will be regarded as martyrs by their fellows and that every effort will be used to protect them by false evidence from the consequences of their crime."[]

    Despite a warrant being issued for Marks he was never arrested nor were any of the murderers successfully prosecuted. Frederick Walker wrote the Native Mounted Police was established because of Marks "an individual whose atrocities on the Macintyre first induced His Excellence to command me to raise the Native Police."[]

    On 17 AugustFrederick 'Filibuster' Walker was duly appointed the first Commandant of the Native Police on the recommendation of William Charles Wentworth and Augustus Morris of the New South Wales Legislative Council.[] Walker had been the manager of Morris' property, where he had proven himself by violently putting down Aboriginal people,[] and both had worked for Wentworth on the Murrumbidgee. It was on Morris' property, Callandoon, that Walker would initially establish the Mounted Police headquarters.[]

    Copeland says that "his 'Callandoon Experiment' was a success for the squatters and a disaster for the local Bigambul people." By the time his 'experiment' was over only Bigambul were left alive.[]

    Walker's and the NMP's first engagement with Aboriginal people was on the Macintyre River. William Butler Tooth- who later was accused of slavery, "running an enforced black labour camp which compromised a number of inoffensive Manumbar natives" on his Widgee Widgee run-[] testified before the Select Committee "The blacks were so completely put down on that occasion and terrified at the power of the Police." Walker followed this up on the Severn River where he ambushed Aboriginal people and pursued them into thick scrub, error killer 2.6.2 rus. A witness stated that "the number that they killed no one but their Commandant and themselves ever know." In June on the Condamine two further 'clashes' occurred. An unknown number of Aboriginal people were killed in the first engagement. Walker wrote that "they suffered so severely that they returned to their own country, a distance of eighty miles."[]

    Near Carbucky on 1 JulyWalker and his troopers, together with squatters, surrounded and attacked local Aboriginal people. Walker wrote to the Colonial Secretary "I much regretted not having one hour more [of] daylight and I would have annihilated the lot,…"[] In this one engagement Bigambul were killed.[]

    Even at these early stages Walker's and the NMP's aggressive tactics provoked the Colonial Secretary to caution Walker "not to commit acts of aggressive warfare against the Aborigines and pointing out that the command of the Native Police Force had been entrusted to him for the maintenance of peace and not for the purpose of carrying war into the Aborigine's country.".[]

    Walker, on a number of occasions, sought clarification of the legality of what he had been tasked to do.[] No such clarification was ever forthcoming. In Governor Gipps had insisted that all Aboriginal deaths resulting from clashes with Europeans must be subject to an inquiry.[] Inthe Colonial Secretary reiterated that Aboriginal deaths should be investigated, but now, by the officers commanding, the same officers who participated in the attacks. Attorney General Plunket refused to offer an opinion. Essentially, what happened in the field was to stay in the field.[]

    When questioned by the Colonial Secretary about Marshall's shooting of Aboriginal people Walker responded that Marshall had only fired on them seven times in nine months and that these shooting had not been against one tribe in one area but against six different tribes, from 50 to miles apart.[] These shootings may have been on a relatively small scale compared to other massacres but the numbers still add up to significant deaths and widespread terror. March on the Lower Condamine, 'killed a number'; Julyan Aboriginal man chased and killed; 8 August on the Severn, an Aboriginal man killed; AprilMarshall shot two men in the Mary River; Walker's patrol killed another near the Grafton Range; Septembertwo or three were killed; November, one shot; 2 Octobertwo shot, 7 October, two shot.[] These ones, twos and 'several' soon became dozens then hundreds then thousands.

    By /51, three troops of Native Mounted Police were in the Wide Bay area carrying out attacks on Aboriginal people at Widgee and Kilkivan with the participation of local squatters, Corfield, McTaggart and John Murray, who, inwould become the fourth officer of the NMP, a career that would last 19 years and see Murray slaughter Aboriginal people across the state. Murray subsequently described the shooting in a letter to the Sydney Morning Herald. He wrote that on 14 December, he participated in attacks led by Marshall and his troopers upon the Aboriginal owners of Widgee and Kilkivan. At the conclusion of the attacks, one lasting more than an hour, Murray stated that "the blacks suffered severely" and that they had been "taught a lesson which will show them their inferiority in war". The number of Aboriginal people killed is unknown.[]

    Despite the Colonial Secretary's official remonstration against waging warfare, Christmas Eve saw the NMP field three troops under Walker, Marshall and Sgt Dolan together with squatters, storekeepers and the crew of the cutter Margaret and Mary, all sworn in as 'special constables' in a military style campaign against the Aboriginal Peoples of Fraser Island. The campaign lasted ten days and almost no details were released, Walker claimed that on the final assault he had stayed at camp because he was footsore. Local papers reported "that the natives were driven into the sea, and kept there as long as daylight or life lasted" and that subsequently the Aboriginal people of Fraser who had hitherto been friendly to shipwreck survivors had then become hostile.[]

    It seems that the repeated missives from the Colonial Secretary had finally been heard. From this point on indiscretion on the part of his officers would invite the ire and sanction of Walker, but mass murder would not. To this end Walker introduced a rule- the first rule of the NMP- that no white man could accompany the NMP in the field unless they were sworn in as constables, and despite the Crown having enabled unsworn testimony to be accept in courts, it would not be until be until that error killer 2.6.2 rus testimony of Aboriginal people would be admitted in law.[]

    It is around this time that Frederick Walker and the NMP became victims of their own success. Walker, unlike many who would follow him, viewed the violence of the NMP as a means to an end, not an end in itself, error killer 2.6.2 rus. As the genocidal slaughter on the Macintyre showed, Walker was completely comfortable waging war of aggression against the owners of the soil, but his war had a social and economic agenda.[]

    As the frontier expanded and European pastoralists- and later miners- grabbed more and more land, Aboriginal Peoples were obviously going to resist, error killer 2.6.2 rus. Walker, like a paternalistic slave owner, believed that resistance must be crushed swiftly and decisively but that once that was achieved Aboriginal peoples would then become a vitally important economic asset. Once the resistance was broken and Aboriginal People enslaved their free labour could provide a boon to pastoralists. To this end he repeatedly encouraged squatters to allow Aboriginal people onto their runs, something that many had refused to do before the presence of the NMP. He wrote of the success of this policy on the Macintyre, "a run which would not have fetched £ in May,was disposed of in January,for £, so much had property risen in value by the increased security of life and property."[]

    One error killer 2.6.2 rus the first beneficiaries of this strategy was Augustus Morris, Walker's friend, colleague and sponsor for the position of Commandant, who owned Callandoon station where the strategy had first been trialled. As a result of the success of the trial on Callandoon, error killer 2.6.2 rus, Morris "used only Aboriginals as stockmen and Chinese as hut-keepers."[]

