Error 15 file not found system.tpu. pascal

error 15 file not found system.tpu. pascal

When I went back to it several days later, I received an ' Error File not found (sprers.eu) ' message. Upon looking at my tp/units directory I noticed. The Find Error (IF) Option. TPU file with the same first eight characters of the source file. Installs Turbo Pascal on your system (see page 15 for. Contents K Turbo Pascal for Windows Error Messages, Compiler Error Messages, Run TPU file) cannot b e located, the unit is not compiled.

Error 15 file not found system.tpu. pascal - simply

directories


Wed, 18 Jun GMT 

Robert Hanse
#3 / 4

 missing 'sprers.eu'

Quote:


> I have been using tp for dos for several years now without
> problems.  I run through Win95 on a Pentium system.  I am currently in
> the final stages of a project involving several units of ADT's which I
> created as well as CRT and , as I understand, the system unit, used by
> all programs.  Several days ago I ran the program without error,
> reassigned the Options directories

Cellular Automata Laboratory


To define a rule in Turbo Pascal�, you write a rulefunction called JCRule which, when called with arguments containing the state of a cell and its neighbors, returns the new state for the cell as an integer from 0 to (the low bit #0 is the state of Plane 0, bit #1 is the state of Plane 1 and so on). You embed this rulefunction in a .PAS file of the form shown below to get a ruleprogram. When you compile and run the ruleprogram, a .JC ruletable is generated. You can compile and run the ruleprogram either from inside Pascal (by pressing Alt-R in Turbo) or from the command line (by entering filename). When you run the ruleprogram, you will see the first prompt: Rule file name:

Enter the name of the rule file (the extension of ".JC" is supplied automatically; you need not specify it). If there is a problem with your rulefunction you will get some error messages. Otherwise, after a brief delay you will see the second prompt:

Rule file sprers.eu generated. Press Enter to continue:

When you press Enter the program will end. If you ran your program with Alt-R from inside Turbo, you must then use Alt-X to get out of Turbo. Answer y when Turbo asks you if you want to save your .PAS file.


The JC Sublime rule after about 25 generations.

Recapitulating, you might use the Turbo editor to write a program called sprers.eu. Then you might leave the editor and compile sprers.eu to a file called sprers.eu, which you run; alternately you might compile and run sprers.eu from within Turbo. When your "MyLife" program runs, it creates a permanent lookup table for MyLife called sprers.eu. If you created and saved a sprers.eu file, you might as well erase it, because all sprers.eu does is generate the sprers.eu file.

And what is a .JC file good for? It is what our JC simulator uses in order to run cellular automata at a good rapid speed. The .JC file codes up a JCRule entry for each of the 64K possible combinations of OldState and EightNeighborhood that a cell might have. A .JC file will not however normally take up 64K bytes of memory because a compression technique is used. �

The code supplied was developed with Turbo Pascal release Unfortunately the Turbo format for units was changed between release and release , so if you try to use our sprers.eu unit in Turbo Pascal release , it will not work. We have included the source code sprers.eu which we used to create sprers.eu. With a certain amount of hacking, it should be possible to convert CaMake into a usable unit or include file for other versions of Pascal.

To understand how to write a function, first we must consider the neighborhood of a cell, as seen by the function through its arguments. If the function is defined as:

FUNCTION JCRule(OldState,NW,N,NE,W,Self, E,SW,S,SE:integer):integer; BEGIN END;

then the arguments represent the neighborhood as follows:

Each of these arguments will be 1 if the low-order bit of the corresponding cell in the neighborhood is on, and 0 if it is off. In addition, the rule function may examine the argument , which contains the full state of the center cell (eight bit planes). Thus, ranges from 0 to , with the presence of low bit (also supplied in variable ) signifying the state of Plane 0. The function defining the rule must examine these input variables, calculate the resulting state for the cell (from 0 to ), and return that value. The following sample code, including the required declarations and main program, defines the game of Life, proceeding directly from Poundstone's description.

PROGRAM MyLife; USES JCMake; {$F+} { Needed so that function can be treated as an object. } FUNCTION JCRule(OldState,NW,N,NE,W,Self, E,SW,S,SE:integer):integer; {We sum up the number of firing neighbor cells. If this EightSum is anything other than 2 or 3, the cell gets turned off. If the EightSum is 2, the cell stays in its present state. If the Eightsum is 3, the cell gets turned on.} VAR EightSum:integer; BEGIN EightSum := NW+N+NE+E+SE+S+SW+W; CASE EightSum OF 0,1,4,5,6,7,8: JCRule:=0; 2: JCRule:=Self; 3: JCRule:=1; END END; BEGIN {Main program} GenRule(JCRule); END.

If you have Turbo Pascal handy, you should try creating and running the sprers.eu rule right now. Where do you get a file to start work on? One way is simply to type the text of sprers.eu in, using the Turbo editor or a word processor. An easier way is to copy one of our .PAS ruleprograms to a file called sprers.eu and then make a few changes to "sprers.eu" until it looks like the program above.

As it turns out, the sprers.eu program provided with CelLab is similar but not quite the same as MyLife. Our Life is actually the rule "LifeMem," which colors the cells differentially depending on their state in the last generation. But our sprers.eu is quite similar to what you want for sprers.eu, so you should copy sprers.eu onto sprers.eu and use that as the starting point for your program.

So the steps for running MyLife are as follows: Use the DOS command to copy the existing sprers.eu file to a new sprers.eu file. Then use the Turbo editor to work on MyLife. Once you have MyLife in shape, compile and run it from within Turbo. If all goes well, MyLife creates sprers.eu. You leave Turbo, enter JC, and run MyLife.

