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أطلب أي لعبة وستكون لديك في خلال 48 ساعة

· N-Ball
· Nancy Drew - Danger On Deception Island
· Nancy Drew - Last Train to Blue Moon Canyon
· Nancy Drew - Legend of the Crystal Skull
· Nancy Drew - The White Wolf Of Icicle Creek
· Napoleon's Campaigns
· Nascar Racing 3
· Nascar SimRacing
· Natural Fawn Killers
· NBA Live 07
· NBA Live 08
· Need For Speed - Carbon
· Need for Speed - Carbon - Collector's Edition
· Need For Speed - Hot Pursuit 2
· Need For Speed - Most Wanted
· Need For Speed - Porsche Unleashed
· Need For Speed - ProStreet
· Need For Speed - ProStreet [PL]
· Need for Speed - Underground
· Need for Speed - Underground 2
· Need for Speed 1
· Need For Speed 2
· Need For Speed 3
· Need For Speed High Stakes
· Neighbors From Hell Compilation
· Neighbours From Hell
· Neighbours From Hell 2 - On Vacation
· Neighbours From Hell 3
· Neopets Codestone Quest
· Neptune's Secret
· Neverend
· Neverwinter Night Xpak 1 - Shadows of Undertide
· Neverwinter Nights
· Neverwinter Nights - Infinite Dungeons
· Neverwinter Nights - Pirates of the Sword Coast
· Neverwinter Nights - Wyvern Crown Of Cormyr
· Neverwinter Nights 2 - Mask Of The Betrayer
· Neverwinter Nights Kingmaker
· Neverwinter Nights Xpak 2 - Hordes of the Underdark
· Neverwinter Nigths 2
· Nexagon Deathmatch
· Next Life
· NFL Head Coach
· NHL 08
· NHL
· NHRA Drag Racing - Quarter Mile Showdown
· Night Watch
· Night Watch Racing
· Ninjabread Man
· Nitro Stunt Racing
· No Man's Land - Fight for your Rights
· No One Lives Forever
· No Surrender - Battle of the Bulge
· Normality
· Nosferatu - The Wrath of Malachi
· Nostradamus - The Last Prophecy
· Nox
· Obscure - Learn about Fear
· Obscure 2
· Oddworld - Abe's Exoddus
· Official Formula 1 Racing
· Once Upon a Knight
· Onimusha
· Open Season
· Open Season Activity Center
· Operation Air Assault 2
· Operation Matriarchy
· Outlaw Chopper
· Outlive
· Overclocked - A Story of Violence
· Overlord
· Overlord - Raising Hell
· Overspeed - High Performance Street Racing
· Pac-Man - Adventures in Time
· Pac-Man All Stars
· Pacific Heroes 2
· Pacific Storm - Allies
· Painkiller
· Painkiller - Battle Out Of Hell
· Painkiller - Overdose
· Panzer Elite Action - Fields of Glory
· Panzer Killer
· Paradise
· Pariah
· Pathologic
· Patriots - A Nation under Fire
· Paws and Claws - Pet Resort
· Paws And Claws - Pet Vet 2 - Healing Hands
· PDC World Championship Darts
· PDC World Championship Darts
· PeaceMaker
· Peggle Deluxe
· Peggle Extreme
· Penny Arcade Adventures on the Rain - Slick Precipice of Darkness - Episode 1
· Penumbra
· Penumbra - Black Plague
· Penumbra Overture
· Perfect Ace Pro Tennis Tournament
· Perfect Ace Pro Tennis Tournament
· Perfect Sudoku
· Perimeter
· Perry Rhodan
· Pet Luv Spa and Resort Tycoon
· Pet Vet 3D - Animal Hospital Down Under
· Pet Vet 3D - Wild Animal Hospital
· Petanque -
· Peter Jackson`s - King Kong
· Petz Catz 2
· Petz Dogz 2
· Petz Horsez 2
· Phantasmagoria 2 - A Puzzle of Flesh
· Phantasy Star Universe - Ambition Of Illuminus
· Pharaoh with Cleopatra extension
· Pi Eye PC Games Collection
· Piece Of Wonder
· Pink Panther - Pinkadelic Pursuit
· Pinup Strip Poker
· Piotrus Pan - Wielki Powrot [PL]
· Pirates of the Caribbean - At World's End
· Pirates of the Caribbean - Legend of Jack Sparrow
· Pirateville
· Pitfall - The Lost Expedition
· Pixelus
· Pizza Connection
· Planescape Torment
· Platoon
· Playboy - The Mansion
· Playboy - The Mansion
· Pocket Tanks
· Pokemon - Pearl Version [with emulator]
· Pokemon Games [GBA emulator included]
· Poker
· Polar Games
· Police Quest 1 - In Pursuit of the Death Angel
· Police Quest 2 - The Vengeance
· Police Quest 3 - The Kindred
· Police Quest 4 - Open Season
· Pontifex II
· Pool of Radiance - Ruins of Myth Drannor
· Populous 3 - The Beginning
· Port Royale 2
· Portal [from VALVE]
· Portal [from VALVE]
· Post Mortem
· Postal
· Postal 2
· Postal 2 - Apocalypse Weekend [Expansion]
· Postal 2 - Share The Pain
· Postal Fudge Pack
· Power of Destruction
· Power Rangers - Super Legends
· Powerboat GT
· Powerdrome
· Powerslide
· Prank TV
· Premier Manager 08
· Pretty Soldier Wars A.D.
· Prey
· Prince Of Persia - Sands Of Time
· Prince Of Persia - Sands Of Time
· Prince Of Persia - The Two Thrones
· Prince Of Persia - Warrior Within
· Prison Tycoon 2 - Maximum Security
· Prison Tycoon 3 - Lock Down
· Pro Beach Soccer
· Pro Cycling Manager
· Pro Cycling Manager
· Pro Evolution Soccer
· Pro Evolution Soccer 3 (Winning Eleven 7)
· Pro Evolution Soccer 4 (Winning Eleven Cool
· Pro Evolution Soccer 5 (Winning Eleven 9)
· Pro Evolution Soccer 6
· Pro Evolution Soccer 6 (Winning Eleven - Pro Evolution Soccer )
· Project - Snowblind
· Project Eden
· Project IGI - I'm Going In
· Project IGI 2 - Covert Strike
· Psi Ops - The Mindgate Conspiracy
· PsychoNauts
· PsychoNauts
· Psychotoxic
· Punic Wars
· Pusu
· Puzzle Inlay
· Puzzle Mania - Chronicles of the Unicorn
· Quake
· Quake - Enhanced
· Quake 2
· Quake 2 - Ground Zero
· Quake 2 - The Reckoning
· Quake 3 Urban Terror [mod]
· Quake 4
· Quake II [For Linux]
· Quake III - Arena
· RA Gamez
· RACE - Caterham
· RACE 07 - The WTCC Game
· Race Driver GRID
· RagDoll Kung Fu
· Rail Simulator
· Rail Simulator - Official Expansion Pack
· Railroad Tycoon 2
· Railroad Tycoon 3
· Railroad Tycoon 3 - Coast To Coast (Expansion)
· Rainbow Web
· RalliSport Challenge
· Ratatouille
· Rayman 2 - The Great Escape
· Rayman 3 - Hoodlum Havoc
· Rayman M (Rayman Arena)
· Razor - 10th Anniversary Collection - Best Of The Best! [ GAMES PACK]
· Re-Volt
· Reader Rabbit - Nursery
· Real Race
· Real War
· Realms Of Illusion
· Recoil
· Recoil
· Red Ace Squadron
· Red Baron Arcade
· Red Faction
· Red Faction II
· Red Ocean
· Red Orchestra - Ostfront
· Red Shark
· Red Shift - Visual Novel
· Redneck Kentucky
· Redneck Rampage
· Redneck Rampage - Rides Again
· Reel Deal Slots - Bonus Mania
· Republic - The Revolution
· Requiem - Avenging Angel
· Requital
· Reservoir Dogs
· Resident Evil 2
· Resident Evil 3 Nemesis
· Resident Evil 4 [Biohazard 4]
· Restricted Area
· Retro Games Collection
· Retro Records
· Return to Castle Wolfenstein
· Return to Mysterious Island
· Return to Wonderland Platinum Edition
· rFactor
· Rhem 3 - The Secret Library
· Richard Burns Rally
· Ricochet Infinity
· Ricochet Lost Worlds
· Ricochet Xtreme
· Ride! - Equestrian Simulation
· Riders World Competition
· Riding Star 3
· RIP Trilogy
· Ripped Games - Volume 1
· Ripped Games - Volume 2
· Ripped Games - Volume 3
· Ripped Games - Volume 4
· Ripped Games - Volume 5
· Rise & Fall - Civilizations At War
· Rise 2 - Resurrection
· Rise of Nations
· Rise of Nations - Gold Edition
· Rise Of Nations - Rise Of Legends
· Rise of Nations - Thrones and Patriots
· Rise Of Nations 2 - Rise Of Legends
· Rise of Nations Series
· Rising Kingdom
· Risk
· Road Wage
· Robert D. Anderson and the Legacy of Cthulhu
· RoboBall
· Roboblitz
· RoboCop
· Robot Arena 2
· Rock Manager
· Rollcage Stage II
· RollerCoaster Tycoon 2
· RollerCoaster Tycoon 3
· Rome - Total War plus Barbarian Invasion - Gold Edition
· Rome Total War
· Room War
· RTL Biathlon
· RTL Ski Jumping
· Rubik's Cube Challenge
· Runaway 2 - The Dream of The Turtle
· Rune
· Rush for Berlin Gold
· Rush For The Bomb