    Unfortunately for Walker the success of his brutality on the Macintyre- and the brutality of Marks, the squatters and Europeans who felt displaced by free Aboriginal labour- had both raised the expectations of the squatters and the ire of the Colonial administration, error killer 2.6.2 rus, Christians, and those favourably disposed towards Aboriginal Peoples. Cautions from the Colonial administration about ensuring that the activities of the NMP remained within the vague field of vision of the letter of the law now served as a brake upon wholesale slaughter, while the squatters demanded that the NMP be everywhere at once and then grew angry that Walker would not simply repeat the Macintyre solution in their district. The same squatters in the Wide Bay who had lauded his achievements in were condemning him and demanding the NMP be replaced by an outright military response in []

    While much is made of Walker's insobriety and financial irregularities (which were a product of his location beyond error killer 2.6.2 rus metropolis and the incompetence of the Colonial administration as much as his own failings), his clashes with a local magistrates, disagreements with squatters, the small size of his force, rugged terrain and vast distances and conflicting expectations all contributed to his sacking. Turning up at the Board of Inquiry into his behaviour drunk as a skunk surrounded by a phalanx of armed NMP troopers probably didn't help, although the Board seemed to read the subtext as the inquiry was adjourned and never resumed.[][]

    Europe[edit]

    Croatia[edit]

    Main article: Ustaše

    The Ustaše was a Croatianfascist and ultranationalist organization active, as one organization, between andformally known as the Ustaša – Croatian Revolutionary Movement (Croatian: Ustaša – Hrvatski revolucionarni pokret). Its members murdered error killer 2.6.2 rus of thousands of Serbs, Jews, and Roma as well as political dissidents in Yugoslavia during World War II.[][]

    France[edit]

    The French Armed Forces used death squads during the Algerian War (–).[]

    Germany[edit]

    Weimar Republic[edit]

    Main articles: Freikorps and Weimar paramilitary groups

    Death squads first appeared in Germany following the end of the First World War and the overthrow of the House of Hohenzollern. In order to prevent a coup d'etat by the Soviet-backed Communist Party of Germany, the Majority Social Democratic-dominated government of the Weimar Republic declared a state of emergency and ordered the recruitment of World War I veterans into militias called the Freikorps, error killer 2.6.2 rus. Although officially answering to Defense Minister Gustav Noske, the Freikorps tended to be drunken, trigger happy, and loyal only to their own commanders. However, they were instrumental in the defeat of the Spartacist Uprising and the annexation of the short-lived Bavarian Soviet Republic. The most famous victims of the Freikorps were the Communist leaders Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg, who were captured after the suppression of the Spartacist Uprising and shot without trial. After the Freikorps units turned against the Republic in the monarchistKapp Putsch, many of the leaders were forced to flee abroad and the units were largely disbanded.

    Some Freikorps veterans drifted into the ultra-nationalistOrganisation Consul, which regarded the Armistice and the Versailles Treaty as treasonous and assassinated politicians who were associated with them. Among their victims were Matthias Erzberger and Walter Rathenau, both of whom were cabinet ministers in the Weimar regime.

    In addition, the city of Munich remained a headquarters of Russian White émigré hit teams, which targeted those who were believed to have betrayed the Tsar. Their most infamous operation remains the attempt on the life of Russian Provisional Government statesman Pavel Miliukov in Berlin. When newspaper publisher Vladimir Dmitrievich Nabokov attempted to shield the intended victim, he was fatally shot by assassin Piotr Shabelsky-Bork.

    During the same era, the Communist Party of Germany also operated its own assassination squads. Titled, the Rotfrontkämpferbund they carried out assassinations of carefully selected individuals from the Weimar regime as well as assassinations of members of rival political parties. The most infamous operations of Weimar-era Communist death squads remain the slayings of Berlin Police captains Paul Anlauf and Franz Lenck. Those involved in the ambush either fled to the Soviet Union or were arrested and prosecuted, error killer 2.6.2 rus. Among those to receive the death penalty was Max Matern, who was later glorified as a martyr by the East German State. The last surviving conspirator, error killer 2.6.2 rus, former East German secret police head Erich Mielke, was belatedly tried and convicted for the murders in The evidence needed to successfully prosecute him had been found in his personal safe after German reunification.

    Nazi Germany[edit]

    Main article: Einsatzgruppen

    Einsatzgruppenmurder Jews in Ivanhorod, Ukraine,

    Between andGermany was a one-party state ruled by the fascistNazi Party and its leader, Adolf Hitler. During this period, the Nazis made extensive use of death squads and targeted killings.

    InHitler ordered the extrajudicial killings of Ernst Röhm and all members of the Sturmabteilung who remained loyal to him. Simultaneously, Hitler also ordered a mass purge of the German Reichswehr, targeting officers who, like General Kurt von Schleicher, had opposed his drive for absolute power. These massacres have gone down in history as, "The Night of the Long Knives."

    Following the invasion of the Soviet Union inthe German Wehrmacht was followed by four travelling death squads called Einsatzgruppen to hunt down and murder Jews, Communists and other so-called undesirables in the occupied areas, error killer 2.6.2 rus. This was the first of the massacres which comprised the Holocaust. Typically, the error killer 2.6.2 rus, who included women and children, were forcibly marched from their homes to open graves or ravines before being shot. Many others suffocated in specially designed poison trucks called gas vans. Between andthe Einsatzgruppen murdered some 7,4 million Soviet civilians,[] &#;million Jews, as error killer 2.6.2 rus as tens of thousands of suspected political dissidents, error killer 2.6.2 rus, most of the Polish upper class and intelligentsia, POWs, and uncounted numbers of Romany.

    Another use of death squad tactics in Nazi Germany took place after the failure of the July 20th Plot, which had aimed to assassinate Hitler and dismantle the Nazi Party. More than 4, members and sympathizers of the German Resistance and their families were either killed out right or subjected to judicial murder by Judge Roland Freisler of the Ipp2p compile error Court. Those whom Freisler sentenced to death were routinely hanged from piano wire nooses within hours of their trials.