Starting from the DOS prompt, the keystrokes are:

     (Copy sprers.eu and enter turbo)
copy sprers.eu sprers.eu Enter
turbo mylife Enter

     (Edit the file and then press)
Alt-R Enter
     (Answer the first prompt)
mylife Enter
     (Answer the second prompt)
Enter
Alt-X

     (Answer the save? prompt)
y
     (Try the new rule)
ca Enter
l
mylife Enter
F1
Enter

Since the rule for the game of Life doesn't use the bit-planes #1 through #7 at all, the MyLife ruleprogram contains no reference to . Rules which use the higher bit-planes may also be specified straightforwardly by Pascal rule definition functions. For example, here is the definition of Brian's Brain, a rule developed by Brian Silverman and described in [Margolus&Toffoli87], p. 47, as:

The rule involves cells having three states, 0 ("ready") 1 ("firing") and 2 ("refractory"). A ready cell will fire when exactly two of its eight neighbors are firing; after firing it will go into a refractory state, where it is insensitive to stimuli, and finally it will go back to the ready state.

This translates directly into a Pascal program as follows:

PROGRAM Brain; USES JCMake; {$F+} FUNCTION JCRule(OldState, NW,N,NE,W,Self, E,SW,S,SE:integer):integer; {We use three states 0,1,and 2. 1 always goes to 2 and 2 always goes to 0. 0 goes to 1 iff there are 2 firing neighbors.} VAR EightSum,NewState:integer; BEGIN {First get rid of any extraneous high state bits: "3" decimal is "" binary} OldState:=OldState AND 3; EightSum:=NW+N+NE+E+SE+S+SW+W; IF OldState=0 THEN IF EightSum=2 THEN NewState:=1 ELSE NewState:=0; IF OldState=1 THEN JCRule:=2; IF OldState=2 THEN JCRule:=0; JCRule:=NewState; END; BEGIN {Main program} GenRule(JCRule) END.

It is possible to define much more complicated rules by using the high bits for various bookkeeping memory purposes. Here is an example of a JC that simulates thermally driven random diffusion. The theory of why the program works is explained in the Theory chapter.

PROGRAM Sublime; {This rule implements the Margolus rule for simulating a gas of cells diffusing. Particle number is conserved. We set up a permanent lattice of position values that looks like this: 0 1 0 1 .. 2 3 2 3 .. 0 1 0 1 .. 2 3 2 3 .. : : : : This lattice is alternately chunked into A blocks: 0 1 and B blocks: 3 2 2 3 1 0 and the blocks are Noisily rotated one notch CW or one notch CCW (short for ClockWise and CounterClockWise)} USES JCmake; {$F+}{ Required for function argument to genrule. This produces a pattern that goes 0 1 0 1 .. 2 3 2 3 .. 0 1 0 1 .. 2 3 2 3 .. : : : : } TextHB:=4; TextHN:=1; TextVB:=5; TextVN:=1; {The sprers.eu colorpalette only shows bit 1} PalReq:='Sublime'; {The starting Sublime pattern is some geometric objects} PatReq:='Sublime'; GenRule(JCRule); END.

For now don't worry about the intricacy of Sublime's definition of the procedure. Instead let's focus on the special commands in the Main part of the Sublime program, the part at the end. There are thirteen system-defined global variables that can be set here. To organize the discussion, I put these system variables into three groups: i) , , and , ii) , , , , , , , , , and iii) .

In brief these global system variables serve the following functions:

i)
StartUp: Setting , , and allows you to have your rule start by loading a specific .JCC colorpalette, a specific .JCP start pattern, and a specific .JCO own code evaluator.

ii)
Background. The values of the , , and variables control what we call textures of bits that your rule can automatically load into selected planes. These texture bits are often left invisible.

iii)
Topology: specifies whether the screenwrap is to be on, and whether you want to consider your rule to be two-dimensional or one-dimensional.

StartUp

and are particularly useful for creating rules to be shown by self-running demos such as our sprers.eu. If and are not explicitly set to any values, then the pattern and the colorpalette left over from the last rule are used. If you have just entered JC, then the sprers.eu colorpalette is loaded, and the starting pattern will consist of all zeroes in planes #1 through #7, with random bits of plane #0 turned on. This start will be modified by the texture settings, if any.

If a rule requests a .JCC, .JCP, or .JCO file which is not in the current directory, then JC will show a warning message such as:

Cannot open pattern definition file sprers.eu Press any key to continue:

After you press a key, JC will continue, leaving the previous colorpalette, pattern, or no own code evaluator in effect.

Background

Using the global variables, we can have random bits fed into any span of bits that we like. Specifying tells JC which bit to start randomizing at, and tells it how many bits to randomize at each update. Thus if is 2 and is 3, then at each update, JC will put random bits in planes #2, #3, and #4. The density of these random bits will always be 50%, meaning that approximately half of each randomized plane's cells will be set to 0 and half to 1. If you require a randomness of, say, 25% ones, you can simulate it by filling two planes with random bits and looking for the cells that have both bits set to 1. The global variables feed in horizontal or vertical texture. tells what bit to start putting horizontal texture in at, and tells how many bits. If I have one bit of texture, that means that the texture bit will cycle between 0 and 1. If I were to take to be 5 and to be 2, however, I would get two bits of texture, meaning that the fifth and six bits would cycle through , , , , , , , , and so on across the screen. Vertical texture works the same way, and the combination of horizontal and vertical can produce a more complicated pattern as in Sublime.

The variables allow you to start up a rule with random seed bits in some planes. If we only want some random bits for the startup, but don't want them to keep coming in later, we use the variables instead of the variables.

tells the system what plane to begin random seeding at, and tells it how many planes to seed. In addition, the variable allows you to specify the percentage of ones you want. (This is not possible for the variables, which always seed at 50%.) can be set to any value between 0 and These settings correspond to a percentage of ones which goes from 0% to 50%. Thus a setting of means 50% ones and 50% zeroes; while a setting of means 25% ones and 75% zeroes. works only if is 1.