ZINGO - Games For PC Ripped Compressed

&#; Board and Puzzle Games
&#; Dalmatians
&#; Dino Pets
&#; Puppy Pets
&#; A.D. - The New World
&#; A.D. Gold Edition
&#; A.D. Gold Edition
&#; 18 Wheels of Steel
&#; 18 Wheels of Steel - Across America
&#; 18 Wheels of Steel - Convoy
&#; 18 Wheels of Steel - Extreme Trucker
&#; 18 Wheels Of Steel - Haulin'
&#; 18 Wheels of Steel - Haulin' [PL]
&#; 18 Wheels of Steel - Pedal to the Metal
&#; 18 Wheels of Steel American Long Haul
&#; 18 Wheels of Steel American Long Haul
&#; - Battle Of The Bulge
&#; 24h Le Mans
&#; 25 To Life
&#; 25 To Life
&#; Casino Games
&#; Atari Games
&#; 26 PopCap Games DeluxePack AIO
&#; 3 Skulls Of The Toltecs
&#; 3D Air Hockey
&#; 3D Driving School
&#; 3D Games Pack [Doom, Doom 2, Hexen, Heretic]
&#; 3D Live Pool
&#; 3D Scooter Racing
&#; 3D SexVilla
&#; 3D SexVilla 2 - Everlust
&#; 3D Sexvilla v
&#; 3D Ultra Mini Golf
&#; 3D Ultra Minigolf Adventures
&#; 3D Ultra Minigolf Adventures
&#; 3D Ultra Pinball - Creep Night
&#; 3D Warchess
&#; 4X4 Evo 2
&#; 4x4 Evolution
&#; 4x4 Hummer
&#; 7 Wonders II
&#; 7 Wonders of the Ancient World
&#; 80 Days
&#; 8th Wonder of the World (Osmy cud swiata) [PL]
&#; A Farewell to Dragons
&#; A Train 8
&#; A Vampyre Story
&#; A.I.M. Artificial Intelligence Machine
&#; A.R.S.E.N.A.L. Extended Power
&#; Abomination - The Nemesis Project
&#; Ace Ventura - Pet Detective
&#; Acropolis
&#; Active Dolls
&#; Adams' Venture - The Search for the Lost Garden
&#; Adventure Pinball
&#; Against Rome
&#; Agatha Christie - And Then There Were None
&#; Agatha Christie - Death on the Nile
&#; Agatha Christie - Death on the Nile
&#; Agatha Christie - Evil Under The Sun
&#; Agatha Christie - Peril at End House
&#; Age Of Empires
&#; Age of Empires II - Age of Conquerors
&#; Age of Empires II - Age of Kings
&#; Age of Empires II - Age of Kings
&#; Age of Empires III
&#; Age Of Empires III - The Asian Dynasties
&#; Age Of Empires III - The Warchiefs [Expansion]
&#; Age of Empires III PL
&#; Age Of Japan 1 & 2
&#; Age of Mythology
&#; Age Of Mythology - The Titans
&#; Age of Mythology Gold
&#; Age of Pirates - Caribbean Tales
&#; Age Of Wonders
&#; Age of Wonders 2
&#; Agent Hugo - Hula Holiday
&#; Agent Hugo - Operation Lemoon Twist
&#; Aggression - Reign Over Europe
&#; Agon - Lost Sword Of Toledo
&#; AGON - The Mysterious Codex
&#; Air Assault - Task Force
&#; Air Assault 3D
&#; Air Battles Sky Defender
&#; Air Conflicts
&#; Airborne Troops
&#; Airfix Dogfighter
&#; Airline 69 - Return to CasaBlanca
&#; Airline Tycoon Evolution
&#; Airport Mania - First Flight
&#; Airport Tycoon 2
&#; Airport Tycoon 3
&#; AirStrike 2
&#; AirStrike II - Gulf Thunder
&#; Al Emmo and the Lost Dutchman's Mine
&#; Al Emmo and the Lost Dutchman's Mine
&#; Aladdin Magic Carpet Racing
&#; Alan Hansens Sports Challenge
&#; Alarm For Cobra 11 - Crash Time
&#; Alchemist Wizard
&#; Alex Gordon
&#; Alfred Hitchcock - The Final Cut
&#; Alice - An Interactive Museum
&#; Alien Disco Safari
&#; Alien Hominid
&#; Alien Shooter
&#; Alien Shooter 2
&#; Alien Shooter 2 Reloaded
&#; Alien Trilogy
&#; Alien vs Predator 2 - Primal Hunt
&#; Aliens versus Predator
&#; Aliens vs. Predator 2
&#; All Aspect Warfare
&#; Alone In The Dark
&#; Alone in the Dark 3
&#; Alpha Black Zero - Intrepid Protocol
&#; Alpha Prime
&#; Alpine Ski Racing
&#; Alvin and the Chipmunks
&#; American Civil War - Gettysburg
&#; American Civil War - The Blue And The Gray
&#; American Conquest [ENG, PL, DE]
&#; American Girl - Julie Saves The Eagles
&#; American McGee's Alice
&#; American McGee`s Scrapland
&#; Amerzone
&#; Amiga History Complete
&#; Amorous Professor Cherry
&#; Anatolian Formula 1
&#; Ancient Wars - Sparta
&#; Angel Cat Sugar
&#; Angels Vs. Devils
&#; Angle of Attack
&#; Animamundi Dark Alchemist
&#; Ankh - Tales Of Mystery
&#; Ankh 3 Battle Of The Gods
&#; Ankh II - Heart of Osiris
&#; Anno
&#; Anno - The Sunken Dragon
&#; Anno [PL] + Anno Klatwa Smoka [PL]
&#; Another World
&#; Another World - 15th Anniversary Edition
&#; AntiKiller
&#; Apache AH Air Assault
&#; Apassionata
&#; Aqua Fish [PL]
&#; Aquadelic GT
&#; Aquaria
&#; Aquaria
&#; Arabica
&#; Arca Sim Racing 08
&#; Arcade 8 - The Ultimate PC Collection
&#; Arcanum
&#; Arctic Racer
&#; Arctic Stud Poker Run
&#; Are You Smarter Than A 5th Grader
&#; Are You Smarter Than A 5th Grader Make the Grade
&#; Arena Wars - Reloaded
&#; Arma 2 (Armed Assault 2)
&#; Armada
&#; Armed and Dangerous
&#; Armed Assault
&#; Armed Assault - Queens Gambit
&#; Armed Forces Corp.
&#; Armies of Exigo
&#; Army Ranger - Mogadishu
&#; Army Rangers - Mogadishu
&#; Art Is Dead
&#; Art of Murder - FBI Confidential
&#; Art Of Murder - Hunt For The Puppeteer
&#; Art of Murder - Klatwa Lalkarza [Hunt For The Puppeteer] [PL]
&#; Arthur And The Revenge Of Maltazard
&#; Ascension To The Throne
&#; Ascension To The Throne (Wojna o korone) [PL]
&#; Ascension to the Throne Valkyrie
&#; Assassin's Creed [REPACK-WORKING]
&#; Assault Heroes
&#; Assimilation
&#; Asterix & Obelix XXL
&#; Asterix - Mega Madness
&#; Asterix at the Olympic Games [Asterix na olimpiadzie][PL]
&#; Astro Avenger
&#; Astropop
&#; Atari Arcade Collection
&#; Atomic Betty - Intergalactic Conspiracy
&#; Atomic Bomberman
&#; Atomica
&#; Attack On Pearl Harbor
&#; ATV GP
&#; Audiosurf
&#; Aura - Fate of the Ages
&#; Austin Cooper S Racing
&#; Avatar - The Last Airbender Bobble Battles
&#; Avencast - Rise of the Mage
&#; Aveyond 1 - Rhen's Quest
&#; Aveyond 2 - Ean's Quest
&#; Aveyond 3 - Lord of Twilight
&#; Aveyond 4 - Gates of Night
&#; Aveyond II - Eans Quest
&#; Axis & Allies
&#; Aztaka
&#; Azur & Asmar
&#; B.A.S.E. Jumping - WEB Edition
&#; Babel
&#; Backgammon
&#; Backspin Billiards
&#; Backyard Baseball 09
&#; Backyard Basketball
&#; Backyard Football
&#; Backyard Football
&#; Bad Boys 2
&#; Bad Mojo
&#; Baja - The Official Game
&#; Baldur's Gate - Compilation
&#; Baldur's Gate - Opowiesci z Wybrzeza Mieczy [PL]
&#; Baldur's Gate I with expansion Tales Of The Sword Coast
&#; Baldur's Gate I [PL]
&#; Baldur's Gate II - Cienie Amn [PL]
&#; Baldur's Gate Saga [PL]
&#; Baldur`s Gate
&#; Baldur`s Gate - Tales of the Sword Coast
&#; Baldur`s Gate II - Shadows of Amn
&#; Baldur`s Gate II - Shadows of Amn
&#; Baldur`s Gate II - Throne of Bhaal
&#; Baldur`s Gate II - Throne of Bhaal
&#; Ballance
&#; Band Manager
&#; BANG! Gunship Elite
&#; Barbie as The Island Princess
&#; Barbie Fashion Show - An Eye For Style
&#; Barbie Horse Adventures - Mystery Ride
&#; Barbie Horse Adventures - Riding Camp
&#; Barbie jako Ksiezniczka i Zebraczka [PL]
&#; Barnyard
&#; Baseball Mogul
&#; Baseball Mogul
&#; Baseball Mogul
&#; Basketball Manager
&#; Bass Pro Shops - Trophy Bass
&#; Bass Pro Shops - Trophy Hunter
&#; Batman - Justice Unbalanced
&#; Batman Arkham Asylum
&#; Battle For Troy
&#; Battle Mages - Sign Of Darkness
&#; Battle Rage
&#; Battle Raper 2
&#; Battle Realms
&#; Battle Realms - Winter of the Wolf
&#; Battlefield - Vietnam
&#; Battlefield
&#; Battlefield - Forgotten Hope
&#; Battlefield - Secret Weapons of WWII
&#; Battlefield - The Road to Rome
&#; Battlefield 2
&#; Battlefield 2
&#; Battlefield 2 - Armored Fury
&#; Battlefield 2 - Special Forces
&#; Battlefield
&#; Battlefield - Northern Strike
&#; Battlestar Galactica
&#; Battlestations - Midway [PL]
&#; Battlestations Midway
&#; Battlestrike - Force of Resistance
&#; Bazooka Cafe
&#; BC Kings
&#; Beach Life
&#; Beachhead AIO [ & ]
&#; Bee Movie Game
&#; Beer Tycoon
&#; Beetle Bomp
&#; Beijing
&#; Bejeweled 2
&#; Bella Sara
&#; Beneath a Steel Sky
&#; Benoit Sokal - Sinking Island
&#; Beowulf - The Game
&#; Berkley - Bass Tournament Tycoon
&#; Bet On Soldier - Black Out Saigon
&#; Bet on Soldier - Blood of Sahara
&#; Beyond Divinity
&#; Beyond Good & Evil
&#; Beyond Good And Evil
&#; Big Buck Hunter
&#; Big City Rigs - Bus Driver
&#; Big City Rigs - Garbage Truck Driver
&#; Big Kahuna Reef 2 Chain Reaction
&#; Big Money
&#; Big Mutha Truckers 2 - Truck Me Harder
&#; Bigfish Games Collection
&#; Bigfoot Collision Course
&#; Billy Blade and the Temple of Time
&#; Bionic Command - Rearmed
&#; Bionic Commando
&#; Bionic Commando Rearmed
&#; Bionicle Heroes
&#; Bionicle Heroes
&#; Bioshock
&#; BioShock [FAiRLiGHT]
&#; Bioshock [PL, ENG, FR, DE, IT, ES]
&#; BioShock [PROPER-LOLCATS]
&#; Bioshock [REPACK]
&#; Birds on a Wire
&#; Birth of America II - Wars in America
&#; Black & White
&#; Black & White 2
&#; Black & White 2
&#; Black & White 2 - Battle of the Gods
&#; Black Buccaneer
&#; Black Mesa - Source [Alpha 6]
&#; Blackbeard's Revenge
&#; BlackSite Area 51
&#; Blade & Sword
&#; Blair Witch Volume I - Rustin Parr
&#; Blair Witch Volume II - The Legend Of Coffin Rock
&#; Blazing Angels
&#; Blazing Angels 2 - Secret Missions
&#; Blitzkrieg 2
&#; Blood
&#; Blood -Over-
&#; Blood Bowl
&#; Blood II - The Chosen
&#; BloodRayne
&#; BloodRayne 2
&#; Blupimania II
&#; BMW M3 Challenge
&#; Bolt
&#; Bonkheads
&#; Bookworm
&#; Bookworm Adventures Deluxe
&#; Border Defense - National Security Patrol
&#; Borderlands
&#; Borderlands The Zombie Island of Dr Ned DLC
&#; BorderZone
&#; Boulder Match 4
&#; Bounty - Special Edition
&#; Brain Trainer
&#; Brain Trainer 2
&#; Bratz - 4 Real
&#; Bratz Babyz
&#; Breed
&#; Bricks of Atlantis
&#; Bricks Of Egypt 2
&#; Bridge IT
&#; Brigade E5 - New Jagged Union
&#; Britannica Puzzle Potpourri
&#; Broken Sword 1
&#; Broken Sword 2 - The Smoking Mirror
&#; Brothers in Arms - Earned in Blood
&#; Brothers In Arms - Hell's Highway
&#; Brothers in Arms - Road to Hill 30
&#; Bubble Bobble Nostalgie Level Pack 2,3,4,5
&#; Bubble Shooter Deluxe
&#; Buccaneer - The Pursuit of Infamy
&#; Bugged Out Rally
&#; Bugs Bunny & Taz - Time Busters
&#; Bugs Bunny - Lost In Time
&#; Bugs Bunny and Taz - Time Busters
&#; Build-a-lot
&#; Building And Co
&#; Bully - Scholarship Edition
&#; Bumper Wars
&#; Bungee Jumping Simulator
&#; Bunny Blaster
&#; Bunny Bounce
&#; Burger Shop
&#; Burn
&#; Burnout Paradise - The Ultimate Box
&#; Bus Driver
&#; Bus Driver
&#; Bus Driver [PL]
&#; C64 Forever Plus Edition v
&#; Cabela's Dangerous Hunts 2
&#; Cabela's Outdoor Adventures
&#; Cabelas African Safari
&#; Cabelas Big Game Hunter
&#; Caesar 3
&#; Caesar IV
&#; Cake Mania
&#; Cake Mania 2
&#; Call for Heroes - Pompolic Wars
&#; Call Of Cthulhu - Dark Corners Of The Earth
&#; Call of Cthulhu - Mroczne Zakatki Swiata [PL]
&#; Call of Cthulhu - Prisoner of Ice
&#; Call of Cthulhu - Shadow of the Comet
&#; Call Of Duty
&#; Call of Duty - American Rush 2
&#; Call Of Duty - Modern Warfare 2
&#; Call of Duty - United Offensive
&#; Call Of Duty - World At War
&#; Call of Duty 2
&#; Call of Duty 4 - Modern Warfare
&#; Call of Duty 4 - Modern Warfare [PL]
&#; Call Of Juarez
&#; Call Of Juarez - Bound In Blood
&#; Cannon Fodder
&#; Cannon Fodder 2
&#; Cannon Strike
&#; Captain Claw
&#; Car Thief 5
&#; CarJacker - Hotwired and Gone
&#; Carmageddon
&#; Carmageddon 2 - Carpocalypse Now
&#; Carmageddon Splat Pack
&#; Carmageddon TDR
&#; Carnivores
&#; Carnivores 2
&#; Carnivores 3 - Ice Age
&#; Carnivores 4 - Cityscape
&#; Cars - The Videogame
&#; Cars Mater - National
&#; Carte Blanche
&#; Cashflow - The E-Game
&#; Casino 59 - The Ultimate PC Collection
&#; Casino Island To Go
&#; Casino VIP
&#; Caster - Chapter One
&#; Castles and Catapults
&#; Caterpillar Construction Tycoon
&#; Catz 6
&#; Caveman ZAC
&#; CellFactor - Revolution
&#; Cesar Millan's - Dog Whisperer
&#; Ceville
&#; Chains
&#; Chainz 2
&#; Chalk
&#; Championship Manager
&#; Championship Manager
&#; Championship Manager
&#; Chaos League
&#; Chaos Legion
&#; Charlie and the Chocolate Factory
&#; Charlotte's Web
&#; Chaser - Fight your Way through Hell
&#; Chegger's Party Quiz
&#; Chessmaster - Grandmaster Edition
&#; Chessmaster 10th Edition
&#; Chessmaster Challenge
&#; Chicken Invaders 2 [PL]
&#; Chicken Invaders 3
&#; Chicken Little - Ace in Action
&#; Chopper Battle
&#; Chris Sawyer's Locomotion
&#; Chrome
&#; Chronicles Of Mystery - The Scorpio Ritual
&#; Chronicles Of Riddick - Escape From Butchers Bay
&#; Chuzzle
&#; Cinema Empire
&#; Circus Empire
&#; City Life - Edition
&#; City Life [PL]
&#; City Rain
&#; CivCity - Rome
&#; Civil Disturbance