    These tactics ended only with the defeat of Nazi Germany in

    East Germany[edit]

    Between the end of World War II andGermany was divided into the democratic and capitalist Federal Republic of Germany and the Communist German Democratic Republic, error killer 2.6.2 rus, a one-party state under the Socialist Unity Party and its secret police, the Stasi. During these years, kangaroo courts and cavalier use of the death penalty were routinely used against suspected enemies of the State.[citation needed] In order to prevent East German citizens from defecting to the West, orders were issued to border guards to shoot suspected defectors on sight. During the s, the Stasi carried out a mission to hunt down and assassinate West Germans who were suspected of smuggling East Germans.[citation needed]

    On the orders of the Party leadership and Stasi chief Erich Mielke, error killer 2.6.2 rus, the East German Government financed, armed, and trained, error killer 2.6.2 rus, "urban guerrillas," from numerous countries. According to ex-Stasi Colonel Rainer Wiegand, error killer 2.6.2 rus, ties to terrorist organizations were overseen by Markus Wolf and Department Three of the Stasi's foreign intelligence wing.[] Members of the West German Rote Armee Fraktion,[] the ChileanManuel Rodríguez Patriotic Front,[] and the South AfricanUmkhonto we Sizwe[] were brought to East Germany for training in the use of military hardware and, "the leadership role of the Party."[] Similar treatment was meted out to Palestinian terrorists from the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, Abu Nidal, and Black September.[]

    Other Stasi agents worked as military advisers to African Marxist guerrillas and the governments they later formed. They included the NamibianSWAPO and the AngolanMPLA during the South African Border War, the FRELIMO during the Mozambican War of Independence and civil war, and Robert Mugabe's ZANLA during the Rhodesian Bush War.[]

    Colonel Wiegand revealed that Mielke and Wolf provided bodyguards from the Stasi's counter-terrorism division for Senior PLO terrorist Carlos the Jackal[] and Black September leader Abu Daoud[] during their visits to the GDR. Col. Wiegand had been sickened by the Munich massacre and was horrified that the GDR would treat the man who ordered it as an honored guest. When he protested, Wiegand was told that Abu Daoud was, "a friend of our country, a high-ranking political functionary," and that there was no proof that he was a terrorist.[]

    During the s, Wiegand secretly recruited a Libyan diplomat into spying on his colleagues. Wiegand's informant told him that the La Belle bombing and other terrorist attacks against western citizens were being planned at the Libyan Embassy in East Berlin. When Wiegand showed him a detailed report, Mielke informed the SED's Politburo, which ordered the Colonel to continue surveillance but not interfere with the plans of the Libyans.[]

    Shortly before German Reunification, West Germany's Federal Constitutional Court indicted former Stasi chief Erich Mielke for collusion with two Red Army Faction terrorist attacks against U.S. military personnel. The first was the car bomb attack at Ramstein Air Base on 31 August The second was the attempted murder of United States Army General Frederick Kroesen at Heidelberg on 15 September [][] The latter attack, which was carried out by RAF members Brigitte Mohnhaupt and Christian Klar, involved firing an RPG-7anti-tank rocket into the General's armored Mercedes.[][] Due to reasons of senile dementia, Mielke was never placed on trial for either attack.

    Federal Republic of Germany[edit]

    Following German reunification, death squads linked to foreign intelligence services have continued to operate in Germany. The most infamous example of this remains the Mykonos restaurant assassinations, in which a group of anti-Islamist Iranians were fatally machine-gunned in a Greek restaurant in Berlin. A German court ultimately convicted the assassins and exposed the involvement of intelligence services of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The murder and subsequent trial has been publicized in the nonfiction bestseller The Assassins of the Turquois Palace by Roya Hakakian.

    Hungary[edit]

    Main article: The Holocaust in Hungary

    For most of World War II, Hungary was an ally of Nazi Germany. However, the Regency Council of Admiral Miklós Horthy refused to permit the deportation of Hungarian Jews to Nazi death camps.

    Then, in OctoberHorthy announced a cease-fire with the Allied powers and ordered the Royal Hungarian Army to lay down their arms. In response, Nazi Germany launched Operation Panzerfaust, a covert operation which forced Horthy to abdicate in favour of the Fascist and militantly racist Arrow Cross Party, which was led by Ferenc Szálasi. This was followed by an Arrow Cross coup in Budapest on the same day. Szálasi was declared "Leader of the Nation" and prime minister of a "Government of National Unity".

    Arrow Cross rule, error killer 2.6.2 rus, despite lasting only three months, was brutal. Death squads killed as many as 38, Hungarians. Arrow Cross officers helped Adolf Eichmann re-activate the deportation proceedings from which the Jews of Budapest had previously been spared, sending some 80, Jews out of the city on slave labor details and many more straight to death camps. Many Jewish males of conscription age were already serving as slave labor for the Hungarian Army's Forced Labor Battalions. Most of them died, including many who were murdered outright after the end of the fighting as they were returning home. Quickly formed battalions raided the Yellow Star Houses and combed the streets, hunting down Jews claimed to be partisans error killer 2.6.2 rus saboteurs since Jews attacked Arrow Cross squads at least six to eight times with gunfire.[] These approximately Jews were taken to the bridges crossing the Danube, where they were shot and their bodies borne away by the waters of the river because many were attached to weights while they were handcuffed to each other in pairs.[]

    Red Army troops reached the outskirts of the city in Decembererror killer 2.6.2 rus, and the Battle of Budapest began, although it has often been claimed that there is no proof that the Arrow Cross members and the Germans conspired to destroy the Budapest Ghetto.[] Days before he fled the city, Arrow Cross Interior Minister Gábor Vajta commanded that streets and squares named after Jews be renamed.[]

    As control of the city's institutions began to decay, error killer 2.6.2 rus, the Arrow Cross trained their guns on the most helpless possible targets: patients in the beds of the city's two Jewish hospitals on Maros Street and Bethlen Square, and residents in the Jewish poorhouse on Alma Road. Arrow Cross members continually sought to raid the ghettos and Jewish concentration buildings; the majority of Budapest's Jews were saved only by a handful of Jewish leaders and foreign diplomats, most famously the Swedish Raoul Wallenberg, the Papal Nuncio Monsignor Angelo Rotta, Swiss Consul Carl Lutz and Francoist Spain's consul general, Giorgio Perlasca.[] Szálasi knew that the documents used by these diplomats to save Jews were invalid according to international law, but ordered that they be respected.[]

    The Arrow Cross government effectively fell at the end of Januarywhen the Soviet Army took Pest and their enemies forces retreated across the Danube to Buda. Szálasi had escaped from Budapest on 11 December ,[] taking with him the Hungarian royal crown, while Arrow Cross members and German forces continued to fight a rear-guard action in the far west of Hungary until the end of the war in April

    After the war, many of the Arrow Cross leaders were captured and tried for war crimes. Many were executed, including Ferenc Szálasi. Fr. András Kun, a Roman Catholic priest who commanded an Arrow Cross error killer 2.6.2 rus squad while dressed in his cassock, was also convicted and hanged after the war. Fr. Kun's cassock remains on permanent display at the House of Terror in Budapest, error killer 2.6.2 rus.