Thus if I set to 2, to 1, and to , then plane #2 will be randomized at the start of my program by a pattern that is 25% ones, but it will not be randomized again.

The primary purpose of the Seed option is to make it possible to request a start pattern with randomness in some special planes without having to store the random information as part of the start pattern. Look at Soot or Dendrite for examples of this. The reason you don't want to have to store a .JCP files} file which has random bits in one of its planes is that then the file will be about 64K bytes in size, and will take up more disk space than you really want to give it. Because the Soot pattern gets its "random gas" from the variables, its .JCP file is only some 2K bytes instead of 64K.

When a rule is running, you can see what kinds of texture the rule requested by looking at the status line.

A special feature of the and textures is that you can't get rid of them through editing or changing patterns. The idea is that if your rule calls for these textures, then it needs them, so they are put back in every time you leave the editor or load a new pattern. The RSeed planes are rerandomized whenever you load a new pattern, but not when you leave the editor.

Topology

specifies three things: a) Whether your screens wrap around the edges, b) Whether a rule is two-dimensional or one-dimensional rule, and c) How big a neighborhood you want to look at, and how many bits of each neighbor you want to see.

The most commonly used is 1, which means a two dimensional world with wrap turned on. It was actually unnecessary to set to 1 in the Sublime rule, because in the absence of any other request, always defaults to 1. To get a two dimensional world with the wrap turned off, you set to 0.

If you set to one of the values 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, or 9, your rule will act on a one-dimensional (1D) world. The one-dimensional rules run quite a bit faster than the two-dimensional rules.

The 1D rules work by first copying each line of the screen onto the line below it, and by then filling in the top line with a new line calculated according to JCRule. This produces a spacetime trail of the 1D rule, with earlier times appearing lower on the screen like geological strata.

Our simulator is built to suck in eight bits of neighborhood information. We allow it to get neighborhood information in several different ways. These ways correspond to possible values of as listed below:

DimensionalityWrap?NeighborsBits
0 2D NoWrap 8 1
1 2D Wrap 8 1
2 1D NoWrap 8 1
3 1D Wrap 8 1
4 1D NoWrap 4 2
5 1D Wrap 4 2
8 1D NoWrap 2 4
9 1D Wrap 2 4
10 2D Wrap 8 Sum of 8
11 2D Wrap 4 Sum of 4
12 User NoWrap User User
13 User Wrap User User

The order in which we feed variables to the procedure is very important. The actual names of the variables in the procedure don't really matter, as these names are local "dummy" variables. When we are in 2D mode, we stick to one set of names that are in fact meaningful. We write:

JCRule(OldState, NW, N, NE, W, Self, E, SW, S, SE)

When we are in one of the three 1D modes it is appropriate to call the neighbor variables something else. Different names are appropriate for the three different cases:

In 2 & 3 (eight one-bit neighbors) use:

JCRule(OldState, LLLL,LLL,LL,L, Self, R,RR,RRR,RRRR)

In 4 & 5 (four two-bit neighbors) use:

JCRule(OldState, LL1,LL0,L1,L0, Self, R1,R0,RR1,RR0)

In 8 & 9 (two four-bit neighbors) use:

JCRule(OldState, L3, L2, L1, L0, Self, R3, R2, R1, R0)

Each and variable is to be thought of as holding one bit, as diagrammed below.

Eight Neighbors
Bit 0LLLLLLL LL L Self R RRRRR RRRR

Four Neighbors
Bit 1LL1L1   R1 RR1
Bit 0LL0L0 Self R0 RR0

Two Neighbors
Bit 3L3 R3
Bit 2L2 R2
Bit 1L1 R1
Bit 0L0SelfR0

To give an example of a one-dimensional rule, I give the code for the rule sprers.eu below. Aurora uses two four-bit neighbors, so its definition takes the form

JCRule(OldState, L3, L2, L1, L0, Self, R3, R2, R1, R0)

Within the context of this rule there is no specific "" variable, so we use the name "" to stand for the four-bit combination of , , , and . That is, we set to in order to stack the four binary bits , , , and on top of each other to get a four-bit number. And we do the same thing for . We also get a four-bit variable for the cell's own state by ANDing with This gets the low four bits out of because 15 in binary is , and ANDing any of the eight bits B in with a 0 produces 0, while ANDing a bit B with a 1 produces B.

PROGRAM Aurora; {A one dimensional rug rule with two neighbors, and 4 bits of each neighbor visible. This is run as a sixteen state rule, where: NewC = (L + OldC + R) / 3 + 1. } USES JCMake; {$F+} { Required for function argument to genrule. } FUNCTION JCRule(OldState,L3,L2,L1,L0,Self, R3,R2,R1,R0:integer):integer; VAR L,C,R,Average:integer; BEGIN { Develop 4 bit values of neighbors. } L := 8*L3 + 4*L2 + 2*L1 + L0; C := OldState AND 15; R := 8*R3 + 4*R2 + 2*R1 + R0; Average:=(L+C+R)DIV 3; JCRule:=Average+1; END; BEGIN {Main} WorldType := 9; { World type: 2 neighbor ring } PalReq:='Aurora'; RSeedB:=0; { Randomize all four bits at start } RSeedN:=4; GenRule(JCRule); END.

In the rule descriptions at the end of this chapter I give an example of a 5 rule (ShortPi) and an example of a 2 rule (Axons).