&#; Civilization III
&#; Civilization III - Conquests
&#; Civilization IV
&#; Civilization IV - Beyond The Sword
&#; Civilization IV - Colonization
&#; Civilization IV - Warlords [Expansion Pack]
&#; Civilization IV Game Packs
&#; Clandestiny
&#; Classic Chess
&#; Cleopatra - A Queen's Destiny
&#; Clever Kids - Pony World
&#; Clifford Uczy Wymowy [PL]
&#; Clive Barker's Jericho
&#; Clive Barkers Undying
&#; Close Combat - Modern Tactics
&#; Close Combat - Wacht am Rhein
&#; Close Quarters Conflict
&#; Club Vegas Casino
&#; Cobra 11
&#; Cobra 11 - Burning Wheels
&#; Cocoto Kart Racer
&#; Code of Honor - The French Foreign Legion
&#; Code of Honor 2 - Conspiracy Island
&#; Codename Panzers - Phase One
&#; Coffee Break
&#; Cold Fear
&#; Cold Fear [ENG + PL]
&#; Colin McRae DiRT
&#; Colin McRae Rally 04
&#; Colossus Chess
&#; Comanche 4
&#; Combat Flight Simulator 3 - Battle For Europe
&#; Combat Mission - Shock Force
&#; Combat Mission 3 - Afrika Korps [PL]
&#; Combat Task Force
&#; Command & Conquer
&#; Command & Conquer - Generals
&#; Command & Conquer - Lite edition
&#; Command & Conquer - Red Alert
&#; Command & Conquer - Red Alert - Aftermath
&#; Command & Conquer - Red Alert - Counterstrike
&#; Command & Conquer - Red Alert 2
&#; Command & Conquer - Red Alert 2 - Yuri's Revenge
&#; Command & Conquer - Red Alert 3 - Uprising
&#; Command & Conquer - Red Alert 3 [multilanguage]
&#; Command & Conquer - Renegade
&#; Command & Conquer 3 - Kane's Wrath
&#; Command & Conquer 3 - Tiberium Wars - Kane Edition
&#; Command & Conquer 3 - Tiberium Wars [RIP]
&#; Command & Conquer Gold Edition
&#; Command and Conquer - Red Alert 3 [BONUS DISCS]
&#; Commander - Europe at War
&#; Commander - Napoleon At War
&#; Commandos - Behind Enemy Lines
&#; Commandos - Beyond The Call Of Duty
&#; Commandos 3 - Destination Berlin
&#; Commandos 3 - Destination Berlin
&#; Commandos Strike Force
&#; Company Of Heroes
&#; Company Of Heroes - Opposing Fronts
&#; Company Of Heroes - Tales Of Valor
&#; Conan - The Dark Axe
&#; Condemned - Criminal Origins
&#; Conflict Denied Ops
&#; Conflict Desert Storm II
&#; Conflict Desert Storm II - Back To Baghdad
&#; Conflict Global Storm
&#; Constantine - The Videogame
&#; Construction Destruction
&#; Contra & Castlevania [Collector's Series for PC]
&#; Cops - The Power Of The Law
&#; Cosmic Stacker
&#; Cosmic Switch
&#; Cosplay Fetish Academy
&#; Counter Strike Non Steam
&#; Counter Strike plus zBot
&#; Counter Strike [with bots]
&#; Counter Strike Source Final
&#; Counter-Strike - Condition Zero
&#; Counter-Strike 2D
&#; Counter-Strike Source
&#; Counter-Strike Source v [with bots, multi]
&#; Cradle of Rome
&#; Crash Bandicoot
&#; Crash Bandicoot 2 - Cortex Strikes Back
&#; Crash Bandicoot 2 - N-Tranced
&#; Crash Bandicoot 3 - Warped
&#; Crash Bash
&#; Crash Team Racing
&#; Crash Time III
&#; Crashday
&#; Crayon Physics
&#; Crazy Chicken - Approaching
&#; Crazy Chicken - Atlantis
&#; Crazy Chicken - Heart of Tibet
&#; Crazy Chicken - Kart 2
&#; Crazy Chicken - Kart Thunder
&#; Crazy Chicken Approaching
&#; Crazy Chicken License to Grill [4 Games in 1]
&#; Crazy Chicken X
&#; Crazy Frog Racer
&#; Crazy Frog Racer 2
&#; Crazy Machines - The Inventor's Workshop
&#; Crazy Taxi 3 - High Roller
&#; Creature Conflict - The Clan Wars
&#; Crescent Suzuki Racing
&#; Crime Life - Gang Wars
&#; Crimes of War
&#; Crimson Skies
&#; Crimsonland
&#; Crimsonland
&#; Cross Racing Championship
&#; Crown Of Glory Europe In The Age Of Napoleon
&#; Crusader Kings
&#; Crusader Kings - Deus Volt
&#; Crusaders Thy Kingdom Come
&#; Cryostasis - Sleep of Reason
&#; Crysis
&#; Crysis - Bonus DVD
&#; Crysis Warhead
&#; Crysis Warhead [PL]
&#; Crysis [PL]
&#; CSI - 3 Dimensions of Murder
&#; CSI - Dark Motives [PL]
&#; CSI 4 - Hard Evidence
&#; CSI New York
&#; Cubis
&#; CueClub
&#; Culpa Innata
&#; Curse The Eye Of Isis
&#; D.I.R.T. - Origin of the Species
&#; D.N.A.
&#; Daemon Vector
&#; Daemonica
&#; Damnation
&#; Dark Colony [with expansion]
&#; Dark Fall
&#; Dark Fall 2 - Lights Out
&#; Dark Fall Lost Souls
&#; Dark Horizon
&#; Dark Messiah of Might and Magic [PL]
&#; Dark Sector
&#; Dark Souls II
&#; Dark Vampires - The Shadow of Dust
&#; Darkest of Days
&#; Darkness Within
&#; Darkstone
&#; Darwinia
&#; Dave Mirra Freestyle BMX
&#; Dawn Of Magic
&#; Dawn Of Magic 2
&#; Dawns Light
&#; Day of Defeat
&#; Day of the Zombie
&#; Day Watch
&#; Day Watch
&#; Daytona USA Deluxe Edition
&#; Dead Reefs
&#; Dead Space
&#; Dead To Rights
&#; DeadHunt
&#; Deadliest Catch - Alaskan Storm
&#; Deadly Dozen 2 - Pacific Theater
&#; Deadly Tide
&#; Deal or No Deal
&#; Deal or No Deal - Secret Vault Games
&#; Death To Spies
&#; Death to Spies Moment of Truth
&#; Deer Avenger 4
&#; Deer Drive
&#; Deer Hunter 3 - The Legend Continues
&#; Deer Hunter Tournament
&#; Defcon
&#; Defender of the Crown
&#; Defense Grid The Awakening
&#; Delaware St. John Volume 1 - The Curse of Midnight Manor
&#; Delaware St. John Volume 2 - The Town With No Name
&#; Delaware St. John Volume 3 - The Seacliff Tragedy
&#; Delicious
&#; Delta Force - Black Hawk Down
&#; Delta Force - Black Hawk Down
&#; Delta Force - Black Hawk Down Team Sabre
&#; Delta Force - Task Force Dagger
&#; Delta Force 2
&#; Delta Force 3 - Land Warrior
&#; Delta Force Xtreme
&#; Delta Force Xtreme 2
&#; Deluxe Ski Jump 3 [multilanguage]
&#; Demigod
&#; Democracy 2
&#; Depths of Peril
&#; Desperados - Wanted Dead Or Alive
&#; Desperate Housewives - The Game
&#; Determinance
&#; Dethkarz
&#; Deus Ex - Invisible War
&#; Devastation
&#; Devil May Cry 3 - Dante's Awakening - Special Edition
&#; Devil May Cry 4
&#; Diablo
&#; Diablo - Hellfire
&#; Diablo II
&#; Diablo II - Lord of Destruction
&#; Diabolik - The Original Sin
&#; Diamond Mine
&#; Dick Sucks Terror in Titfield
&#; Diner Dash 2 - Restaurant Rescue
&#; Diner Dash 3 - Flo On The Go
&#; Dino Island Deluxe
&#; Dino SpeedBoat
&#; Dirty Dancing
&#; Disciples Sacred Lands - Gold Edition
&#; Discipline the Record of the Crusade
&#; Disney's Hercules
&#; Disney's Magical Racing Tour
&#; Disney's Mickey Mouse - Preschool Adventures with Mickey
&#; Disney`s Brother Bear
&#; Divinity II - Ego Draconis
&#; DMZ - North Korea
&#; Dofus
&#; Dogz 6
&#; Dominions 3 - The Awakening
&#; Donkey Kong Rumble
&#; Donkey Xote
&#; Doom
&#; Doom 2
&#; Doom 3
&#; Doom 3
&#; Doom 3 Resurrection of Evil
&#; Doom Collector`s Edition
&#; Doom II - Hell On Earth
&#; Doom Legacy
&#; Dora the Explorer - Dance to the Rescue
&#; Dora the Explorer - Fairytale Adventure
&#; Double Top
&#; Dracula - Days of Gore
&#; Dracula Origin
&#; Dragon Age Origins
&#; Dragons Lair 3D - Return To The Lair
&#; DragonShard
&#; Drakan - Order of the Flame
&#; Drake Of The 99 Dragons
&#; Drakensang - The Dark Eye
&#; Dream Day - First Home
&#; Dream Day Honeymoon
&#; Dream Match Tennis
&#; Dream Pinball 3D
&#; Dreamfall - The Longest Journey
&#; Dreamfall - The Longest Journey 2
&#; Dreamkiller
&#; DreamWeb
&#; Driv3r
&#; Driv3r
&#; Driv3r [Driver 3]
&#; Driver
&#; Driver
&#; Driver Parallel Lines
&#; Driving Simulator
&#; DROOT'S Import vs. Muscle Cars Mega convert for Grand Theft Auto - San Andreas
&#; Duke Nukem - Manhattan Project - Total Mutant Mayhem
&#; Duke Nukem - Nuclear Winter
&#; Duke Nukem 3D
&#; Duke Nukem 3D - Atomic Edition
&#; Duke Nukem 3D - Hi Res Project
&#; Dune
&#; Dune 2
&#; Dune 2 - Battle For Arrakis
&#; Dune 2 - The Building Of A Dynasty
&#; Dune
&#; Dungeon Keeper 1
&#; Dungeon Keeper 2
&#; Dungeon Keeper Gold
&#; Dungeon Siege - Legends of Aranna
&#; Dungeon Siege 2
&#; Dungeon Siege II - Broken World Expansion
&#; Dynasty
&#; Dynasty Warriors 4 Hyper
&#; Dynasty Warriors 6
&#; Dynomite
&#; EA SPORTS - Rugby 08
&#; EA Sports - Rugby
&#; EA SPORTS Rugby
&#; Earache - Extreme Metal Racing
&#; Earth
&#; East India Company Incl. All Addons
&#; Eco Tycoon - Project Green
&#; Ecstatica II
&#; Ed, Edd n Eddy - The Mis-EDventures
&#; Edge of Chaos - Independence War 2
&#; El Matador
&#; Elasto Mania
&#; Elder Scrolls IV - Oblivion - Shivering Isles
&#; Elias The Mighty
&#; Elite Warriors - Vietnam
&#; Ellen Whitaker's Horse Life
&#; Elven Legacy
&#; Elven Legacy Magic
&#; Elven Legacy Ranger Retail
&#; Elven Legacy Siege
&#; Emergency 3 - Mission Life
&#; Emergency 4 [PL]
&#; Emperor - Battle for Dune
&#; Emperor - Rise of the Middle Kingdom
&#; Empire Builder - Ancient Egypt
&#; Empire Earth
&#; Empire Earth - Art of Conquest
&#; Empire Earth II
&#; Empire Earth II
&#; Empire Earth II - Age of Supremacy
&#; Empire Earth II - The Art of Supremacy
&#; Empire Earth III
&#; Empire Total War - Special Forces Edition
&#; Empires & Dungeons
&#; Enemy Engaged 2
&#; Enemy Engaged 2 - Desert Operations
&#; Enemy Territory - Quake Wars
&#; Enemy Territory - Quake Wars [RELOADED]
&#; Enemy Zero
&#; Enter The Matrix
&#; ER
&#; Eragon
&#; Escape From Paradise City
&#; Escape the Museum
&#; Escape Velocity Nova
&#; Eschalon Book I
&#; Eternal Lands
&#; Eternal Twilight
&#; Eudemons Online
&#; Eufloria
&#; Euro Truck Simulator
&#; Euro Truck Simulator [PL]
&#; Europa - The Guild
&#; Europa Universalis - Rome
&#; Europa Universalis - Rome - Vae Victis
&#; Europa Universalis 3
&#; European Street Racing
&#; Everyday Genius SquareLogic
&#; Evil Days of Luckless John
&#; Evil Dead Regeneration
&#; Evil Genius
&#; Evolution
&#; Exhumed (PowerSlave)
&#; Exodus From The Earth
&#; Expendable
&#; Experience
&#; Extremely Goofy Skateboarding
&#; F Total Air War
&#; F.E.A.R 2 Reborn
&#; F.E.A.R.
&#; F.E.A.R. - Extraction Point
&#; F.E.A.R. - Extraction Point
&#; F.E.A.R. - Perseus Mandate
&#; F.E.A.R. 2 - Project Origin [multilanguage]
&#; F1
&#; F1
&#; F1 Challenge [PL]
&#; F1 Manager
&#; F22 Lightning 3
&#; Fable - The Lost Chapters
&#; Face Of Mankind
&#; Faces of War
&#; Faces of War
&#; Fahrenheit - Indigo Prophecy
&#; Fairies
&#; Fairy Godmother Tycoon
&#; Falling Stars
&#; Fallout
&#; Fallout 2
&#; Fallout 2 - Restoration Project v
&#; Fallout 3
&#; Fallout 3 - Mothership Zeta Addon
&#; Fallout 3 - Operation Anchorage
&#; Fallout 3 - The Pitt and Operation Anchorage Expansion
&#; Fallout Tactics - Brotherhood Of Steel
&#; Family 8 - The Ultimate PC Collection
&#; Family Feud
&#; Fantastic 4
&#; Fantasy Wars
&#; Far Cry
&#; Far Cry 2
&#; Farm Vet
&#; Fastlane Carnage
&#; Fastlane Pinball
&#; Fatal - Fake
&#; Fatal Fury
&#; Fatale
&#; Fate of Hellas
&#; Fate The Traitor Soul
&#; FBI Hostage Rescue
&#; Fenimore Fillmores Revenge
&#; FIBA Basketball Manager
&#; Fifa 08
&#; FIFA 09
&#; FIFA 09 [PL]
&#; Fifa 10
&#; Fifa
&#; Fifa
&#; Fifa
&#; Fifa
&#; Fifa
&#; Fifa
&#; Fifa
&#; Fifa
&#; Fifa
&#; Fifa 94
&#; Fifa 97
&#; Fifa 98 - Road To World Cup
&#; Fifa 99
&#; Fifa Football
&#; FIFA Manager 07
&#; Fifa Manager 07 - Extra Time
&#; FIFA Manager 08
&#; Fifa Soccer 96
&#; Fifa World Cup
&#; Final Doom
&#; Final Drive Nitro
&#; Final Fantasy II
&#; Final Fantasy Origins [Final Fantasy I & Final Fantasy II]
&#; Final Fantasy VII
&#; Final Fantasy VII - Ultima Edition
&#; Final Fantasy VIII
&#; Final Fantasy XI - Vana'diel Collection
&#; Fire Department 3
&#; FireStarter
&#; Firestarter
&#; Fireworks Extravaganza
&#; First Battalion
&#; First Eagles The Great Air War
&#; Fishing Frenzy
&#; Flatout
&#; Flatout 2
&#; FlatOut Ultimate Carnage
&#; Flock
&#; FlOw
&#; Flower Quest
&#; Flyff - Fly For Fun
&#; Football Manager
&#; Football Manager
&#; Football Manager [PL]
&#; Football Manager
&#; Football Manager
&#; Football Manager [PL]
&#; Football Manager
&#; Football Manager [PL]
&#; Football Mogul
&#; For the Glory
&#; Ford Bold Moves Street Racing
&#; Ford Racing
&#; Ford Racing Off Road
&#; Foreign Legion Buckets of Blood
&#; Forgotten Realms - Demon Stone
&#; Forgotten Riddles - The Mayan Princess
&#; Fort Zombie
&#; Fortix
&#; Freak Out - Extreme Freeride
&#; Free Running
&#; Freedom Fighters
&#; Freedom Force
&#; Freedom force Vs The 3rd Reich
&#; Freelancer
&#; Frets on Fire
&#; Frogger 2 - Swampy's Revenge
&#; Frontline - Berlin
&#; Frontline Fields Of Thunder
&#; Frontlines - Fuel of War
&#; Full Pipe
&#; Full Throttle
&#; Galactic Assault - Prisoner Of Power
&#; Galactic Civilizations 2 - Dread Lords
&#; Galactic Civilizations II - Endless Universe