    Ireland[edit]

    Irish War of Independence[edit]

    During the Irish War of Independence, the Irish Republican Army under Michael Collins made use of death squads and targeted killings. At the beginning of the conflict, Collins recruited a group of men from the IRA's Dublin Brigade, who were dubbed "The Twelve Apostles". At Collins' orders, the Twelve Apostles strategically assassinated members of Crown security forces, British intelligencespymasters, error killer 2.6.2 rus, and moles within IRA ranks. Collins was assisted in this by IRA moles within Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) and the Dublin Metropolitan Police. Furthermore, several secretaries working for the British Army High Command in Dublin were also working as spies for Collins.

    Error killer 2.6.2 rus - confirm

    sprers.eu with both Muslim[] and Buddhist[citation needed] sectarian death squads still operating in the South of the country.

    Turkey[edit]

    Main articles: List of massacres in Turkey, Political violence in Turkey (–80), and Extrajudicial executions in Turkey

    The Grey Wolves was established by Colonel Alparslan Türkeş in the s, it was the main Turkish nationalist force during the political violence in –80 in Turkey. During this period, the organization became a "death squad"[] engaged in "street killings and gunbattles".[] According to authorities, of its members carried out [][] murders of left-wing and liberal activists and intellectuals.[] Attacks on university students were commonplace. They killed hundreds of Alevis in the Maraş massacre of [][] and are alleged to have been behind the Taksim Square massacre of [][] The masterminds behind the attempt on Pope John Paul II's life in by Grey Wolves member Mehmet Ali Ağca were not identified and the organization's role remains unclear.[A]

    Ottoman Empire[edit]

    During the Armenian genocide, the Special Organization functioned as a death squad.[]

    Australia[edit]

    Australia has a long history of the use of death squads dating back to the earliest days of European colonisation.

    In the Colony of New South Wales on December , Governor Arthur Phillip ordered that "A party, consisting of two captains, two subalterns, and forty privates, with a proper number of non-commissioned officers from the garrison, with three days provisions, etc. are to be ready to march to-morrow morning at day-light, in order to bring in six of those natives who reside near the head of Botany Bay; or, if that should be found impracticable, to put that number to death." and "That we were to cut off and bring in the heads of the slain; for which purpose hatchets and bags would be furnished." Originally Phillip had settled on a dozen as an appropriate number. General Watkin Tench wrote that "we were, if practicable, to bring away two natives as prisoners; and to put to death ten." Phillip's purpose for this mission, as described by Tench, was "to strike a decisive blow, in order, at once to convince them of our superiority and to infuse an universal terror"[]

    In May , Governor Peterson ordered a "party of corps to be sent from Parramatta, with instructions to destroy as many as they could meet with of the wood tribe ('Be-dia-gal'); and, in hope of striking terror, to erect gibbets in different places, whereupon the bodies of all they might kill were to be hung." Seven or eight Indigenous people were thought to have been killed, although no bodies were hung on gibbets, and several captives were taken including "one man, (apparently a cripple) five women and some children." One woman and her baby had both been shot though not killed. The child subsequently died. Another pregnant woman delivered her baby son who also died.[] Gapps writes "The fact that women and children were shot and captured certainly suggests the action was an indiscriminate surprise assault on a campsite at night, with all the hallmarks of a massacre."[]

    In December , Collins recorded that another 'armed party' was sent out. "They promptly killed four men and one woman, badly wounded a child, and took four men prisoners."[] Gapps writes "Once more, the shooting of women and children suggests a surprise attack on a camp, ending in a massacre."[]

    In early , Governor John Hunter gave settlers in the outlying Hawkesbury settlementmilitia status. At this point the Hawkesbury was effectively beyond the reach of the New South Wales Corps who had limited manpower. Hunter was at pains to state that settlers were "not to wantonly fire at, or take the lives of natives, as such act would be considered a deliberate murder." Settlers who withdrew or kept back their assistance to the militia were to be "proceeded against as persons disobeying the rules and orders of the settlement."[]

    In , Lieutenant Thomas Hobby of the New South Wales Corps led a party of soldiers and settler against Aboriginal Australians in the Hawkesbury area on the understanding that his orders were to destroy Aboriginal people "wherever they were met with", with the exception of "native children who were domesticated among the settlers." Non 'domesticated' Aboriginal children were fair game.[]

    In May , Governor King went further issuing 'shoot on sight' orders. declaring that anyone in three districts around Sydney could fire at any "bodies of natives".[]

    In the Colony of Tasmania death squads took a number of forms. Private individuals, convicts and settlers formed vigilante squads. In , Near Hadspen on the property of Thomas Beams, Aboriginal Tasmanians surrounded his hut. In response to his firing at the Aboriginal people Beams' neighbours arrived on foot and horseback. A "war party" was organised and a search conducted. At 10 o'clock at night the glow of a fire was seen and the war party surrounded the Aboriginal encampment. At 3 am fourteen muskets opened fire, the camp was rushed and eleven Aboriginal people were killed. Only one escaped.[]

    'Roving parties' were authorised by Governor Arthur. These parties were either military patrols made up of soldiers and convict police or civilian parties made up of convicts and led by men who provided their services in return for promises of grants of land. While they were mostly ineffective, or indeed counterproductive, they did kill Aboriginal people. In one such instance in , a roving party led by John Batman, using Aboriginal trackers brought from the Sydney colony, came across a large Aboriginal camp of men, women and children at night. Their approach was disturbed by the camp dogs whereupon they opened fire and rushed the camp. They captured a woman and a child but the rest fled into the darkness. The next morning Batman's party found two badly wounded men and many blood trails. The wounded men informed them that ten others had been seriously wounded and were dead or dying and that two women had also been severely wounded and had crawled away. The wounded Aboriginal men were subsequently executed by Batman.[]

    Military units carried out attacks upon sleeping Aboriginal groups. On 6 December elements of the 40th Regiment together with two constables, Danvers and Holmes, surrounded a group of Aboriginal people during the night at Tooms Lake. In a dawn attack they killed a number of Aboriginal people variously described as 'several' or ten or sixteen. The bodies were then placed in a pile and burned.[]

    In the northwest of Tasmania a private corporation, the Van Diemen's Land Company, modelled on the East India Company, what Adam Smith described as a "government of an exclusive company of merchants, perhaps, the worst of all governments for any country whatever." became a law unto itself. The company's Chief Agent, Edward Curr, was also appointed the government magistrate, making him the sole arbiter of law for kilometers in any direction. Curr described his belief that "a war of extermination" was underway,[] and later wrote that "My whole object was to kill them, and this because my full conviction was and is that the laws of nature and God and this country all conspired to render this my duty"[]