Choosing 10 or 11 causes JC to evaluate averaging rules. These rules were devised to allow generalizations of the Rug rule of RC. In both of these rules the screen is wrapped. 10 computes the sum of EveryCell's eight nearest neighbors, and 11 gets the sum of EveryCell's four nearest neighbors. Since 11 has less work to do it runs faster than 10, although both types run slower than do our standard two-dimensional rules.

In the averaging rules, the first argument passed to holds the low five bits of the EveryCell's old eightbit state, and the second argument passed to holds the sum of the EveryCell's neighbors. (Eight neighbors in 10, and 4 neighbors in ) This sum can take as many as eleven bits to write out, which is why we are only allowed to see five bits of EveryCell's old state. The limitation is that our rules use lookup tables whose entries are indexed by sixteen bit "situation" codes.

In 10 and 11, the variables other than the first one are simply placeholders, and have no functionality whatsoever. We simply label them with the letters through .

As an example of 10, here is a program called Heat. A Heat cell takes a straight average of its neighbor cells, except that if a cell has its low bit on, the cell's value is kept fixed. The idea is that this rule is to simulate the heat flow in a metal plate certain of whose locations are kept fixed at certain temperature values.

PROGRAM Heat; {This is an eightcell averaging rule with zero increment. Odd states are frozen states and even states generate even states. One can reanimate the vacuum by pressing i 6 r or i 5 r. } USES JCmake; {$F+} FUNCTION JCRule(FiveBits,Sum, a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h:integer):integer; BEGIN {Function} JCRule:=(Sum SHR 3) AND ; IF odd(FiveBits)THEN IF FiveBits<16 THEN JCRule:=FiveBits ELSE JCRule:=+FiveBits; END; {Function} BEGIN {Main} WorldType:=10; GenRule(JCRule) END. {Main}

s 12 and 13 are for "own code rules." Type 12 has wrap turned off, with zero on the boundary; and Type 13 is the torus wrap mode. To run a rule of 12 or 13, one must have a predefined inner loop function. These inner loop functions have extension .JCO. They are discussed more fully later in this section.

The Rug rule below is an example of a rule of this type. I could have written a similar Rug rule using 10, but I wanted to have the wrap off. The JC Rug rule calls a function called sprers.eu which returns the eleven bit sum of the eight nearest neighbors, so we can use this function to define a rug rule.

PROGRAM Rug; {This program runs an eightcell averaging rule of eight bits per cell. We program it as a nowrap owncode WorldType 12 calling sprers.eu} USES JCmake; {$F+} FUNCTION JCRule(OCValue, a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h,i:integer):integer; BEGIN {Function} JCRule:=((OCValue SHR 3)+1) AND ; END; {Function} BEGIN {Main} WorldType:=12; OCodeReq:='Semi8'; GenRule(JCRule) END. {Main}

The speed at which the simulator runs depends only on the you have chosen. It does not depend at all on the complexity of the Pascal rule you write or on the start pattern you select; it is completely constant. Thus, there is no special necessity to make the function that defines the rule efficient--it is executed only to create the rule definition file, then never used again. The paramount consideration in writing a rule is that it be clearly expressed so that you can come back to it later and still be able to tell what you were trying to do.

.PAS rule programs are provided for all the JC demos. A good way to start writing rules of your own is to copy one of our rules onto your own file sprers.eu. Then you can use Turbo to edit sprers.eu to your own purposes and use Alt-R to run it and generate your sprers.eu file. If it happens that your rule either 1) fails to define a value of for some inputs or 2) defines a value of outside the range , then you will get an error message when the program tries to generate sprers.eu. If this happens, change something in your program and try again.


The JC Sublime rule after about generations.

Back to Defining Rules

Onward to Defining Rules in C


NextPreviousContents




_,-""-_,-""-_,-""-_,-""-_,-""-_,-"
directories


Wed, 18 Jun GMT 

Robert Hanse
#3 / 4

 missing 'sprers.eu'

Quote:


> I have been using tp for dos for several years now without
> problems.  I run through Win95 on a Pentium system.  I am currently in
> the final stages of a project involving several units of ADT's which I
> created as bb 9630 error 507 as CRT andas I understand, the system unit, used by
> all programs.  Several days ago I ran the program without error,
> reassigned the Options

DOS NASM-IDE Installation Issue

Hello,
I’m working my way through a PDF file of the book ‘Assembly language step-by-step programming with DOS and Linux’ by Jeff Duntemann. The CD that accompanied the book included a DOS NASM Integrated Development Environment written in Borland Pascal titled ‘NASM-IDE’. I was able to find it on github, but, while all the files seem present, there are a few steps that need to occur before it can be used.

sprers.eu

According to the author’s instructions, the following steps need be taken…
The NASM-IDE archive is zipped using PKZIP. To use the NASM-IDE source code, create a directory and unzip the entire archive to that directory.
“The source code can be compiled using Borland Turbo Pascal The main program file is called sprers.eu
Before attempting to run the compiled code, you must do the following:

  • Compile and run sprers.eu to create the hint line resource file.
  • Compile sprers.eu to create the help file compiler.
  • Run sprers.eu to compile the help files.
  • Create an INI file (see sprers.eu).”

The problem I have is that I do not understand how to compile these files correctly. I understand that a Turbo Pascal ‘unit’ is first created and saved with a .pas extension, error 15 file not found system.tpu. pascal. Compiling such a file will result in a file with a ‘.tpu’ (unit) extension.
The specific problem is that the sprers.eu unit references other units itself in its code.

The sprers.eu unit has a uses clause that says “uses CRT, OBJECTS, ICONST;”
Compiling it results in the following error…
“Error File not found (sprers.eu).”