&#; Galactic Civilizations II - Twilight of the Arnor
&#; Galactic Dream - Rages of War
&#; Galaga - Destination Earth
&#; Game Room Excitement
&#; Gary Grigsby's World At War - A World Divided
&#; GearGrinder
&#; Gearhead Garage
&#; Gears Of War
&#; Gemsweeper
&#; Gene Troopers
&#; Genesis Rising - The Universal Crusade
&#; Geoff Crammond's Grand Prix 4
&#; Ghost In The Sheet
&#; Ghost Master
&#; Ghost Recon - Advanced Warfighter 2
&#; Ghost Recon - Advanced Warfighter 2
&#; Ghost Recon - Island Thunder
&#; Giants - Citizen Kabuto
&#; Gladiator - Sword of Vengeance
&#; Global Conflicts - Latin America [DE]
&#; Global Conflicts - Palestine
&#; Global Operations
&#; Glory Of The Roman Empire
&#; Glyph
&#; GM Rally
&#; Gobliiins 4
&#; Gobliiins 4 [PL, CZ, HU]
&#; Gods - Lands of Infinity - Special Edition
&#; Gold Fever
&#; Gold Miner Special Edition
&#; Golden Age Of Racing
&#; Golf Adventure Galaxy
&#; Gorky 02 - Aurora Watching [PL]
&#; Gotcha
&#; Gothic
&#; Gothic
&#; Gothic - Dark Secrets [PL]
&#; Gothic - Trylogia [Gothic I, Gothic II, Noc Kruka] [PL]
&#; Gothic 3
&#; Gothic 3 - Forsaken Gods
&#; Gothic 3 [PL]
&#; Gothic II
&#; Gothic II - Gold Edition
&#; Gothic II - Night of the Raven
&#; Gothic II Noc Kruka PL
&#; Gothic II PL
&#; Gothic [PL]
&#; GP vs SuperBike
&#; Grand Ages Rome
&#; Grand Prix 1 [F1GP]
&#; Grand Prix 2
&#; Grand Prix 3
&#; Grand Theft Auto
&#; Grand Theft Auto
&#; Grand Theft Auto - London
&#; Grand Theft Auto - San Andreas
&#; Grand Theft Auto - Vice City
&#; Grand theft Auto - Vice City - Modyfication by Ozzy
&#; Grand Theft Auto 2
&#; Grand Theft Auto 3
&#; Grand Theft Auto IV [0x]
&#; Grand Theft Auto IV [Razor]
&#; Grand Theft Auto London
&#; Grand Theft Auto [PL]
&#; Gratuitous Space Battles
&#; Gravitron 2
&#; Great Battles Of Rome
&#; Great Battles Of WWII - Stalingrad
&#; GREED Black Border
&#; Grey's Anatomy - The Video Game
&#; Grim Fandango
&#; Grouch [PL]
&#; Ground Control
&#; Ground Control II - Operation Exodus
&#; GTA Vice City Underground
&#; GTR 2
&#; Guilty Gear Isuka
&#; Guilty Gear X2 - Reload The Midnight Carnival
&#; Guitar Hero - Aerosmith
&#; Guitar Hero III - Legends of Rock
&#; Gun Girls Lawyers Spies Spy Tycoon Edition
&#; Gun Metal
&#; Gun Warrior
&#; Gun [PL]
&#; Gunman - Chronicles
&#; Gunners Heart
&#; Guns Girls Lawyer Dollars Arms Dealers Edition
&#; Guns of August
&#; GunZ - The Duel
&#; H-Craft Championship
&#; Hacker - The Broken Link
&#; Hako Hako [Hentai game]
&#; Half Life 2 - Lost Coast
&#; Half-Life
&#; Half-Life - Counter-Strike
&#; Half-Life 1 Collection
&#; Half-Life 2
&#; Half-Life 2
&#; Half-Life 2 + Mods [All in One][DVD9-ISO]
&#; Half-Life 2 - Episode One
&#; Half-Life 2 - Episode Two
&#; Half-Life 2D - Codename Gordon
&#; Half-Life Collection
&#; Halo - Combat Evolved
&#; Halo 2 [Repack-Razor]
&#; Halo 2 [RIP]
&#; Hamsterball
&#; Hannah Montana The Movie
&#; Hans Christian Andersen - The Ugly Prince Duckling
&#; Happy Feet
&#; Happy Hippo Worldtour [Happy Hippos auf Weltreise]
&#; Hard To Be A God
&#; Hard Truck 18 Wheels of Steel [PL]
&#; Hard Truck Apocalypse - Rise of Clans
&#; Harley Davidson Motorcycles - Race To The Rally
&#; Harpoon 3 - Advanced Naval Warfare
&#; Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets
&#; Harry Potter And The Goblet Of Fire
&#; Harry Potter And The Half Blood Prince
&#; Harry Potter And The Order Of The Phoenix
&#; Harry Potter Collection [5in1]
&#; Harvest - Massive Encounter
&#; Heart of Darkness
&#; Hearts of Iron - Anthology
&#; Hearts Of Iron III
&#; Hearts of Iron III - Sprite Packs Addon
&#; Heavy Metal - F.A.K.K. 2
&#; Heavy Weapon Deluxe
&#; Heavyweight Thunder
&#; Hell's Kitchen - The Game
&#; Helldorado
&#; Helldorado
&#; Hellgate - London
&#; Hentai 3D 2 - Cry of Pleasure
&#; Heracles - Battle With The Gods
&#; Heretic - Shadow Of The Serpent Riders
&#; Heroes of Might & Magic V - Dzikie Hordy [PL]
&#; Heroes of Might & Magic V - Kuznia Przeznaczenia [PL]
&#; Heroes of Might & Magic V - Tribes of the East
&#; Heroes of Might & Magic V [PL]
&#; Heroes of Might and Magic
&#; Heroes Of Might And Magic 2
&#; Heroes of Might And Magic III
&#; Heroes Of Might And Magic IV
&#; Heroes of Might and Magic IV - Winds Of War
&#; Heroes Of Might And Magic V
&#; Hexalot
&#; Hexen - Beyond Heretic
&#; Hexen - Deathkings Of The Dark Citadel
&#; Hexen II
&#; Hexplore
&#; Hidden and Dangerous Deluxe
&#; Hidden Relics
&#; Hidden Secrets - The Nightmare
&#; Hinterland
&#; Hired Guns - The Jagged Edge
&#; Hired Guns - The Jagged Edge [RU]
&#; History - Channel - Monster Quest
&#; History Channel - Battle For The Pacific
&#; History Civil War - Secret Missions
&#; Hitman - Blood Money
&#; Hitman - Contracts
&#; Hitman - Contracts
&#; Hitman 1 - Codename 47
&#; Hitman 2 - Silent Assassin
&#; Hitman 2 - Silent Assassin
&#; Hitman 2 - Silent Assassin
&#; Hitman Codename 47
&#; Hitman Codename 47
&#; HL2 + HL2EP1 + CS Source Final
&#; Holiday Island
&#; Hollywood Pictures 2
&#; Homeworld
&#; Homeworld 2
&#; Homeworld 2 PL
&#; Homeworld Cataclysm
&#; Honey Switch
&#; Hooligans - Storm Over Europe
&#; Hopkins FBI
&#; Horrid Henry
&#; Hospital Tycoon
&#; Hostile Waters - Antaeus Rising
&#; Hot Chix `N` Gear Stix
&#; Hot Pinball
&#; Hot Wheels - Beat That!
&#; Hot Wheels - World Race
&#; Hot Wheels MechaniX
&#; HotDog King
&#; Hotel Giant
&#; Hotel Giant 2
&#; Hotel Mahjong Deluxe
&#; Hour Of Victory
&#; House of the Dead III
&#; House of the Dead III
&#; Hoyle Card Games
&#; Hoyle Card Games
&#; Hoyle Card Games
&#; Hoyle Casino
&#; Hoyle Casino
&#; Hoyle Casino
&#; Hoyle Puzzle & Board Games
&#; Hoyle Puzzle And Board Games
&#; Hugo - Cannon Cruise
&#; Hunting Unlimited
&#; Hunting Unlimited
&#; Hunting Unlimited
&#; I-Fluid
&#; I-Ninja
&#; Ice Age 2 - The Meltdown
&#; Ice Age 3 - Dawn of the Dinosaurs
&#; Icewind Dale
&#; Icewind Dale - Heart of Winter
&#; Icewind Dale 2
&#; Icewind Dale 2 [PL]
&#; IGI 2 - Covert Strike
&#; Ignition
&#; Igor The Game
&#; IHRA Drag Racing - Sportsman Edition
&#; IL 2 Sturmovik -
&#; Imagine - Champion Rider
&#; Imagine Fashion Designer
&#; Immortal Cities - Children of the Nile Enhanced Edition
&#; Imperii
&#; Imperium Romanum
&#; Incadia
&#; Incredibasketball
&#; Incubation
&#; Indiana Jones And The Emperors Tomb
&#; Infernal
&#; Ingenious
&#; Insane
&#; Insaniquarium
&#; Instinct
&#; Instinct [PL]
&#; International Basketball
&#; International Cricket Captain
&#; International Cricket Captain
&#; International Tennis Pro
&#; Interpol - The Trail Of Dr. Chaos
&#; Iron Aces - Heroes of WWII
&#; Iron Grip - Warlord
&#; Iron Grip - Warlord - Winter Offensive
&#; Iron Man
&#; Iron Man
&#; Iron Storm
&#; Iron Storm
&#; Island Wars 2
&#; It's The Big Game, Charlie Brown
&#; Jack Keane
&#; Jack The Ripper
&#; Jade Empire - Edycja Specjalna (Special Edition) PL
&#; Jade Empire Special Edition
&#; Jagged Alliance 2 - Wildfire
&#; James Bond - Quantum of Solace
&#; Jaws Unleashed
&#; Jazz And Faust
&#; Jazz JackRabbit
&#; Jazz Jackrabbit 2
&#; Jazz Jackrabbit 2
&#; Jazz Jackrabbit 2 - The Secret Files
&#; Jazz Jackrabbit 3 [Alpha version]
&#; Jeneen Road of Heros
&#; JetBoat SuperChamps
&#; JetBoat SuperChamps 2
&#; Jetfighter
&#; Jets 'N' Guns GOLD
&#; Jewel Of Atlantis
&#; Jewel Quest
&#; Jewel Quest 2
&#; JFK Reloaded
&#; John Deere - American Farmer Deluxe New Version for
&#; John Deere - Drive Green
&#; John Saul's Blackstone Chronicles - An Adventure in Terror
&#; John Tiller's Campaign Series
&#; Joint Operations - Typhoon Rising
&#; Jojo's Fashion Show
&#; Jojo's Fashion Show 2 - Las Cruces
&#; Jonathan Kane - The Protector
&#; Judge Dredd - Dredd vs. Death
&#; Juiced
&#; Juiced 2 - Hot Import Nights
&#; Juiced 2 - Hot Import Nights
&#; Jump And Ride - Riding Academy 3D
&#; Jurassic Park - Operation Genesis
&#; Jurassic Realm
&#; Just Cause
&#; Just Cause [PL]
&#; K-hawk - Survival Instinct
&#; Kabus 22
&#; Kabus 22
&#; KAL Online
&#; Kalima
&#; Kane and Lynch - Dead Men
&#; Kart Racer
&#; Kasparov Chessmate
&#; Kayak Extreme
&#; Kellie Stanford Turn of Fate
&#; Kenny's Adventure
&#; KGB Hunter
&#; Kill Deal
&#; Kill Switch
&#; King of Clubs
&#; King of the Road
&#; King's Bounty - The Legend
&#; King's Quest Collection
&#; Kingdom Under Fire
&#; Kingpin - Life Of Crime
&#; Kivi's Underworld
&#; KKnD - Extreme
&#; KKND 2 - Krossfire
&#; kkrieger
&#; Knight OnLine
&#; Knights - Learn To Fly
&#; Knights of the Temple - Infernal Crusade
&#; Knights Of The Temple 2
&#; Kohan II - Kings of War
&#; Kookabonga
&#; Koridor
&#; Koso! First Adventure
&#; Krush, Kill 'N' Destroy 2 - Krossfire
&#; Kula World
&#; LA Street Racing
&#; Lands Of Lore - Throne Of Chaos
&#; Langsters
&#; Lara Croft Tomb Raider - Anniversary
&#; Lara Croft Tomb Raider - Anniversary
&#; Las Vegas Tycoon
&#; Last of the Patriots 2
&#; Law & Order - Criminal Intent The Vengeful Heart
&#; Leaderboard Golf
&#; Lederzwerge Deluxe XXL
&#; Left 4 Dead
&#; Legacy Dark Shadows
&#; Legacy of Kain - Soul Reaver 2
&#; Legacy of Kain - Soul Reaver 2
&#; Legend - Hand of God [PL]
&#; Legendary
&#; Legion Gold
&#; LEGO Batman
&#; LEGO Indiana Jones - The Original Adventures
&#; Lego Indiana Jones 2 - The Adventure Continues
&#; LEGO Soccer Mania
&#; Lego Star Wars
&#; LEGO Star Wars II - The Original Trilogy
&#; LEGO Star Wars II - The Original Trilogy
&#; LEGO Star Wars The Complete Saga
&#; Leisure Suit Larry - Box Office Bust
&#; Leisure Suit Larry - Magna Cum Laude
&#; Leisure Suit Larry 1 - In The Land Of The Lounge Lizards
&#; Leisure Suit Larry 2 - Goes Looking For Love (In Several Wrong Places)
&#; Leisure Suit Larry 3 - Passionate Patti in Pursuit of the Pulsating Pectorals!
&#; Leisure Suit Larry 5 - Passionate Patti Does a Little Undercover Work!
&#; Leisure Suit Larry 6 - Shape Up or Slip Out!
&#; Leisure Suit Larry 7 - Love For Sail
&#; Lemmings Revolution
&#; Let's Play - Pet Hospitals
&#; Liero Extreme
&#; Lifestream
&#; Lightning Warrior Raidy
&#; LightSpeed
&#; Lilo & Stitch Pinball
&#; Limbo of The Lost
&#; Line Rider 2 - Unbound
&#; LinkLines!
&#; Lionheart - Legacy of the Crusader
&#; Lionheart - Legacy of the Crusader [PL]
&#; Liquidator - Welcome to Hell
&#; Little Britain
&#; Little Shop of Treasures 2
&#; Little Soldiers
&#; Littlest Pet Shop
&#; LMA Manager
&#; Lock On - Flaming Cliffs
&#; Loco Mania
&#; Loki
&#; London Taxi Rushour
&#; Lord of The Rings - Battle for Middle Earth
&#; Lord of The Rings - Battle for Middle Earth II
&#; Lord of the Rings - Battle for Middle Earth II Collectors Edition
&#; Lord Of The Rings - The Return Of The King
&#; Lost - Via Domus [Lost - Zagubieni] [PL]
&#; Lost Empire Immortals
&#; Lost Planet - Extreme Condition
&#; Lost Planet - Extreme Condition - Colonies Edition
&#; Lost Via Domus
&#; Lotus Deluxe
&#; LoveChess - The Greek Era
&#; Lucasarts Classics
&#; Lucinda Green's Equestrian Challenge
&#; Lucky Luke - Go West!
&#; Lucky Luke on the Daltons Trail
&#; Lugaru HD
&#; Lula - The Sexy Empire
&#; Lula 3D
&#; Lula Pinball
&#; Lumines Puzzle Fusion
&#; Luxor
&#; Luxor 3
&#; Luxor Amung Rising
&#; Machinarium
&#; Machine Hell
&#; MAD - Global Thermonuclear Warfare
&#; Mad Skills Motocross
&#; Madagascar - Escape 2 Africa
&#; Madballs in Babo Invasion
&#; Madden NFL
&#; Made Man
&#; Maelstrom
&#; Mafia - The City of Lost Haven PL
&#; Mafia - The City Of Lost Heaven
&#; Mage Knight Apocalypse
&#; Magic And Mayhem - The Art of Magic
&#; Magic Inlay
&#; Magic The Gathering - Battlegrounds
&#; Mahjong Quest 2 - Kwazi's Quest for Balance
&#; Majesty - The Fantasy Kingdom Sim
&#; Major League Baseball 2K9
&#; Making History - The Calm & the Storm
&#; Making History - The Calm and The Storm - Gold Edition
&#; MangaJongg
&#; Manhunt
&#; Manhunt 2
&#; Marble Sheep
&#; Marc Ecko's Getting Up - Contents Under Pressure
&#; Marine Sharpshooter
&#; Marine Sharpshooter II - Jungle Warfare
&#; Marine Sharpshooter III
&#; Mario Forever
&#; Mario Worlds
&#; Mars To Earth
&#; Martin Mystere - Operation Dorian Gray
&#; Marvel - Ultimate Alliance
&#; Marvel Trading Card Game
&#; Masque Video Slots
&#; Mass Effect
&#; Master Levels For Doom 2
&#; Master Of Defense
&#; Master Of The Skies - The Red Ace
&#; Mata Hari
&#; Max Payne