    In , Curr sent four shepherds along with the captain of the cutter Fanny and its crew to carry out a massacre in response to the spearing of some sheep. A resident of Curr's homestead, Rosalie Hare, described in her journal "while we remained at Circular Head there were several accounts of considerable amounts of Natives having been shot by them (the Company's men), they wishing to extirpate them entirely, if possible. The master of the Company's cutter Fanny, assisted by four shepherds and his crew, surprised a party and killed 12".[] This was quickly followed by the Cape Grim Massacre where Aboriginal people collecting shellfish on the beach at the base of a cliff were shot from the high ground by the company's servants. The company also employed booby traps such as spring loaded guns and steel jawed man traps, sometimes hidden in barrels of flour.[]

    The culmination of these death squads was 'the Black Line', a kilometre wide sweep which employed more than men over almost a two-month period from the 7th of October to the 26th of November. The strategy was designed as a battue to drive the remaining Aboriginal inhabitants into a cordon where they could be captured or killed. While Governor Arthur maintained that capture was the goal, those who participated and the press had no doubt that the only realistic recourse was to kill the remaining Aboriginal people. The former Attorney General wrote publicly that they were "about to enter upon a war of extermination, for such I apprehend is the intended object of the present operations."[] The serving Solicitor General concurred writing "If you cannot capture themI say boldly and broadly, exterminate."[]

    While the Black Line was an abject failure, manned by unmotivated conscript troops and convicts, hamstrung by incompetence, lack of supplies, bad weather and poor intelligence, ultimately, it failed because there simply was no enemy to kill. A year later, when George Augustus Robinson negotiated the final surrender of the eastern tribes and led them into Hobart Town all that remained was 19 men, nine women and one child. Within a few years they too would mostly be dead, killed by white man's diseases on their Flinders Island internment camp.[] The more than dozen tribes of the north west suffered a similar fate, having been virtually wiped out by the Van Diemen's Land Company by , and of those tribes in the north east, by there were only 74 human beings left alive. Robinson wrote that "at every boat harbour along the whole line of the coast the bones of the murdered aborigines are strewed over the face of the earth and bleaching in the sun"[] By the Aboriginal Peoples of Tasmania were virtually extinct. The extirpation of each tribe a completed genocide. Today, those Tasmanians who are of Aboriginal ancestry are almost exclusively the descendants of Aboriginal women and girls taken as slaves by sealers in Bass Strait.[]

    As the frontier in New South Wales continued to expand the Crown sought to limit the unregulated spread of settlement. In , the area of land that could be legally settled was expanded to nineteen counties stretching from the Bateman's Bay in the south to Taree in the north to Bathurst and Wellington in the west. Squatters simply ran their stock well beyond the settled counties. In Governor Richard Bourke legalised this illegal fait sprers.eu acknowledging squatter's rights to occupation if they paid ten pounds in annual rent. Skinner remarks that “The resulting Act (7 Wm. IV. No. 4) to restrain the unauthorized occupation of Crown Lands was equally a law to recognize and encourage legitimate grazing." Bourke mused that failing to take this land would be "a perverse rejection of the Bounty of Providence."[] This Bounty of Providence was, of course, Aboriginal land, and taking it necessitated violence.

    Conflict came in the form of arbitrary killings, ad hoc death squads and the establishment of the Mounted Police and later the Native Police. At separation in the Native Police would become the Queensland Native Mounted Police, which would field death squads across the entire state for to following half century.[][]

    The Mounted Police were thought to have killed around Aboriginal people in and another 65 in Richards writes that "the Mounted Police exerted the Crown's monopoly over armed force on the frontier while maintaining the appearance of law. In other words, while described as a police force upholding the rule of law, the force actually resembled an army unit actively engaged with an enemy."[]

    On 26 January , on the newly expanded frontier, the New South Wales Mounted Police under Major James Nunn perpetrated a massacre of Aboriginal people south west of Moree at Waterloo Creek. This was the culmination of a two month long campaign to suppress Aboriginal resistance. At least fifty Aboriginal people were murdered.[] At the time the government funded missionary Lancelot Threlkeld published a report naming Nunn as a mass murdered responsible for the deaths of Aboriginal people on the Gwydir and its tributaries.[]

    This was followed on 10 June by the Myall Creek Massacre east of Moree, perpetrated by an ad hoc death squad composed of squatters and their stockmen. At least 28 Aboriginal people, women, children and the elderly, were shot, beheaded and dismembered before their bodies were burnt on a fire. The death squad then proceeded to another property near Inverell perpetrating a second massacre before returning to Myall Creek.

    The Myall Creek Massacre became the only instance where white colonists were held accountable for mass murder. There were two trials. In the first an all white jury found them not guilty. Subsequently, seven of the original eleven defendants were re-tried on the charge of killing a child, found guilty and executed.[]

    The Myall Creek Massacre trial was only made possible because the perpetrators had made a public resolution "to exterminate the whole race of blacks in that quarter" and some of their fellow settlers disagreed with the sentiment and informed the authorities.[]

    In , Governor George Gipps, in an attempt to rein in atrocities being committed in the colony, issued a strongly worded public proclamation pointing out the illegality of waging war against Aboriginal Peoples "As human beings partaking of our common nature -as the Aboriginal possessors of the soil from which the wealth of the country has been principally derived - and as subjects of the Queen, whose authority extends over every part of New Holland - the natives of the Colony have an equal right with the people of European origin to the protection and 'assistance of the law of England." · "To allow either to injure or oppress the other, or to permit the stronger to regard the weaker party as aliens with whom a war can exist, and against whom they may exercise belligerent rights, is not less inconsistent with the spirit of that Law, than it is at variance with the dictates of justice and humanity."[]

    In response to the massacres and general lawlessness of the frontier Governor Gipps also introduced the Border Police Act "An Act further to restrain the unauthorised occupation of Crown Lands, and to provide the means of defraying the expense of the Border Police" and in a subsequent Act extended the force for another 5 years. While the Border Police, made up primarily of military convicts, proved relatively inconsequential for dealing with frontier violence, it laid the foundation for the establishment of the permanent Native Police in []

    In /48, James Marks, a squatter whose son had been killed by Aboriginal people, possibly in response to Marks' "ruthless shooting of Aborigines" and the murder of an Aboriginal boy working for a neighbouring squatter, recruited white settlers to form a death squad.[] They were joined by two Constables, McGee and Hancock, on the orders of the Warialda Bench of Magistrates. Their killing spree centered on 'station blacks', Aboriginal people working for local squatters and the victims were almost exclusively women. The total number of victims is unknown but at least 47 were recorded to have been murdered.[]