The ICONST unit uses the IEDIT unit
The sprers.eu unit has a uses clause that says “uses APP, VIEWS, error 15 file not found system.tpu. pascal, IEDIT”

Compiling sprers.eu results in the following error…
“Error File not found (sprers.eu)”
The sprers.eu unit has a uses clause that says…
Uses DRIVERS, OBJECTS, VIEWS, DIALOGS, IUTILS, SINI, IHELP, IOPT;
The sprers.eu unit depends on sprers.eu

This ‘circular reference’ problem continues as I try to compile other units along the chain.

The question is how to compile a unit file with a .pas extension into an actual .tpu unit when the original file depends on other .tpu unit files that cannot be created because they do not exist as .tpu files and cannot be separately compiled because they are called from the original file.

Each compilation effort fails because the dependent .tpu file does error 15 file not found system.tpu. pascal exist; it only exists as a unit source file with a .pas extension.
Borland Pascal is being used in these compilation attempts. It is running natively on a PC running MS DOS v

I was able to compile about 12 of the files to .tpu format by setting sprers.eu as the “Primary file” in the “Compile” menu option and selecting the “Build” option, but this ended with an “Error Type mismatch.” Error on the sprers.eu file.

Any help would be appreciated.
Thank You!

Error 15 file not found system.tpu. pascal - indeed

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  • npm ERR! gyp ERR! stack Error: Can't find Python executable "python", you can set the PYTHON env variable.
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  • sprers.euror: HTTP Error Forbidden
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  • AssertionError: Torch not compiled with CUDA enabled









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Cellular Automata Laboratory


To define a rule in Turbo Pascal�, you write a rulefunction called JCRule which, when called with arguments containing the state of a cell and its neighbors, returns the new state for the cell as an integer from 0 to (the low bit #0 is the state of Plane 0, bit #1 is the state of Plane 1 and so on). You embed this rulefunction in a .PAS file of the form shown below to get a ruleprogram. When you compile and run the ruleprogram, a .JC ruletable is generated. You can compile and run the ruleprogram either from inside Pascal (by pressing Alt-R in Turbo) or from the command line (by entering filename). When you run the ruleprogram, you will see the first prompt: Rule file name:

Enter the name of the rule file (the extension of ".JC" is supplied automatically; you need not specify it). If there is a problem with your rulefunction you will get some error messages. Otherwise, after a brief delay you will see the second prompt:

Rule file sprers.eu generated. Press Enter to continue:

When you press Enter the program will end. If you ran your program with Alt-R from inside Turbo, you must then use Alt-X to get out of Turbo. Answer y when Turbo asks you if you want to save your .PAS file.

Recapitulating, you might use the Turbo editor to write a program called sprers.eu. Then you might leave the editor and compile sprers.eu to a file called sprers.eu, which you run; alternately you might compile and run sprers.eu from within Turbo. When your "MyLife" program runs, it creates a permanent lookup table for MyLife called sprers.eu. If you created and saved a sprers.eu file, you might as well erase it, because all sprers.eu does is generate the sprers.eu file.

And what is a .JC file good for? It is what our JC simulator uses in order to run cellular automata at a good rapid speed. The .JC file codes up a JCRule entry for each of the 64K possible combinations of OldState and EightNeighborhood that a cell might have. A .JC file will not however normally take up 64K bytes of memory because a compression technique is used. �

The format of Turbo Pascal units changes from release to release. Since there's no way we can know what release you're using, or what changes may occur in the future, we include the source code sprers.eu from which sprers.eu is built. Follow the instructions for that came with your version of Turbo Pascal to compile this into a sprers.eu file usable with your compiler.

To understand how to write a function, first we must consider the neighborhood of a cell, as seen by the function through its arguments. If the function is defined as:

FUNCTION JCRule(OldState,NW,N,NE,W,Self, E,SW,S,SE:integer):integer; BEGIN END;

then the arguments represent the neighborhood as follows:

Each of these arguments will be 1 if the low-order bit of the corresponding cell in the neighborhood is on, and 0 if it is off. In addition, the rule function may examine the argument , which contains the full state of the center cell (eight bit planes). Thus, ranges from 0 to , with the presence of low bit (also supplied in variable ) signifying the state of Plane 0. The function defining the rule must examine these input variables, calculate the resulting state for the cell (from 0 to ), and return that value. The following sample code, including the required declarations and main program, defines the game of Life, proceeding directly from Poundstone's description.

PROGRAM MyLife; USES JCMake; {$F+} { Needed so that function can be treated as an object. } FUNCTION JCRule(OldState,NW,N,NE,W,Self, E,SW,S,SE:integer):integer; {We sum up the number of firing neighbor cells. If this EightSum is anything other than 2 or 3, the cell gets turned off. If the EightSum is 2, the cell stays in its present state. If the Eightsum is 3, the cell gets turned on.} VAR EightSum:integer; BEGIN EightSum := NW+N+NE+E+SE+S+SW+W; CASE EightSum OF 0,1,4,5,6,7,8: JCRule:=0; 2: JCRule:=Self; 3: JCRule:=1; END END; BEGIN {Main program} GenRule(JCRule); END.

If you have Turbo Pascal handy, you should try creating and running the sprers.eu rule right now. Where do you get a file to start work on? One way is simply to type the text of sprers.eu in, using the Turbo editor or a word processor. An easier way is to copy one of our .PAS ruleprograms to a file called sprers.eu and then make a few changes to "sprers.eu" until it looks like the program above.

As it turns out, the sprers.eu program provided with CelLab is similar but not quite the same as MyLife. Our Life is actually the rule "LifeMem," which colors the cells differentially depending on their state in the last generation. But our sprers.eu is quite similar to what you want for sprers.eu, so you should copy sprers.eu onto sprers.eu and use that as the starting point for your program.