&#; Max Payne 2 - The Fall of Max Payne
&#; Max Payne 2 - The Fall of Max Payne [RIP]
&#; Max Payne [PL]
&#; Maximus XV Abraham Strong - Space Mercenary (Space Hack)
&#; MDK
&#; Mechwarrior 2 - Mercenaries
&#; MechWarrior 3
&#; MechWarrior 3 - Pirate's Moon [Expansion Pack]
&#; Medal of Honor - Airborne
&#; Medal of Honor - Allied Assault
&#; Medal Of Honor - Allied Assault - Spearhead
&#; Medal of Honor Allied Assault Breakthrough
&#; Medieval II - Total War
&#; Medieval II - Total War - Kingdoms [Expansion]
&#; Medieval Lords - Build, Defend, Expand
&#; Meet The Robinsons
&#; Mega Man Legends
&#; Megaman X5
&#; Megaman X8
&#; Memento Mori
&#; Men of Valor - Vietnam
&#; Men Of War
&#; Men of War Red Tide
&#; Mercedes Benz World Racing
&#; Mercenaries 2 - World In Flames
&#; Merchants Of Brooklyn
&#; Messiah
&#; Metal Fatigue
&#; Metal Gear Solid
&#; Metal Slug
&#; Metal Slug Anthology
&#; Miami Vice
&#; Micro Machines V4
&#; Microsoft Flight Simulator FSX Pilot In Command
&#; Microsoft Flight Simulator X Deluxe Edition
&#; Microsoft Pinball Arcade
&#; Midnight Club 2
&#; Midtown Madness
&#; Midtown Madness 2
&#; MiG
&#; Military History Commander - Europe At War
&#; MindHabits
&#; Mindlink
&#; Mini Golf Master 2
&#; Mini Golf Mayhem
&#; Mini Ninjas
&#; MiniChess [Sex Chess]
&#; Mirror Magic
&#; Mirror's Edge
&#; Miss Popularity
&#; Missing [with expansion]
&#; Mockba To Berlin
&#; Model Train 3D
&#; Mofa Racer
&#; Monkey Island 1 and 2
&#; Monkey Island 3 - The Curse of Monkey Island
&#; Monkey Island 4
&#; Monopoly - The Here & Now Limited Edition
&#; Monopoly
&#; Monopoly by Parker Brothers
&#; Monopoly by Parker Brothers
&#; Monster Garage
&#; Monster Madness - Battle for Suburbia
&#; Monster Truck Stunts
&#; Monster Trucks Nitro
&#; Monsters vs Aliens
&#; Moorhuhn - Director's Cut
&#; Moorhuhn - Sky Botz
&#; Moorhuhn Atlantis
&#; Mortal Kombat 2
&#; Mortal Kombat 3
&#; Mortal Kombat 4
&#; Mortal Kombat Project
&#; Mortimer Beckett & The Time Paradox
&#; Mortimer Beckett Deluxe
&#; Mortyr 2 For Ever
&#; Mortyr III - Akcje Dywersyjne [Battlestrike - Force of Resistance] [PL]
&#; Mortyr IV - Operacja Sztorm [PL]
&#; Mosaic - Tomb of Mystery
&#; Motherload Goldium Edition
&#; Moto GP - The Ultimate Racing Technology
&#; Moto GP - The Ultimate Racing Technology [PL]
&#; Moto Racer 3 - Gold Edition
&#; MotoGP 08
&#; MotoGP 2
&#; MotoGP
&#; MotorM4X - Offroad Extreme [PL, DE, RU]
&#; Mount & Blade
&#; Mount and Blade
&#; Mr Bean
&#; Mr. Robot
&#; Ms Flight Simulator X - Helgoland
&#; Ms. Pac-Man - Quest for the Golden Tomb
&#; MTV Celebrity Deathmatch
&#; MX vs. ATV Unleashed
&#; My Animal Centre in Africa
&#; My Animal Shelter
&#; My Boyfriend
&#; My Horse And Me
&#; My MakeUp
&#; MySims
&#; Myst - Masterpiece Edition
&#; Myst V - End Of Ages
&#; Mysterious Journey II
&#; Mystery Case Files Ravenhearst
&#; Mystery of Shark Island
&#; Mystery P.I. - The Lottery Ticket
&#; Mysteryville 2
&#; Myth II - Soulblighter
&#; Mythic Blades
&#; N-Ball
&#; Najemnicy [Armed Forces Corp.] [PL]
&#; Nancy Drew - Danger On Deception Island
&#; Nancy Drew - Last Train to Blue Moon Canyon
&#; Nancy Drew - Legend of the Crystal Skull
&#; Nancy Drew - The White Wolf Of Icicle Creek
&#; Napoleon's Campaigns
&#; NARC
&#; Nascar Racing 3
&#; Nascar SimRacing
&#; Natural Fawn Killers
&#; NBA 2K9
&#; NBA Live 07
&#; NBA Live 08
&#; NecroVision
&#; Need For Speed - Carbon
&#; Need for Speed - Carbon - Collector's Edition
&#; Need For Speed - Hot Pursuit 2
&#; Need For Speed - Most Wanted
&#; Need for Speed - Most Wanted - Black Edition
&#; Need For Speed - Porsche Unleashed
&#; Need For Speed - ProStreet
&#; Need For Speed - ProStreet [PL]
&#; Need for Speed - Underground
&#; Need for Speed - Underground 2
&#; Need for Speed 1
&#; Need For Speed 2
&#; Need For Speed 3
&#; Need For Speed High Stakes
&#; Need For Speed Shift
&#; Need For Speed Undercover
&#; Neighbors From Hell Compilation
&#; Neighbours From Hell
&#; Neighbours From Hell 2 - On Vacation
&#; Neighbours From Hell 3
&#; Neopets Codestone Quest
&#; Neptune's Secret
&#; Neverend
&#; Neverwinter Night Xpak 1 - Shadows of Undertide
&#; Neverwinter Nights
&#; Neverwinter Nights - Infinite Dungeons
&#; Neverwinter Nights - Kolekcja Wszechczasow [PL]
&#; Neverwinter Nights - Pirates of the Sword Coast
&#; Neverwinter Nights - Wyvern Crown Of Cormyr
&#; Neverwinter Nights 2 - Mask Of The Betrayer
&#; Neverwinter Nights 2 - Storm of Zehir
&#; Neverwinter Nights Kingmaker
&#; Neverwinter Nights Xpak 2 - Hordes of the Underdark
&#; Neverwinter Nigths 2
&#; Nexagon Deathmatch
&#; Next Life
&#; NHL 08
&#; NHL 09
&#; NHL
&#; NHRA Drag Racing - Quarter Mile Showdown
&#; Night Watch
&#; Night Watch Racing
&#; Nikopol Secrets Of The Immortals
&#; Ninjabread Man
&#; Nitro Stunt Racing
&#; No Man's Land - Fight for your Rights
&#; No One Lives Forever
&#; No Surrender - Battle of the Bulge
&#; Normality
&#; Nosferatu - The Wrath of Malachi
&#; Nostradamus - The Last Prophecy
&#; Nox
&#; Obscure - Learn about Fear
&#; Obscure 2
&#; Oddworld - Abe's Exoddus
&#; Officers
&#; Official Formula 1 Racing
&#; On The Rain - Slick Precipice of Darkness - Episode 2
&#; Once Upon a Knight
&#; Oni
&#; Onimusha
&#; Onimusha 3 - Demon Siege
&#; Open Season
&#; Open Season Activity Center
&#; Operation Air Assault 2
&#; Operation Alpha Zylon
&#; Operation Flashpoint Dragon Rising
&#; Operation Matriarchy
&#; Operation Thunderstorm
&#; Order Of War
&#; OutCry
&#; Outlaw Chopper
&#; Outlive
&#; Oval Office - Commander in Chief
&#; Overclocked - A Story of Violence
&#; Overlord
&#; Overlord - Raising Hell
&#; Overlord II
&#; Overspeed - High Performance Street Racing
&#; Pac-Man - Adventures in Time
&#; Pac-Man All Stars
&#; Pac-Man World Rally
&#; Pacific Heroes 2
&#; Pacific Storm - Allies
&#; Pageant Princess
&#; Painkiller
&#; Painkiller - Battle Out Of Hell
&#; Painkiller - Overdose
&#; Painkiller Resurrection
&#; Panzer Elite Action - Fields of Glory
&#; Panzer Killer
&#; Paradise
&#; Pariah
&#; Parkan II
&#; Pathologic
&#; Patriots - A Nation under Fire
&#; Paws & Claws - Pampered Pets
&#; Paws and Claws - Pet Resort
&#; Paws And Claws - Pet Vet 2 - Healing Hands
&#; PDC World Championship Darts
&#; PDC World Championship Darts
&#; PeaceMaker
&#; Peggle Deluxe
&#; Peggle Extreme
&#; Penny Arcade Adventures on the Rain - Slick Precipice of Darkness - Episode 1
&#; Penumbra
&#; Penumbra - Black Plague
&#; Penumbra Overture
&#; Penumbra Requiem
&#; Peppa Pig - Puddles Of Fun
&#; Perfect Ace Pro Tennis Tournament
&#; Perfect Ace Pro Tennis Tournament
&#; Perfect Sudoku
&#; Perimeter
&#; Perimeter 2 - New Earth
&#; Perry Rhodan
&#; Pet Luv Spa and Resort Tycoon
&#; Pet Vet 3D - Animal Hospital Down Under
&#; Pet Vet 3D - Wild Animal Hospital
&#; Petanque -
&#; Peter Jackson`s - King Kong
&#; Petz Catz 2
&#; Petz Dogz 2
&#; Petz Horsez 2
&#; Petz Sports - Dog Playground
&#; Phantasmagoria 2 - A Puzzle of Flesh
&#; Phantasy Star Universe - Ambition Of Illuminus
&#; Pharaoh with Cleopatra extension
&#; Pi Eye PC Games Collection
&#; Piece Of Wonder
&#; Pinewood Derby
&#; Pink Panther - Pinkadelic Pursuit
&#; Pinup Strip Poker
&#; Pioneering Explore The Early American West
&#; Piotrus Pan - Wielki Powrot [PL]
&#; Pipe Mania
&#; Pirates of the Caribbean - At World's End
&#; Pirates of the Caribbean - Legend of Jack Sparrow
&#; Pirateville
&#; Pitfall - The Lost Expedition
&#; Pixelus
&#; Pizza Connection
&#; Pizza Morgana - Episode 1
&#; Planescape Torment
&#; Planet Alcatraz
&#; Plants vs Zombies
&#; Platoon
&#; Playboy - The Mansion
&#; Playboy - The Mansion
&#; Playmobil Alarm
&#; Playmobil Construction
&#; Pocket Tanks
&#; Pokemon - Pearl Version [with emulator]
&#; Pokemon Games [GBA emulator included]
&#; Poker
&#; Poker Simulator
&#; Polar Games
&#; Police Destruction Street Retail
&#; Police Quest 1 - In Pursuit of the Death Angel
&#; Police Quest 2 - The Vengeance
&#; Police Quest 3 - The Kindred
&#; Police Quest 4 - Open Season
&#; Pontifex II
&#; Pool of Radiance - Ruins of Myth Drannor
&#; Popcap Game Collection
&#; Populous 3 - The Beginning
&#; Port Royale 2
&#; Portal [from VALVE]
&#; Portal [from VALVE]
&#; Ports of Call Deluxe
&#; Post Mortem
&#; Post Mortem [PL]
&#; Postal
&#; Postal 2
&#; Postal 2 - Apocalypse Weekend [Expansion]
&#; Postal 2 - Share The Pain
&#; Postal Fudge Pack
&#; Power of Destruction
&#; Power Rangers - Super Legends
&#; Powerboat GT
&#; Powerdrome
&#; Powerslide
&#; Prank TV
&#; Pranksterz - No Rest for The Wicked
&#; Premier Manager 08
&#; Premier Manager 10
&#; Pretty Soldier Wars A.D.
&#; PreVa
&#; Prey
&#; Prince of Persia
&#; Prince Of Persia - Sands Of Time
&#; Prince Of Persia - Sands Of Time
&#; Prince Of Persia - The Two Thrones
&#; Prince Of Persia - Warrior Within
&#; Princess Waltz
&#; Prison Tycoon 2 - Maximum Security
&#; Prison Tycoon 3 - Lock Down
&#; Prison Tycoon 4 SuperMax
&#; Pro Beach Soccer
&#; Pro Cycling Manager
&#; Pro Cycling Manager
&#; Pro Evolution Soccer
&#; Pro Evolution Soccer
&#; Pro Evolution Soccer
&#; Pro Evolution Soccer 3 (Winning Eleven 7)
&#; Pro Evolution Soccer 4 (Winning Eleven 8)
&#; Pro Evolution Soccer 5 (Winning Eleven 9)
&#; Pro Evolution Soccer 6
&#; Pro Evolution Soccer 6 (Winning Eleven - Pro Evolution Soccer )
&#; Project - Snowblind
&#; Project Aftermath
&#; Project Eden
&#; Project IGI - I'm Going In
&#; Project IGI 2 - Covert Strike
&#; Prototype
&#; Psi Ops - The Mindgate Conspiracy
&#; PsychoNauts
&#; Psychotoxic
&#; PT Boats Knights of the Sea
&#; Punic Wars
&#; Pure
&#; PureSim BaseBall 2
&#; Pusu
&#; Puzzle Inlay
&#; Puzzle Mania - Chronicles of the Unicorn
&#; Puzzle Quest - Galactrix
&#; Quake
&#; Quake
&#; Quake - Enhanced
&#; Quake 2
&#; Quake 2 - Ground Zero
&#; Quake 2 - The Reckoning
&#; Quake 3 Urban Terror [mod]
&#; Quake 4
&#; Quake 4
&#; Quake II
&#; Quake II - Ground Zero
&#; Quake II [For Linux]
&#; Quake III - Arena
&#; Quake III - Arena
&#; Quake III - Team Arena
&#; RA Gamez
&#; RACE - Caterham
&#; RACE 07 - The WTCC Game
&#; Race Driver GRID
&#; RagDoll Kung Fu
&#; Rail Simulator
&#; Rail Simulator - Official Expansion Pack
&#; Railroad Lines
&#; Railroad Tycoon 2
&#; Railroad Tycoon 3
&#; Railroad Tycoon 3 - Coast To Coast (Expansion)
&#; Rainbow Web
&#; Rajd na Berlin - Cien Stalingradu [Battlestrike - Force Of Resistance 2] [PL]
&#; RalliSport Challenge
&#; RapeLay [banned game]
&#; Ratatouille
&#; Rayman 2 - The Great Escape
&#; Rayman 3 - Hoodlum Havoc
&#; Rayman M (Rayman Arena)
&#; Re-Volt
&#; Reader Rabbit - Nursery
&#; Real Madrid - The Game
&#; Real Race
&#; Real War
&#; Realms Of Illusion
&#; Recoil
&#; Recoil
&#; Red Ace Squadron
&#; Red Baron Arcade
&#; Red Faction
&#; Red Faction Guerrilla
&#; Red Faction II
&#; Red Ocean
&#; Red Orchestra - Ostfront
&#; Red Shift - Visual Novel
&#; Redneck Kentucky
&#; Redneck Rampage
&#; Redneck Rampage - Rides Again
&#; Reel Deal Slots - Bonus Mania
&#; Republic - The Revolution
&#; Requiem - Avenging Angel
&#; Requital
&#; Reservoir Dogs
&#; Resident Evil 2
&#; Resident Evil 3 Nemesis
&#; Resident Evil 4 [Biohazard 4]
&#; Resident Evil 5
&#; Restricted Area
&#; Retro Games Collection
&#; Retro Records
&#; Return to Castle Wolfenstein
&#; Return to Mysterious Island
&#; Return to Wonderland Platinum Edition
&#; rFactor
&#; Rhem 3 - The Secret Library
&#; Rhiannon - Curse of the Four Branches
&#; Richard Burns Rally
&#; Ricochet Infinity
&#; Ricochet Lost Worlds
&#; Ricochet Xtreme
&#; Ride! - Equestrian Simulation
&#; Riders World Competition
&#; Riding Star 3
&#; RIP 1 - Hell's Army [DE]
&#; RIP 2 - Strike Back [DE]
&#; RIP 3 - The Last Hero [DE]
&#; RIP Trilogy
&#; Ripped Games - Volume 1
&#; Ripped Games - Volume 2
&#; Ripped Games - Volume 3
&#; Ripped Games - Volume 4
&#; Ripped Games - Volume 5
&#; Rise & Fall - Civilizations At War
&#; Rise 2 - Resurrection
&#; Rise of Nations
&#; Rise of Nations - Gold Edition
&#; Rise Of Nations - Rise Of Legends
&#; Rise of Nations - Thrones and Patriots
&#; Rise Of Nations 2 - Rise Of Legends
&#; Rise of Nations Series
&#; Risen
&#; Rising Kingdom
&#; Risk
&#; Road Wage
&#; Robert D. Anderson and the Legacy of Cthulhu
&#; RoboBall
&#; Roboblitz