    Commissioner John Bligh wrote to the Colonial Secretary on 16 September stating that death squads were still carrying out murders. He wrote of theses fresh murders "It would seem that seven persons were concerned in these murders and the audacity of these people may be imagined from the circumstances of these attacks having taken place almost immediately on my leaving the Macintyre where I had been engaged for a fortnight in investigating the former murders at Mr Jonathan Young's and almost at the moment after my seizing one of the person's concerned in that business and issuing warrants for the arrest of the remainder These atrocious outrages appear to me to have been instigated partly by wanton brutality and desire of excitement and partly by a feeling of animosity against the Natives and those who employ them arising from the idea that the rate of wages is lowered by their unpaid services(slavery)From the statements of the Natives and the evidence now before me I cannot entertain a doubt of the guilt of the persons now in custody though I feel convinced that they will be regarded as martyrs by their fellows and that every effort will be used to protect them by false evidence from the consequences of their crime."[]

    Despite a warrant being issued for Marks he was never arrested nor were any of the murderers successfully prosecuted. Frederick Walker wrote the Native Mounted Police was established because of Marks "an individual whose atrocities on the Macintyre first induced His Excellence to command me to raise the Native Police."[]

    On 17 August , Frederick 'Filibuster' Walker was duly appointed the first Commandant of the Native Police on the recommendation of William Charles Wentworth and Augustus Morris of the New South Wales Legislative Council.[] Walker had been the manager of Morris' property, where he had proven himself by violently putting down Aboriginal people,[] and both had worked for Wentworth on the Murrumbidgee. It was on Morris' property, Callandoon, that Walker would initially establish the Mounted Police headquarters.[]

    Copeland says that "his 'Callandoon Experiment' was a success for the squatters and a disaster for the local Bigambul people." By the time his 'experiment' was over only Bigambul were left alive.[]

    Walker's and the NMP's first engagement with Aboriginal people was on the Macintyre River. William Butler Tooth- who later was accused of slavery, "running an enforced black labour camp which compromised a number of inoffensive Manumbar natives" on his Widgee Widgee run-[] testified before the Select Committee "The blacks were so completely put down on that occasion and terrified at the power of the Police." Walker followed this up on the Severn River where he ambushed Aboriginal people and pursued them into thick scrub. A witness stated that "the number that they killed no one but their Commandant and themselves ever know." In June on the Condamine two further 'clashes' occurred. An unknown number of Aboriginal people were killed in the first engagement. Walker wrote that "they suffered so severely that they returned to their own country, a distance of eighty miles."[]

    Near Carbucky on 1 July , Walker and his troopers, together with squatters, surrounded and attacked local Aboriginal people. Walker wrote to the Colonial Secretary "I much regretted not having one hour more [of] daylight and I would have annihilated the lot,…"[] In this one engagement Bigambul were killed.[]

    Even at these early stages Walker's and the NMP's aggressive tactics provoked the Colonial Secretary to caution Walker "not to commit acts of aggressive warfare against the Aborigines and pointing out that the command of the Native Police Force had been entrusted to him for the maintenance of peace and not for the purpose of carrying war into the Aborigine's country.".[]

    Walker, on a number of occasions, sought clarification of the legality of what he had been tasked to do.[] No such clarification was ever forthcoming. In Governor Gipps had insisted that all Aboriginal deaths resulting from clashes with Europeans must be subject to an inquiry.[] In , the Colonial Secretary reiterated that Aboriginal deaths should be investigated, but now, by the officers commanding, the same officers who participated in the attacks. Attorney General Plunket refused to offer an opinion. Essentially, what happened in the field was to stay in the field.[]

    When questioned by the Colonial Secretary about Marshall's shooting of Aboriginal people Walker responded that Marshall had only fired on them seven times in nine months and that these shooting had not been against one tribe in one area but against six different tribes, from 50 to miles apart.[] These shootings may have been on a relatively small scale compared to other massacres but the numbers still add up to significant deaths and widespread terror. March on the Lower Condamine, 'killed a number'; July , an Aboriginal man chased and killed; 8 August on the Severn, an Aboriginal man killed; April , Marshall shot two men in the Mary River; Walker's patrol killed another near the Grafton Range; September , two or three were killed; November, one shot; 2 October , two shot, 7 October, two shot.[] These ones, twos and 'several' soon became dozens then hundreds then thousands.

    By /51, three troops of Native Mounted Police were in the Wide Bay area carrying out attacks on Aboriginal people at Widgee and Kilkivan with the participation of local squatters, Corfield, McTaggart and John Murray, who, in , would become the fourth officer of the NMP, a career that would last 19 years and see Murray slaughter Aboriginal people across the state. Murray subsequently described the shooting in a letter to the Sydney Morning Herald. He wrote that on 14 December, he participated in attacks led by Marshall and his troopers upon the Aboriginal owners of Widgee and Kilkivan. At the conclusion of the attacks, one lasting more than an hour, Murray stated that "the blacks suffered severely" and that they had been "taught a lesson which will show them their inferiority in war". The number of Aboriginal people killed is unknown.[]

    Despite the Colonial Secretary's official remonstration against waging warfare, Christmas Eve saw the NMP field three troops under Walker, Marshall and Sgt Dolan together with squatters, storekeepers and the crew of the cutter Margaret and Mary, all sworn in as 'special constables' in a military style campaign against the Aboriginal Peoples of Fraser Island. The campaign lasted ten days and almost no details were released, Walker claimed that on the final assault he had stayed at camp because he was footsore. Local papers reported "that the natives were driven into the sea, and kept there as long as daylight or life lasted" and that subsequently the Aboriginal people of Fraser who had hitherto been friendly to shipwreck survivors had then become hostile.[]

    It seems that the repeated missives from the Colonial Secretary had finally been heard. From this point on indiscretion on the part of his officers would invite the ire and sanction of Walker, but mass murder would not. To this end Walker introduced a rule- the first rule of the NMP- that no white man could accompany the NMP in the field unless they were sworn in as constables, and despite the Crown having enabled unsworn testimony to be accept in courts, it would not be until be until that the testimony of Aboriginal people would be admitted in law.[]

    It is around this time that Frederick Walker and the NMP became victims of their own success. Walker, unlike many who would follow him, viewed the violence of the NMP as a means to an end, not an end in itself. As the genocidal slaughter on the Macintyre showed, Walker was completely comfortable waging war of aggression against the owners of the soil, but his war had a social and economic agenda.[]

    As the frontier expanded and European pastoralists- and later miners- grabbed more and more land, Aboriginal Peoples were obviously going to resist. Walker, like a paternalistic slave owner, believed that resistance must be crushed swiftly and decisively but that once that was achieved Aboriginal peoples would then become a vitally important economic asset. Once the resistance was broken and Aboriginal People enslaved their free labour could provide a boon to pastoralists. To this end he repeatedly encouraged squatters to allow Aboriginal people onto their runs, something that many had refused to do before the presence of the NMP. He wrote of the success of this policy on the Macintyre, "a run which would not have fetched £ in May, , was disposed of in January, , for £, so much had property risen in value by the increased security of life and property."[]