So the steps for running MyLife are as follows: Use the DOS command to copy the existing sprers.eu file to a new sprers.eu file. Then use the Turbo editor to work on MyLife. Once you have MyLife in shape, compile and run it from within Turbo. If all goes well, MyLife creates sprers.eu. You leave Turbo, enter JC, and run MyLife.

Starting from the DOS prompt, the keystrokes are:

     (Copy sprers.eu and enter turbo)
copy sprers.eu sprers.eu Enter
turbo mylife Enter

     (Edit the file and then press)
Alt-R Enter
     (Answer the first prompt)
mylife Enter
     (Answer the second prompt)
Enter
Alt-X

     (Answer the save? prompt)
y
     (Try the new rule)
ca Enter
l
mylife Enter
F1
Enter

Since the rule for the game of Life doesn't use the bit-planes #1 through #7 at all, the MyLife ruleprogram contains no reference to . Rules which use the higher bit-planes may also be specified straightforwardly by Pascal rule definition functions. For example, here is the definition of Brian's Brain, a rule developed by Brian Silverman and described in [Margolus&Toffoli87], p. 47, as:

The rule involves cells having three states, 0 ("ready") 1 ("firing") and 2 ("refractory"). A ready cell will fire when exactly two of its eight neighbors are firing; after firing it will go into a refractory state, where it is insensitive to stimuli, and finally it will go back to the ready state.

This translates directly into a Pascal program as follows:

PROGRAM Brain; USES JCMake; {$F+} FUNCTION JCRule(OldState, NW,N,NE,W,Self, E,SW,S,SE:integer):integer; {We use three states 0,1,and 2. 1 always goes to 2 and 2 always goes to 0. 0 goes to 1 iff there are 2 firing neighbors.} VAR EightSum,NewState:integer; BEGIN {First get rid of any extraneous high state bits: "3" decimal is "" binary} OldState:=OldState AND 3; EightSum:=NW+N+NE+E+SE+S+SW+W; IF OldState=0 THEN IF EightSum=2 THEN NewState:=1 ELSE NewState:=0; IF OldState=1 THEN JCRule:=2; IF OldState=2 THEN JCRule:=0; JCRule:=NewState; END; BEGIN {Main program} GenRule(JCRule) END.

It is possible to define much more complicated rules by using the high bits for various bookkeeping memory purposes. Here is an example of a JC that simulates thermally driven random diffusion. The theory of why the program works is explained in the Theory chapter.

PROGRAM Sublime; {This rule implements the Margolus rule for simulating a gas of cells diffusing. Particle number is conserved. We set up a permanent lattice of position values that looks like this: 0 1 0 1 .. 2 3 2 3 .. 0 1 0 1 .. 2 3 2 3 .. : : : : This lattice is alternately chunked into A blocks: 0 1 and B blocks: 3 2 2 3 1 0 and the blocks are Noisily rotated one notch CW or one notch CCW (short for ClockWise and CounterClockWise)} USES JCmake; {$F+}{ Required for function argument to genrule. This produces a pattern that goes 0 1 0 1 .. 2 3 2 3 .. 0 1 0 1 .. 2 3 2 3 .. : : : : } TextHB:=4; TextHN:=1; TextVB:=5; TextVN:=1; {The sprers.eu colorpalette only shows bit 1} PalReq:='Sublime'; {The starting Sublime pattern is some geometric objects} PatReq:='Sublime'; GenRule(JCRule); END.

For now don't worry about the intricacy of Sublime's definition of the procedure. Instead let's focus on the special commands in the Main part of the Sublime program, the part at the end. There are thirteen system-defined global variables that can be set here. To organize the discussion, I put these system variables into three groups: i) , , and , ii) , , , , , , , , , and iii) .

In brief these global system variables serve the following functions:

i)
StartUp: Setting , , and allows you to have your rule start by loading a specific .JCC colorpalette, a specific .JCP start pattern, and a specific .JCO own code evaluator.

ii)
Background. The values of the , , and variables control what we call textures of bits that your rule can automatically load into selected planes. These texture bits are often left invisible.

iii)
Topology: specifies whether the screenwrap is to be on, and whether you want to consider your rule to be two-dimensional or one-dimensional.

StartUp

and are particularly useful for creating rules to be shown by self-running demos such as our sprers.eu. If and are not explicitly set to any values, then the pattern and the colorpalette left over from the last rule are used. If you have just entered JC, then the sprers.eu colorpalette is loaded, and the starting pattern will consist of all zeroes in planes #1 through #7, with random bits of plane #0 turned on. This start will be modified by the texture settings, if any.

If a rule requests a .JCC, .JCP, or .JCO file which is not in the current directory, then JC will show a warning message such as:

Cannot open pattern definition file sprers.eu Press any key to continue:

After you press a key, JC will continue, leaving the previous colorpalette, pattern, or no own code evaluator in effect.

Background

Using the global variables, we can have random bits fed into any span of bits that we like. Specifying tells JC which bit to start randomizing at, and tells it how many bits to randomize at each update. Thus if is 2 and is 3, then at each update, JC will put random bits in planes #2, #3, and #4. The density of these random bits will always be 50%, meaning that approximately half of each randomized plane's cells will be set to 0 and half to 1. If you require a randomness of, say, 25% ones, you can simulate it by filling two planes with random bits and looking for the cells that have both bits set to 1. The global variables feed in horizontal or vertical texture. tells what bit to start putting horizontal texture in at, and tells how many bits. If I have one bit of texture, that means that the texture bit will cycle between 0 and 1. If I were to take to be 5 and to be 2, however, I would get two bits of texture, meaning that the fifth and six bits would cycle through , , , , , , , , and so on across the screen. Vertical texture works the same way, and the combination of horizontal and vertical can produce a more complicated pattern as in Sublime.