&#; RoboCop
&#; Robot Arena 2
&#; Rock Manager
&#; Rollcage Stage II
&#; RollerCoaster Tycoon 2
&#; RollerCoaster Tycoon 3
&#; RollerCoaster Tycoon 3 - Zlota Edycja [PL]
&#; Romance of the Three Kingdoms XI
&#; Rome - Total War plus Barbarian Invasion - Gold Edition
&#; Rome Total War
&#; Room War
&#; RTL Biathlon
&#; RTL Biathlon
&#; RTL Ski Jumping
&#; Rubik's Cube Challenge
&#; Runaway 2 - The Dream of The Turtle
&#; Rune
&#; Rush for Berlin Gold
&#; Rush For The Bomb
&#; S.C.A.R. Squadra Corse Alfa Romeo
&#; S.T.A.L.K.E.R. - Call Of Pripyat
&#; S.T.A.L.K.E.R. - Shadow of Chernobyl
&#; S.T.A.L.K.E.R. - Shadow of Chernobyl
&#; S.T.A.L.K.E.R. Clear Sky
&#; S.T.A.L.K.E.R. Clear Sky [S.T.A.L.K.E.R. Czyste niebo] [PL]
&#; S.T.A.L.K.E.R. Radiation Limited Edition Bonus Disk
&#; S.W.I.N.E.
&#; Sacred 2 - Fallen Angel
&#; Sacred 2 - Fallen Angel [PL]
&#; Sacred 2 - Ice And Blood
&#; Sacred Plus and Sacred Underworld [PL]
&#; Safari Photo Africa - Wild Earth
&#; Sally's Quick Clips
&#; Sally's Salon
&#; Sam & Max - Episode 1 - Culture Shock
&#; Sam & Max - Episode 2 - Situation Comedy
&#; Sam & Max - Episode 6 - Bright Side of the Moon
&#; Sam & Max - Season 2 - Episode 5 - What's New, Beelzebub
&#; Sam & Max - Season 2 Episode 4 - Chariots of the Dogs
&#; Sam & Max - Sezon 1 [PL]
&#; Sam & Max Season 2 Episode 3 - Night of the Raving Dead
&#; Sam And Max - Episode 3 - The Mole the Mob and the Meatball
&#; Sam And Max - Episode 4 - Abe Lincoln Must Die
&#; Sam And Max - Episode 5 - Reality
&#; Sam and Max - Season 1
&#; Sam and Max - Season 2 - Episode 2 - Moai Better Blues
&#; Sam and Max - Season 2 Episode 1 - Ice Station Santa
&#; Sam And Max Hit The Road
&#; Sam and Max Season Two
&#; Samorost 2
&#; Samurai Warriors 2
&#; Sango 2
&#; Sanitarium
&#; SAS Anti-Terror Force
&#; SAS Secure Tommorow [PL]
&#; SAS Secure Tommorrow
&#; Sauerbraten
&#; Savage - The Battle For Newerth
&#; Saw - The video game
&#; SBK 08 Superbike World Championship
&#; Scallywag - In the Lair of the Medusa
&#; Scaraball
&#; Scarface - The World is Yours
&#; Scarface - The World is Yours
&#; School Tycoon
&#; Scooby Doo Glowing Bug Man
&#; Scooby-Doo! Frights! Camera! Mystery!
&#; Scooter War3z
&#; Scorpion Disfigured
&#; Scrabble
&#; Scrabble
&#; Scrabble Complete
&#; Scratches
&#; Scratches Director's Cut
&#; Screamer 4x4
&#; Seal Of Evil
&#; Search & Rescue 4 - Coastal Heroes
&#; Second Sight
&#; Second Sight
&#; Secret Files - Tunguska
&#; Secret Files 2 - Puritas Cordis
&#; Secret Service - Security Breach
&#; Secret Weapons Over Normandy
&#; Section 8
&#; Sega Rally
&#; Sensible Soccer
&#; Septerra Core
&#; Serious Sam - The First Encounter
&#; Serious Sam - The Second Encounter
&#; Serious Sam II
&#; Settlers 2 - 10th Anniversary
&#; Settlers V - Dziedzictwo Królów - Złota Edycja [PL]
&#; Seven Kingdoms - Conquest
&#; Seven Kingdoms II - The Fryhtan Wars
&#; Severance - Blade Of Darkness
&#; Sexy Beach 3
&#; Sexy Dreams
&#; Sexy Poker v
&#; Shade - Wrath Of The Angels
&#; Shadow Company - Left for Dead
&#; Shadow of Destiny [Shadow of Memories]
&#; Shadow Vault
&#; Shadow Warrior
&#; Shadow Watch
&#; Shadowgrounds
&#; Shadowgrounds Survivor
&#; Shadowrun
&#; Shangri La
&#; Shape Shifter
&#; Shaun White Snowboarding
&#; Sheep Dog'n Wolf
&#; Shellshock - Nam '67
&#; Shellshock 2 - Blood Trails
&#; Sherlock Holmes - The Case of the Silver Earring
&#; Sherlock Holmes Nemesis
&#; Sherlock Holmes versus Arsene Lupin
&#; Sherlock Holmes Vs Jack The Ripper
&#; Ship Simulator
&#; Ship Simulator - New Horizons
&#; Shivers Two - Harvest of Souls
&#; Shogo Mobile Armor Division
&#; Shogo Mobile Armor Division [PL]
&#; Shopping Centre Tycoon
&#; Shrek 2 - Activity Center - Twisted Fairy Tale Fun
&#; Shrek 2 - Team Action
&#; Shrek 2 - Team Action
&#; Shrek The Third
&#; Sid Meier's Railroads
&#; Sid Meier`s Sim Golf
&#; Siege of Avalon - Anthology
&#; Silent Heroes
&#; Silent Hill
&#; Silent Hill - Homecoming
&#; Silent Hill 2
&#; Silent Hill 3
&#; Silent Hill 3
&#; Silent Hill 4 - The Room
&#; Silent Hill Homecoming
&#; Silent Hunter 4 - Wolves Of The Pacific
&#; Silent Hunter 4 - Wolves Of The Pacific Uboat Missions
&#; Silent Storm
&#; Silent Storm - Sentinels
&#; Silverfall - Earth Awakening
&#; Silverload
&#; Sim City - Societies
&#; Sim City 4 Deluxe Edition
&#; SimCity
&#; SimCity
&#; Simcity Societies Deluxe
&#; Simon The Sorcerer 4 - Chaos Happens
&#; Sims 2 Open For Business
&#; SiN
&#; SiN Episodes - Emergence - Episode 1
&#; Sinbad - Legend Of The Seven Seas
&#; Sins Of A Solar Empire
&#; Sins Of A Solar Empire - Entrenchment
&#; Ski Resort Tycoon
&#; Ski-Doo X-Team
&#; Skoki narciarskie [PL]
&#; Sky Force
&#; Slyder Adventures
&#; Smashing Toys
&#; Smugglers 3
&#; Sniper - Art of Victory
&#; Sniper - Path Of Vengeance
&#; Sniper Elite
&#; SNK vs. CAPCOM - Ultimate
&#; SnoCross Extreme [PL]
&#; Snow Sakura
&#; Snowy Treasure Hunter 3
&#; So Blonde
&#; Software Tycoon PL
&#; Soldier Of Fortune - Payback
&#; Soldiers Of Anarchy
&#; Soldner - Secret Wars
&#; Soldner X Himmelssturmer
&#; Sommer Sport Pack
&#; Sonic & Knuckles Collection
&#; Sonic Adventure DX
&#; Sonic Heroes
&#; Sonic Riders
&#; South Park
&#; Space Bound
&#; Space Empires V
&#; Space Force - Rogue Universe
&#; Space Rangers 2 - Reboot
&#; Space Shuttle Mission
&#; Space Siege
&#; Space Station Sim
&#; Space Taxi 2
&#; Space Trader - Merchant Marine
&#; Spaceforce Captains
&#; Spacy Shufflepuck
&#; Sparkle - X-Treme Edition
&#; Spartan - Gates of Troy
&#; Special Force 2
&#; Special Forces - Nemesis Strike
&#; SpecNaz 2 [ENG, PL]
&#; Speedball 2 Tournament
&#; SpellForce - Shadow Of The Phoenix
&#; SpellForce - The Order Of Dawn
&#; SpellForce - The Order of Dawn - Zlota Edycja [PL]
&#; Spellforce - TOOD plus BOW, SOTP, Update
&#; SpellForce 2 - Dragon Storm
&#; Spellforce 2 [PL]
&#; Spider-Man - Friend Or Foe
&#; Spider-Man 3 - The Game
&#; Spiderman - Web of Shadows
&#; Spiderman 2 - The Game
&#; SpiderMan 3 - Game
&#; Splinter Cell - Chaos Theory
&#; Splinter Cell - Chaos Theory - VERSUS [Multiplayer only]
&#; Splinter Cell - Double Agent
&#; Splinter Cell - Mission Pack
&#; Splinter Cell - Pandora Tomorrow
&#; Splinter Cell [with mission pack]
&#; SpongeBob SquarePants Diner Dash 2
&#; SpongeBob SquarePants Nighty Nightmare
&#; SpongeBob SquarePants Quad Pack
&#; SPORE - Creature Creator
&#; Spore - Creepy & Cute Parts Pack
&#; Spyro - Year Of The Dragon
&#; Spyro 2 - Ripto's Rage
&#; Spyro The Dragon
&#; Sqiek
&#; Squadra Corse Alfa Romeo
&#; Star Assault
&#; Star Monkey
&#; Star Trek - Birth Of The Federation
&#; Star Trek - Bridge Commander
&#; Star Trek - Deep Space 9 - The Dominion Wars
&#; Star Trek - Deep Space 9 - The Fallen
&#; Star Trek - Elite Force II
&#; Star Trek - Legacy
&#; Star Trek Armada
&#; Star Trek Armada II
&#; Star Trek Away Team
&#; Star Trek D.A.C
&#; Star Trek Generations
&#; Star Trek Voyager - Elite Force
&#; Star Trek Voyager - Elite Force - Expansion Pack
&#; Star Wars - BattleFront
&#; Star Wars - BattleFront 2
&#; Star Wars - Empire At War - Forces Of Corruption PL
&#; Star Wars - Fleet Commander
&#; Star Wars - Force Unleashed - Ultimate Sith Edition
&#; Star Wars - Knights of the Old Republic
&#; Star Wars - Knights of the Old Republic 2 - The Sith Lords
&#; Star Wars - Rebel Assault
&#; Star Wars - Rebel Assault II - The Hidden Empire
&#; Star Wars - Rebellion
&#; Star Wars - Republic Commando
&#; Star Wars - Rogue Squadron 3D
&#; Star Wars - Shadows of the Empire
&#; Star Wars - Starfighter
&#; Star Wars - Tie Fighter
&#; Star Wars - X-Wing
&#; Star Wars - X-Wing Alliance
&#; Star Wars - X-Wing vs. TIE Fighter
&#; Star Wars - X-Wing vs. TIE Fighter - Ballance of Power
&#; Star Wars Empire At War Forces Of Corruption
&#; Star Wars Jedi Knight - Dark Forces II And Mysteries of the Sith
&#; Star Wars Jedi Knight - Jedi Academy
&#; Star Wars The Clone Wars Republic Heroes
&#; Star Wolves 2
&#; Starcraft
&#; Starcraft & Broodwar
&#; Starcraft - Złota Edycja [PL]
&#; Starcraft Broodwars
&#; Starcraft Insurrection
&#; StarCraft Portable - Lan Edition
&#; Starcraft Retribution
&#; Starquest - Rescue at Rigel
&#; Starscape
&#; StarShine Legacy
&#; StarTopia
&#; StarWars Monopoly
&#; StateShift
&#; STCC The Game
&#; Steam Brigade
&#; Steel Fury - Kharkov
&#; Sterlings Gift
&#; Still Life
&#; Still Life 2
&#; Storm Angel
&#; Stormrise
&#; Story of Fairy Place
&#; Stranger
&#; Stranglehold
&#; Street Fighter II
&#; Street Fighter III 3rd Strike - Fight For The Future
&#; Street Fighter IV
&#; Street Fighter Zero
&#; Streets of Moscow [Multilanguage]
&#; Strife
&#; Strong Bad - Episode 1 - Homestar Ruiner
&#; Strong Bad - Episode 2 - Strong Badia The Free
&#; Strong Bad - Episode 3 - Baddest of the Bands
&#; Strong Bad - Episode 4 - Dangeresque 3
&#; Strong Bad - Episode 5 - 8-Bit Is Enough
&#; Strong Bad's Cool Game for Attractive People - Season 1
&#; Stronghold 2
&#; Stronghold Legends
&#; Stuart Little 2
&#; Stubbs The Zombie In Rebel Without A Pulse
&#; Sublustrum [PL]
&#; Sudden Strike - Resource War
&#; Sudden Strike 3 - Arms for Victory
&#; Sudeki
&#; Sudoku Ball Detective
&#; Sum Of All Fears
&#; Summoner
&#; SunAge
&#; Sunset Studio Deluxe
&#; Sunshine Acres
&#; Super Bikes Riding Challenge
&#; Super Collapse 3
&#; Super Nintendo Emulator CD [ ROMs]
&#; Super Power 2
&#; Superchix `76
&#; Supreme Commander
&#; Supreme Commander - Forged Alliance
&#; Supreme Ruler
&#; Supreme Ruler - Global Crisis
&#; Supreme Ruler Gold
&#; Surakarta
&#; Surfs Up
&#; Swashbucklers Blue vs Grey
&#; SWAT 3 - Elite Edition
&#; SWAT 4
&#; SWAT 4
&#; Swat 4 - Stetchkov Syndicate
&#; Swat 4 - Stetchkov Syndicate
&#; SWAT 4 - Złota Edycja [PL]
&#; Switchfire
&#; Sword Of The Stars
&#; Sword of the Stars - A Murder of Crows
&#; Sword of The Stars - Born of Blood
&#; Syberia
&#; Syberia 2
&#; Syndicate Wars
&#; System Mania
&#; System Shock 2
&#; Taito Legends 2
&#; Takeda 3
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&#; Tomb Raider - Anniversary - BONUS DVD
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&#; Trivial Pursuit - Bring on the 90's Edition
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&#; Truck Tycoon (Freight Tycoon Inc.)
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&#; True Crime - Streets Of L.A.
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&#; Turning Point - Fall of Liberty
&#; Turok
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&#; TV Giant
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&#; Twisted Metal
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&#; Two Worlds
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&#; Val Gor Dark Lord of Magic
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&#; Virtual Pool 3
&#; Virtual Skipper 5 - 32nd America's Cup
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&#; Virtually Jenna 2
&#; Viva Pinata
&#; Vivisector - Beast Inside
&#; Voyeur II
&#; Wall E
&#; Wallace and Gromits Grand Adventures - Episode 1 - Fright of the Bumblebees
&#; Wallace and Gromits Grand Adventures - Episode 1 - Fright of the Bumblebees
&#; Wallace and Gromits Grand Adventures - Episode 2 - The Last Resort
&#; Wallace and Gromits Grand Adventures - Episode 3 - Muzzled
&#; Wallace and Gromits Grand Adventures - Episode 4 - The Boogie Man
&#; Wanted - A Wild Western Tale
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&#; War Front Turning Point
&#; War Leaders - Clash Of Nations
&#; War On Folvos
&#; War on Terror
&#; Warblade
&#; Warcraft - Orcs & Humans
&#; Warcraft 2 - sprers.eu Edition
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&#; Warfare
&#; Warhammer - Mark Of Chaos
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&#; Warhammer - Dawn Of War - Winter Assault
&#; Warhammer - Dawn of War II
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&#; Warhammer - Fire Warrior
&#; Warhammer 40k - Dawn Of War - Dark Crusade
&#; Warhammer Mark of Chaos Battle March
&#; WarPath
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&#; Watchmen The End Is Nigh
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&#; Westward
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&#; Xpand Rally