    One of the first beneficiaries of this strategy was Augustus Morris, Walker's friend, colleague and sponsor for the position of Commandant, who owned Callandoon station where the strategy had first been trialled. As a result of the success of the trial on Callandoon, Morris "used only Aboriginals as stockmen and Chinese as hut-keepers."[]

    Unfortunately for Walker the success of his brutality on the Macintyre- and the brutality of Marks, the squatters and Europeans who felt displaced by free Aboriginal labour- had both raised the expectations of the squatters and the ire of the Colonial administration, Christians, and those favourably disposed towards Aboriginal Peoples. Cautions from the Colonial administration about ensuring that the activities of the NMP remained within the vague field of vision of the letter of the law now served as a brake upon wholesale slaughter, while the squatters demanded that the NMP be everywhere at once and then grew angry that Walker would not simply repeat the Macintyre solution in their district. The same squatters in the Wide Bay who had lauded his achievements in were condemning him and demanding the NMP be replaced by an outright military response in []

    While much is made of Walker's insobriety and financial irregularities (which were a product of his location beyond the metropolis and the incompetence of the Colonial administration as much as his own failings), his clashes with a local magistrates, disagreements with squatters, the small size of his force, rugged terrain and vast distances and conflicting expectations all contributed to his sacking. Turning up at the Board of Inquiry into his behaviour drunk as a skunk surrounded by a phalanx of armed NMP troopers probably didn't help, although the Board seemed to read the subtext as the inquiry was adjourned and never resumed.[][]

    Europe[edit]

    Croatia[edit]

    Main article: Ustaše

    The Ustaše was a Croatianfascist and ultranationalist organization active, as one organization, between and , formally known as the Ustaša – Croatian Revolutionary Movement (Croatian: Ustaša – Hrvatski revolucionarni pokret). Its members murdered hundreds of thousands of Serbs, Jews, and Roma as well as political dissidents in Yugoslavia during World War II.[][]

    France[edit]

    The French Armed Forces used death squads during the Algerian War (–).[]

    Germany[edit]

    Weimar Republic[edit]

    Main articles: Freikorps and Weimar paramilitary groups

    Death squads first appeared in Germany following the end of the First World War and the overthrow of the House of Hohenzollern. In order to prevent a coup d'etat by the Soviet-backed Communist Party of Germany, the Majority Social Democratic-dominated government of the Weimar Republic declared a state of emergency and ordered the recruitment of World War I veterans into militias called the Freikorps. Although officially answering to Defense Minister Gustav Noske, the Freikorps tended to be drunken, trigger happy, and loyal only to their own commanders. However, they were instrumental in the defeat of the Spartacist Uprising and the annexation of the short-lived Bavarian Soviet Republic. The most famous victims of the Freikorps were the Communist leaders Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg, who were captured after the suppression of the Spartacist Uprising and shot without trial. After the Freikorps units turned against the Republic in the monarchistKapp Putsch, many of the leaders were forced to flee abroad and the units were largely disbanded.

    Some Freikorps veterans drifted into the ultra-nationalistOrganisation Consul, which regarded the Armistice and the Versailles Treaty as treasonous and assassinated politicians who were associated with them. Among their victims were Matthias Erzberger and Walter Rathenau, both of whom were cabinet ministers in the Weimar regime.

    In addition, the city of Munich remained a headquarters of Russian White émigré hit teams, which targeted those who were believed to have betrayed the Tsar. Their most infamous operation remains the attempt on the life of Russian Provisional Government statesman Pavel Miliukov in Berlin. When newspaper publisher Vladimir Dmitrievich Nabokov attempted to shield the intended victim, he was fatally shot by assassin Piotr Shabelsky-Bork.

    During the same era, the Communist Party of Germany also operated its own assassination squads. Titled, the Rotfrontkämpferbund they carried out assassinations of carefully selected individuals from the Weimar regime as well as assassinations of members of rival political parties. The most infamous operations of Weimar-era Communist death squads remain the slayings of Berlin Police captains Paul Anlauf and Franz Lenck. Those involved in the ambush either fled to the Soviet Union or were arrested and prosecuted. Among those to receive the death penalty was Max Matern, who was later glorified as a martyr by the East German State. The last surviving conspirator, former East German secret police head Erich Mielke, was belatedly tried and convicted for the murders in The evidence needed to successfully prosecute him had been found in his personal safe after German reunification.

    Nazi Germany[edit]

    Main article: Einsatzgruppen

    Einsatzgruppenmurder Jews in Ivanhorod, Ukraine,

    Between and , Germany was a one-party state ruled by the fascistNazi Party and its leader, Adolf Hitler. During this period, the Nazis made extensive use of death squads and targeted killings.

    In , Hitler ordered the extrajudicial killings of Ernst Röhm and all members of the Sturmabteilung who remained loyal to him. Simultaneously, Hitler also ordered a mass purge of the German Reichswehr, targeting officers who, like General Kurt von Schleicher, had opposed his drive for absolute power. These massacres have gone down in history as, "The Night of the Long Knives."

    Following the invasion of the Soviet Union in , the German Wehrmacht was followed by four travelling death squads called Einsatzgruppen to hunt down and murder Jews, Communists and other so-called undesirables in the occupied areas. This was the first of the massacres which comprised the Holocaust. Typically, the victims, who included women and children, were forcibly marched from their homes to open graves or ravines before being shot. Many others suffocated in specially designed poison trucks called gas vans. Between and , the Einsatzgruppen murdered some 7,4 million Soviet civilians,[] &#;million Jews, as well as tens of thousands of suspected political dissidents, most of the Polish upper class and intelligentsia, POWs, and uncounted numbers of Romany.

    Another use of death squad tactics in Nazi Germany took place after the failure of the July 20th Plot, which had aimed to assassinate Hitler and dismantle the Nazi Party. More than 4, members and sympathizers of the German Resistance and their families were either killed out right or subjected to judicial murder by Judge Roland Freisler of the People's Court. Those whom Freisler sentenced to death were routinely hanged from piano wire nooses within hours of their trials.