The variables allow you to start up a rule with random seed bits in some planes. If we only want some random bits for the startup, but don't want them to keep coming in later, we use the variables instead of the variables.

tells the system what plane to begin random seeding at, and tells it how many planes to seed. In addition, the variable allows you to specify the percentage of ones you want. (This is not possible for the variables, which always seed at 50%.) can be set to any value between 0 and These settings correspond to a percentage of ones which goes from 0% to 50%. Thus a setting of means 50% ones and 50% zeroes; while a setting of means 25% ones and 75% zeroes. works only if is 1.

Thus if I set to 2, to 1, and to , then plane #2 will be randomized at the start of my program by a pattern that is 25% ones, but it will not be randomized again.

The primary purpose of the Seed option is to make it possible to request a start pattern with randomness in some special planes without having to store the random information as part of the start pattern. Look at Soot or Dendrite for examples of this. The reason you don't want to have to store a .JCP files} file which has random bits in one of its planes is that then the file will be about 64K bytes in size, and will take up more disk space than you really want to give it. Because the Soot pattern gets its "random gas" from the variables, its .JCP file is only some 2K bytes instead of 64K.

When a rule is running, you can see what kinds of texture the rule requested by looking at the status line.

A special feature of the and textures is that you can't get rid of them through editing or changing patterns. The idea is that if your rule calls for these textures, then it needs them, so they are put back in every time you leave the editor or load a new pattern. The RSeed planes are rerandomized whenever you load a new pattern, but not when you leave the editor.

Topology

specifies three things: a) Whether your screens wrap around the edges, b) Whether a rule is two-dimensional or one-dimensional rule, and c) How big a neighborhood you want to look at, and how many bits of each neighbor you want to see.

The most commonly used is 1, which means a two dimensional world with wrap turned on. It was actually unnecessary to set to 1 in the Sublime rule, because in the absence of any other request, always defaults to 1. To get a two dimensional world with the wrap turned off, you set to 0.

If you set to one of the values 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, or 9, your rule will act on a one-dimensional (1D) world. The one-dimensional rules run quite a bit faster than the two-dimensional rules.

The 1D rules work by first copying each line of the screen onto the line below it, and by then filling in the top line with a new line calculated according to JCRule. This produces a spacetime trail of the 1D rule, with earlier times appearing lower on the screen like geological strata.

Our simulator is built to suck in eight bits of neighborhood information. We allow it to get neighborhood information in several different ways. These ways correspond to possible values of as listed below:

DimensionalityWrap?NeighborsBits
0 2D NoWrap 8 1
1 2D Wrap 8 1
2 1D NoWrap 8 1
3 1D Wrap 8 1
4 1D NoWrap 4 2
5 1D Wrap 4 2
8 1D NoWrap 2 4
9 1D Wrap 2 4
10 2D Wrap 8 Sum of 8
11 2D Wrap 4 Sum of 4
12 User NoWrap User User
13 User Wrap User User

The order in which we feed variables to the procedure is very important. The actual names of the variables in the procedure don't really matter, as these names are local "dummy" variables. When we are in 2D mode, we stick to one set of names that are in fact meaningful. We write:

JCRule(OldState, NW, N, NE, W, Self, E, SW, S, SE)

When we are in one of the three 1D modes it is appropriate to call the neighbor variables something else. Different names are appropriate for the three different cases:

In 2 & 3 (eight one-bit neighbors) use:

JCRule(OldState, LLLL,LLL,LL,L, Self, R,RR,RRR,RRRR)

In 4 & 5 (four two-bit neighbors) use:

JCRule(OldState, LL1,LL0,L1,L0, Self, R1,R0,RR1,RR0)

In 8 & 9 (two four-bit neighbors) use:

JCRule(OldState, L3, L2, L1, L0, Self, R3, R2, R1, R0)

Each and variable is to be thought of as holding one bit, as diagrammed below.

Eight Neighbors
Bit 0LLLLLLL LL L Self R RRRRR RRRR

Four Neighbors
Bit 1LL1L1   R1 RR1
Bit 0LL0L0 Self R0 RR0

Two Neighbors
Bit 3L3 R3
Bit 2L2 R2
Bit 1L1 R1
Bit 0L0SelfR0

To give an example of a one-dimensional rule, I give the code for the rule sprers.eu below. Aurora uses two four-bit neighbors, so its definition takes the form

JCRule(OldState, L3, L2, L1, L0, Self, R3, R2, R1, R0)

Within the context of this rule there is no specific "" variable, so we use the name "" to stand for the four-bit combination of , , , and . That is, we set to in order to stack the four binary bits , , , and on top of each other to get a four-bit number. And we do the same thing for . We also get a four-bit variable for the cell's own state by ANDing with This gets the low four bits out of because 15 in binary is , and ANDing any of the eight bits B in with a 0 produces 0, while ANDing a bit B with a 1 produces B.

PROGRAM Aurora; {A one dimensional rug rule with two neighbors, and 4 bits of each neighbor visible. This is run as a sixteen state rule, where: NewC = (L + OldC + R) / 3 + 1. } USES JCMake; {$F+} { Required for function argument to genrule. } FUNCTION JCRule(OldState,L3,L2,L1,L0,Self, R3,R2,R1,R0:integer):integer; VAR L,C,R,Average:integer; BEGIN { Develop 4 bit values of neighbors. } L := 8*L3 + 4*L2 + 2*L1 + L0; C := OldState AND 15; R := 8*R3 + 4*R2 + 2*R1 + R0; Average:=(L+C+R)DIV 3; JCRule:=Average+1; END; BEGIN {Main} WorldType := 9; { World type: 2 neighbor ring } PalReq:='Aurora'; RSeedB:=0; { Randomize all four bits at start } RSeedN:=4; GenRule(JCRule); END.