6th European Conference - Academic Conferences

The Proceedings

of the

6th International

Conference on Information

Warfare and Security

The George Washington University,

Washington, DC, USA

March

Edited by

Leigh Armistead

Edith Cowan University

Programme Chair


Copyright The Authors, All Rights Reserved.

No reproduction, copy or transmission may be made without written permission from the individual authors.

Papers have been double-blind peer reviewed before final submission to the conference. Initially, paper

abstracts were read and selected by the conference panel for submission as possible papers for the

conference.

Many thanks to the reviewers who helped ensure the quality of the full papers.

These Conference Proceedings have been submitted to Thomson ISI for indexing.

Further copies of this book and previous year’s proceedings can be purchased from sprers.eu

ISBN Book

Published by Academic Publishing International Limited

Reading

UK


sprers.eu


Contents

Paper Title Author(s) Page

No.

Preface iii

Biographies of Conference Chairs,

Programme Chair, Keynote Speaker and

Mini-track Chairs

Biographies of contributing authors v

Using the Longest Common Substring on

Dynamic Traces of Malware to Automatically

Identify Common Behaviors

Modeling and Justification of the Store and

Forward Protocol: Covert Channel Analysis

The Evolution of Information Assurance (IA)

and Information Operations (IO) Contracts

across the DoD: Growth Opportunities for

Academic Research – an Update

The Uses and Limits of Game Theory in

Conceptualizing Cyberwarfare

Jaime Acosta 1

Hind Al Falasi and Liren Zhang 8

Edwin Leigh Armistead and Thomas Murphy 14

Merritt Baer 23

Who Needs a Botnet if you Have Google? Ivan Burke and Renier van Heerden 32

Mission Resilience in Cloud Computing: A

Biologically Inspired Approach

Link Analysis and Link Visualization of

Malicious Websites

The Strategies for Critical Cyber

Infrastructure (CCI) Protection by Enhancing

Software Assurance

Building an Improved Taxonomy for IA

Education Resources in PRISM

Using Dynamic Addressing for a Moving

Target Defense

Changing the Face of Cyber Warfare with

International Cyber Defense Collaboration

Cyber Strategy and the Law of Armed

Conflict

eGovernance and Strategic Information

Warfare – non Military Approach

Intelligence-Driven Computer Network

Defense Informed by Analysis of Adversary

Campaigns and Intrusion Kill Chains

The Hidden Grand Narrative of Western

Military Policy: A Linguistic Analysis of

American Strategic Communication

Host-Based Data Exfiltration Detection via

System Call Sequences

Detection of YASS Using Calibration by

Motion Estimation

Marco Carvalho, Dipankar Dasgupta, Michael

Grimaila and Carlos Perez

Manoj Cherukuri and Srinivas Mukkamala 52

Mecealus Cronkrite, John Szydlik and Joon Park 68

Vincent Garramone, Daniel Likarish 76

Stephen Groat, Matthew Dunlop, Randy Marchany

and Joseph Tront

Marthie Grobler, Joey Jansen van Vuuren and

Jannie Zaaiman,

Ulf Haeussler 99

Karim Hamza and Van Dalen

Eric Hutchins, Michael Cloppert and Rohan Amin

Saara Jantunen and Aki-Mauri Huhtinen

Brian Jewell and Justin Beaver

Kesav Kancherla and Srinivas Mukkamala

i

iv

42

84

92


Paper Title Author(s) Page

No.