    These tactics ended only with the defeat of Nazi Germany in

    East Germany[edit]

    Between the end of World War II and , Germany was divided into the democratic and capitalist Federal Republic of Germany and the Communist German Democratic Republic, a one-party state under the Socialist Unity Party and its secret police, the Stasi. During these years, kangaroo courts and cavalier use of the death penalty were routinely used against suspected enemies of the State.[citation needed] In order to prevent East German citizens from defecting to the West, orders were issued to border guards to shoot suspected defectors on sight. During the s, the Stasi carried out a mission to hunt down and assassinate West Germans who were suspected of smuggling East Germans.[citation needed]

    On the orders of the Party leadership and Stasi chief Erich Mielke, the East German Government financed, armed, and trained, "urban guerrillas," from numerous countries. According to ex-Stasi Colonel Rainer Wiegand, ties to terrorist organizations were overseen by Markus Wolf and Department Three of the Stasi's foreign intelligence wing.[] Members of the West German Rote Armee Fraktion,[] the ChileanManuel Rodríguez Patriotic Front,[] and the South AfricanUmkhonto we Sizwe[] were brought to East Germany for training in the use of military hardware and, "the leadership role of the Party."[] Similar treatment was meted out to Palestinian terrorists from the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, Abu Nidal, and Black September.[]

    Other Stasi agents worked as military advisers to African Marxist guerrillas and the governments they later formed. They included the NamibianSWAPO and the AngolanMPLA during the South African Border War, the FRELIMO during the Mozambican War of Independence and civil war, and Robert Mugabe's ZANLA during the Rhodesian Bush War.[]

    Colonel Wiegand revealed that Mielke and Wolf provided bodyguards from the Stasi's counter-terrorism division for Senior PLO terrorist Carlos the Jackal[] and Black September leader Abu Daoud[] during their visits to the GDR. Col. Wiegand had been sickened by the Munich massacre and was horrified that the GDR would treat the man who ordered it as an honored guest. When he protested, Wiegand was told that Abu Daoud was, "a friend of our country, a high-ranking political functionary," and that there was no proof that he was a terrorist.[]

    During the s, Wiegand secretly recruited a Libyan diplomat into spying on his colleagues. Wiegand's informant told him that the La Belle bombing and other terrorist attacks against western citizens were being planned at the Libyan Embassy in East Berlin. When Wiegand showed him a detailed report, Mielke informed the SED's Politburo, which ordered the Colonel to continue surveillance but not interfere with the plans of the Libyans.[]

    Shortly before German Reunification, West Germany's Federal Constitutional Court indicted former Stasi chief Erich Mielke for collusion with two Red Army Faction terrorist attacks against U.S. military personnel. The first was the car bomb attack at Ramstein Air Base on 31 August The second was the attempted murder of United States Army General Frederick Kroesen at Heidelberg on 15 September [][] The latter attack, which was carried out by RAF members Brigitte Mohnhaupt and Christian Klar, involved firing an RPG-7anti-tank rocket into the General's armored Mercedes.[][] Due to reasons of senile dementia, Mielke was never placed on trial for either attack.

    Federal Republic of Germany[edit]

    Following German reunification, death squads linked to foreign intelligence services have continued to operate in Germany. The most infamous example of this remains the Mykonos restaurant assassinations, in which a group of anti-Islamist Iranians were fatally machine-gunned in a Greek restaurant in Berlin. A German court ultimately convicted the assassins and exposed the involvement of intelligence services of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The murder and subsequent trial has been publicized in the nonfiction bestseller The Assassins of the Turquois Palace by Roya Hakakian.

    Hungary[edit]

    Main article: The Holocaust in Hungary

    For most of World War II, Hungary was an ally of Nazi Germany. However, the Regency Council of Admiral Miklós Horthy refused to permit the deportation of Hungarian Jews to Nazi death camps.

    Then, in October , Horthy announced a cease-fire with the Allied powers and ordered the Royal Hungarian Army to lay down their arms. In response, Nazi Germany launched Operation Panzerfaust, a covert operation which forced Horthy to abdicate in favour of the Fascist and militantly racist Arrow Cross Party, which was led by Ferenc Szálasi. This was followed by an Arrow Cross coup in Budapest on the same day. Szálasi was declared "Leader of the Nation" and prime minister of a "Government of National Unity".

    Arrow Cross rule, despite lasting only three months, was brutal. Death squads killed as many as 38, Hungarians. Arrow Cross officers helped Adolf Eichmann re-activate the deportation proceedings from which the Jews of Budapest had previously been spared, sending some 80, Jews out of the city on slave labor details and many more straight to death camps. Many Jewish males of conscription age were already serving as slave labor for the Hungarian Army's Forced Labor Battalions. Most of them died, including many who were murdered outright after the end of the fighting as they were returning home. Quickly formed battalions raided the Yellow Star Houses and combed the streets, hunting down Jews claimed to be partisans and saboteurs since Jews attacked Arrow Cross squads at least six to eight times with gunfire.[] These approximately Jews were taken to the bridges crossing the Danube, where they were shot and their bodies borne away by the waters of the river because many were attached to weights while they were handcuffed to each other in pairs.[]

    Red Army troops reached the outskirts of the city in December , and the Battle of Budapest began, although it has often been claimed that there is no proof that the Arrow Cross members and the Germans conspired to destroy the Budapest Ghetto.[] Days before he fled the city, Arrow Cross Interior Minister Gábor Vajta commanded that streets and squares named after Jews be renamed.[]

    As control of the city's institutions began to decay, the Arrow Cross trained their guns on the most helpless possible targets: patients in the beds of the city's two Jewish hospitals on Maros Street and Bethlen Square, and residents in the Jewish poorhouse on Alma Road. Arrow Cross members continually sought to raid the ghettos and Jewish concentration buildings; the majority of Budapest's Jews were saved only by a handful of Jewish leaders and foreign diplomats, most famously the Swedish Raoul Wallenberg, the Papal Nuncio Monsignor Angelo Rotta, Swiss Consul Carl Lutz and Francoist Spain's consul general, Giorgio Perlasca.[] Szálasi knew that the documents used by these diplomats to save Jews were invalid according to international law, but ordered that they be respected.[]

    The Arrow Cross government effectively fell at the end of January , when the Soviet Army took Pest and their enemies forces retreated across the Danube to Buda. Szálasi had escaped from Budapest on 11 December ,[] taking with him the Hungarian royal crown, while Arrow Cross members and German forces continued to fight a rear-guard action in the far west of Hungary until the end of the war in April

    After the war, many of the Arrow Cross leaders were captured and tried for war crimes. Many were executed, including Ferenc Szálasi. Fr. András Kun, a Roman Catholic priest who commanded an Arrow Cross death squad while dressed in his cassock, was also convicted and hanged after the war. Fr. Kun's cassock remains on permanent display at the House of Terror in Budapest.

    Ireland[edit]

    Irish War of Independence[edit]

    During the Irish War of Independence, the Irish Republican Army under Michael Collins made use of death squads and targeted killings. At the beginning of the conflict, Collins recruited a group of men from the IRA's Dublin Brigade, who were dubbed "The Twelve Apostles". At Collins' orders, the Twelve Apostles strategically assassinated members of Crown security forces, British intelligencespymasters, and moles within IRA ranks. Collins was assisted in this by IRA moles within Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) and the Dublin Metropolitan Police. Furthermore, several secretaries working for the British Army High Command in Dublin were also working as spies for Collins.