In the rule descriptions at the end of this chapter I give an example of a 5 rule (ShortPi) and an example of a 2 rule (Axons).

Choosing 10 or 11 causes JC to evaluate averaging rules. These rules were devised to allow generalizations of the Rug rule of RC. In both of these rules the screen is wrapped. 10 computes the sum of EveryCell's eight nearest neighbors, and 11 gets the sum of EveryCell's four nearest neighbors. Since 11 has less work to do it runs faster than 10, although both types run slower than do our standard two-dimensional rules.

In the averaging rules, the first argument passed to holds the low five bits of the EveryCell's old eightbit state, and the second argument passed to holds the sum of the EveryCell's neighbors. (Eight neighbors in 10, and 4 neighbors in ) This sum can take as many as eleven bits to write out, which is why we are only allowed to see five bits of EveryCell's old state. The limitation is that our rules use lookup tables whose entries are indexed by sixteen bit "situation" codes.

In 10 and 11, the variables other than the first one are simply placeholders, and have no functionality whatsoever. We simply label them with the letters through .

As an example of 10, here is a program called Heat. A Heat cell takes a straight average of its neighbor cells, except that if a cell has its low bit on, the cell's value is kept fixed. The idea is that this rule is to simulate the heat flow in a metal plate certain of whose locations are kept fixed at certain temperature values.

PROGRAM Heat; {This is an eightcell averaging rule with zero increment. Odd states are frozen states and even states generate even states. One can reanimate the vacuum by pressing i 6 r or i 5 r. } USES JCmake; {$F+} FUNCTION JCRule(FiveBits,Sum, a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h:integer):integer; BEGIN {Function} JCRule:=(Sum SHR 3) AND ; IF odd(FiveBits)THEN IF FiveBits<16 THEN JCRule:=FiveBits ELSE JCRule:=+FiveBits; END; {Function} BEGIN {Main} WorldType:=10; GenRule(JCRule) END. {Main}

s 12 and 13 are for "own code rules." Type 12 has wrap turned off, with zero on the boundary; and Type 13 is the torus wrap mode. To run a rule of 12 or 13, one must have a predefined inner loop function. These inner loop functions have extension .JCO. They are discussed more fully later in this section.

The Rug rule below is an example of a rule of this type. I could have written a similar Rug rule using 10, but I wanted to have the wrap off. The JC Rug rule calls a function called sprers.eu which returns the eleven bit sum of the eight nearest neighbors, so we can use this function to define a rug rule.

PROGRAM Rug; {This program runs an eightcell averaging rule of eight bits per cell. We program it as a nowrap owncode WorldType 12 calling sprers.eu} USES JCmake; {$F+} FUNCTION JCRule(OCValue, a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h,i:integer):integer; BEGIN {Function} JCRule:=((OCValue SHR 3)+1) AND ; END; {Function} BEGIN {Main} WorldType:=12; OCodeReq:='Semi8'; GenRule(JCRule) END. {Main}

The speed at which the simulator runs depends only on the you have chosen. It does not depend at all on the complexity of the Pascal rule you write or on the start pattern you select; it is completely constant. Thus, there is no special necessity to make the function that defines the rule efficient--it is executed only to create the rule definition file, then never used again. The paramount consideration in writing a rule is that it be clearly expressed so that you can come back to it later and still be able to tell what you were trying to do.

.PAS rule programs are provided for all the JC demos. A good way to start writing rules of your own is to copy one of our rules onto your own file sprers.eu. Then you can use Turbo to edit sprers.eu to your own purposes and use Alt-R to run it and generate your sprers.eu file. If it happens that your rule either 1) fails to define a value of for some inputs or 2) defines a value of outside the range , then you will get an error message when the program tries to generate sprers.eu. If this happens, change something in your program and try again.

Back to Defining Rules

Onward to Defining Rules in C


NextPreviousContents

Board index » delphi » Pls Help!! New user's problem with .TPU, BGI and Include files

Christopher Eltschk

Delphi Developer

Wed, 18 Jun GMT

Re:Pls Help!! New user's problem with .TPU, BGI and Include files


Quote
jimbo wrote:

> Hi there,

> I am self-teaching and new to programming, Turbo Pascal 7, and was looking
> to browse through some sample programs.

> Tried to run a file in pascal's EXAMPLES directory,
> C:\TP\EXAMPLES\DOCDEMOS\sprers.eu, but get the error reading -
> ' Error File not found (sprers.eu)'.

Try changing the current directory to C:\TP\EXAMPLES\DOCDEMOS.
There's a Change Dir entry in the File menu.

Alternatively, go into the options menu, select "directories"
and add this directory to the Unit Directories search path.

Quote

> The declarations at the top of the file (sprers.eu) are as follows;

> uses TutConst, Drivers, Objects, TutTypes, Dialogs, Count, Validate;

> Have noticed that there is a similar named - sprers.eu - in
> C\TP\EXAMPLES\DOCDEMOS\ . Could this be the file the program is looking for?

Aproximately ;-)

Turbo Pascal allows you to divide programs into several units
which are separately compiled. The source code for the TutConst
unit is in sprers.eu, while the compiled unit is stored in
sprers.eu So you get sprers.eu by compiling sprers.eu
However, the compiler helps you: If you use "make" from the compile
menu (or press F9 to compile), then each time it doesn't find
an unit (sprers.eu) the program needs, it looks for the corresponding
sprers.eu, and if it finds it, it compiles it, and then continues
to compile the program.
The uses xxx; tells the compiler that the program needs the unit
xxx (in file sprers.eu).



“ValueError: Please provide a TPU Name to connect to. site:sprers.eu” Code Answer

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ValueError: Please provide a TPU Name to connect to. site:sprers.eu

python by uziiuzii        on Jun 22 Comment

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