Developing a Knowledge System for

Information Operations

CAESMA – An On-Going Proposal of a

Network Forensic Model for VoIP traffic

Secure Proactive Recovery – a Hardware

Based Mission Assurance Scheme

Identifying Cyber Espionage: Towards a

Synthesis Approach

Security Analysis of Webservers of

Prominent Organizations in Pakistan

International Legal Issues and Approaches

Regarding Information Warfare

International Legal Issues and Approaches

Regarding Information Warfare

Louise Leenen, Ronell Alberts, Katarina Britz,

Aurona Gerber and Thomas Meyer

Jose Mas y Rubi, Christian Del Carpio, Javier

Espinoza, and Oscar Nuñez Mori

Ruchika Mehresh, Shambhu Upadhyaya and Kevin

Kwiat




David Merritt and Barry Mullins

Muhammad Naveed

Alexandru Nitu

Cyberwarfare and Anonymity Christopher Perr

Catch Me If You Can: Cyber Anonymity David Rohret and Michael Kraft

Neutrality in the Context of Cyberwar Julie Ryan and Daniel Ryan

Labelling: Security in Information

Management and Sharing

Information Management Security for Inter-

Organisational Business Processes,

Services and Collaboration

Anatomy of Banking Trojans – Zeus

Crimeware (how Similar are its Variants)

Terrorist use of the Internet: Exploitation and

Support Through ICT Infrastructure

Evolving an Information Security Curriculum:

New Content, Innovative Pedagogy and

Flexible Delivery Formats

Harm Schotanus, Tim Hartog, Hiddo Hut and Daniel

Boonstra

Maria Th. Semmelrock-Picej, Alfred Possegger and

Andreas Stopper



Madhu Shankarapani and Srinivas Mukkamala

Namosha Veerasamy and Marthie Grobler

Tanya Zlateva, Virginia Greiman, Lou Chitkushev

and Kip Becker

Research in Progress Papers

Towards Persistent Control over Shared

Information in a Collaborative Environment

3D Execution Monitor (3D-EM): Using 3D

Circuits to Detect Hardware Malicious

Inclusions in General Purpose Processors

Towards An Intelligent Software Agent

System As Defense Against Botnets


Shada Alsalamah, Alex Gray and Jeremy Hilton

Michael Bilzor

Evan Dembskey and Elmarie Biermann

Theoretical Offensive Cyber Militia Models Rain Ottis

Work in Progress

Large-scale analysis of continuous data in

cyber-warfare threat detection

A System and Method for Designing Secure

Client-Server Communication Protocols

Based on Certificateless PKI

William Acosta

Natarajan Vijayarangan

ii


Preface

These Proceedings are the work of researchers contributing to the 6th International Conference on

Information Warfare and Security (ICIW ), hosted this year by the George Washington University,

Washington DC, USA. The Conference Chair is Dr. Julie Ryan from the George Washington University,

Washington, DC, USA and I am again the Programme Chair.

The opening keynote address this year is given by Matthew A. Stern, General Dynamics Advanced

Information Systems, USA The second day will be opened by Mathew “Pete” Peterson from the Naval

Criminal Investigative Service, USA.

An important benefit of attending this conference is the ability to share ideas and meet the people who hold

them. The range of papers will ensure an interesting and enlightened discussion over the two day schedule.

The topics covered by the papers this year illustrate the depth of the information operations’ research area,

with the subject matter ranging from the highly technical to the more strategic visions of the use and

influence of information.

With an initial submission of 97 abstracts, after the double blind, peer review process there are 38 papers

published in these Conference Proceedings, including contributions from Austria, Bangladesh, Estonia,

Finland, India, Iran, Pakistan, Peru, Romania, South Africa, the Netherlands, United Arab Emirates, United

Kingdom and the United States.

I wish you a most enjoyable conference.

March

Leigh Armistead

Edith Cowan University

Programme Chair

iii


Biographies of Conference Chairs, Programme Chairs and Keynote

Speakers

Conference Chairs

Programme Chairs

Dr. Julie Ryan currently teaches and directs research in Information Assurance at

The George Washington University. Prior to joining academia, she worked in various

positions in industry and government. Her degrees are from the US Air Force

Academy, Eastern Michigan University, and The George Washington University.

Dr Edwin “Leigh” Armistead is the Director of Business Development for Goldbelt

Hawk LLC, the Programme Chair for the International Conference of Information

Warfare and an Adjunct Lecturer for Edith Cowen University in Perth, Australia. He

has written nine books, 18 journal articles, presented 17 academic papers and served

as a Chairman for 16 professional and academic conferences. Formerly a Master

Faculty at the Joint Forces Staff College, Leigh received his PhD from Edith Cowan

University with an emphasis on Information Operations. He also serves as a Co-

Editor for the Journal of International Warfare, and the Editorial Review Board for

EuropeanConference on Information Warfare.

Keynote Speakers

Mathew “Pete” Peterson has served in a variety of positions within US government

agencies since , to include 13 years on active duty in the U.S. Army. He has

experience in a wide range of domains, including information assurance/information

protection, research, development & acquisition (RDA)/research & technology

protection (RTP), cyber analysis issues, critical infrastructure protection, and threat

analysis. He currently serves as Cyber Analysis Division Chief within the Naval

Criminal Investigative Service, while working towards completion of his dissertation in

the Executive Leadership Doctoral Program at George Washington University’s Virginia

Campus.

Matthew Stern is the director of cyber accounts for General Dynamics Advanced Information Systems. He

also provides subject matter expertise in cyber space operations to the company and its customers. Stern

also represents the company on several boards and advisory groups providing thought leadership to the

cyber security community. He spent 22 years in positions of increasing responsibility in the U.S. Army

culminating with command of 2nd Battalion, 1st Information Operations Command and the Army Computer

Emergency Response Team (ACERT). This is the first unit in U.S. Army history dedicated to cyberspace

operations. Stern is an established expert on information technology, network security, information

operations and special information operations. He is also a recognized visionary regarding the military

conduct of cyberspace operations. He has developed his knowledge and expertise through practical

experience leading his command, the U.S. military data communication services in Iraq, support to the

technical architecture of the U.S. Army’s digitized Armored Corps, and the systems integration for the Land

Information Warfare Activity Information Dominance Center. Stern is also a decorated combat veteran of

Operations DESERT SHIELD /STORM and IRAQI FREEDOM. Matt holds a Masters degree in Information

Systems and Computer Resource Management from Webster University and a Bachelor’s of Science degree

in Political Science from Northern Illinois University.

iv


Biographies of contributing authors (in alphabetical order)

Jaime Acosta completed his Ph.D. in Computer Science at the University of Texas at El Paso. Dr. Acosta’s

research has received awards and recognition including the outstanding dissertation award by the University

of Texas at El Paso. Jaime is currently working at the United States Army Research Laboratory conducting

security research.

William Acosta, Ph.D. received his Ph.D. from the University of Notre Dame in and is currently an

assistant professor at the University of Toledo teaching in the Computer Science and Engineering

Technology Program. His prior work included peer-to-peer search and distributed systems. He is currently

working on experimental data systems research focusing on large-scale data analysis.

Hind Al Falasi, is currently pursuing a PhD in Information Security at the United Arab Emirates University, Al

Ain, UAE. He received a Bachelors of Science in Information Security from the United Arab Emirates

University. Where the main focus is Security of Vehicular Ad hoc Networks.

Rohan Amin is a member of Lockheed Martin's CIRT, who helped grow the team from 5 charter members

with limited responsibilities to an industry-leading entity with global scope. His contributions to the team have

ranged from deeply technical to broadly organizational.

Shada Al-Salamah is a doctoral candidate at the Department of Computer Science & Informatics, Cardiff

University, UK. She received her MSc in Strategic Information Systems with Information Assurance from

Cardiff University and received a BSc in Information Technology from the College of Computer and

Information Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Merritt Baer is a graduate of Harvard Law School and Harvard College. She has conducted clinical cyberlaw

research at Harvard's Berkman Center for Internet and Society and has published a number of pieces at the

intersection of cybercrime, Constitutional Internet issues and national security. She currently serves as a

judicial clerk at the United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces.

Michael Bilzor is a PhD student at the Naval Postgraduate School. He has a B.S. in Computer Science from

the U.S. Naval Academy and an M.S. in Computer Science from Johns Hopkins University. He served in F-

14 and F/A squadrons as a Naval Flight Officer until His research interest is in hardware security.

Ivan Burke is a Msc student in the department of Computer Science at the University of Pretoria, South

Africa. He also works full time at the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research South Africa in the

department of Defense Peace Safety and Security,where he works within the Command, Control and

Information Warfare research group.

Marco Carvalho is a research Scientist at Florida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition (IHMC). He

received his Ph.D. from Tulane University, New Orleans, following a sprers.eu in Computer Science from

University of West Florida, a sprers.eu in Mechanical Engineering from Federal University of Brasilia (UnB), and

a sprers.eu in Mechanical Engineering, also from UnB. His research interests are primarily in the areas of

biologically inspired security and tactical networks.

Mecealus Cronkrite is studying for a M.S in Information & Security Management at Syracuse University,

School of Information Studies, He is a DHS Career Development Grant fellow, Graduate Engineering

Minority (GEM) fellow. He gained a B.S degree in in Computer Science, from the State University at

Brockport NY. He has spent 7 years in industry in systems integration programing and analysis, and IT

disaster management roles.

Mike Cloppert is a member of Lockheed Martin's CIRT, who helped grow the team from 5 charter members

with limited responsibilities to an industry-leading entity with global scope. His contributions to the team have

ranged from deeply technical to broadly organizational.

Evan Dembskey is a senior lecturer at UNISA in Pretoria, South Africa. He currently lectures in the area of

computer security. His research interests include IW and technology and science in Ancient Greece and

Rome.

Javier Espinoza was born in Lima, Peru, on August, He studied Electronic Engineering in Pontificia

Universidad Catolica del Peru. He studied specialization in Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA), in

v


Structured Wiring and Information System Security. Javier is studying a Telecommunications Engineering

master at Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru in Lima, Peru

Stephen Groat is a PhD student at Virginia Tech in the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer

Engineering focusing on network security and IPv6. Working in coordination with the Information Technology

Security Office and Lab, Stephen is researching the security implications of IPv6.

Ulf Haeussler is a Legal Advisor in the German Armed Forces and currently seconded to HQ SACT. Prior

to this assignment, Ulf served in multiple German Armed Forces positions as well as at NATO HQ, and was

deployed to NATO operations as a reservist on active duty. Ulf is widely published on international law.

Karim Hamza works as an Academic Researcher at the Maastricht school of Management (Netherlands),

Part Time Professor at the American University (Egypt) and Approved Tutor for Edinburgh Business School

(UK). Additionally, he works as a Business Development Manager in one of the leading information

technology companies specialized in Enterprise Resource Planning applications for governments and private

sectors.

Tim Hartog graduated in at the Technical University of Twente, in the Netherlands. Since then he has

been active in the field of Information Security. During his work at TNO, the Dutch Organization for Applied

Scientific Research, Tim has been working in the areas of Trusted Computing, Trusted Operating Systems

and Cross Domain Solutions.

Saara Jantunen studies leadership as a doctoral student in the Finnish Defence University. She has studied

English language and culture at the University of Groningen in the Netherlands and English philology in the

University of Helsinki, Finland. Her research interests include language & identity and military discourse.

Jantunen currently works in education.

Brian Jewell is a graduate student with an emphasis on Information Security at Tennessee Technological

University. He received his B.S. in Computer Science from Murray State University. During summer he

interned at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the Applied Software Engineering Research group. His

research is in the area of host intrusion detection and response.

Louise Leenen is a Senior Researcher at the South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research in

the Defence, Peace, Safety and Security (DPSS) unit which focuses on defence related research and

development. She holds a PhD in Computer Science from the University of Wollongong in Australia.

Dan Likarish is a Director of the Center on Information Assurance Studies and faculty at Regis University

School of Information and Computer Science. For many years he has been the advisor for undergraduate

and graduate students with an interest in IS and IT problems. His research interests are in rapid curriculum

development and deployment in conjunction with virtual worlds.

Jose Luis Mas y Rubi studied Systems Engineering at the Instituto Universitario Politecnico Santiago

Mariño in Barcelona, Venezuela. He has a Cisco CCNA certification in networking. He is currently studying

for a Telecommunications Engineering Master degree at Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru in Lima,

Peru.

Ruchika Mehresh is a doctoral student of Computer Science and Engineering at the State University of New

York at Buffalo. Her research focuses on reliability and security in fault-tolerant computing. She has worked

on research projects funded by U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory

David Merritt received his B.S. in computer engineering from the U.S. Air Force Academy. He is an

Undergraduate Network Warfare Training graduate, holds CISSP and GSEC certifications, and spent 3 years

on the Air Force Computer Emergency Response Team. David is an active duty officer attending the Air

Force Institute of Technology in Ohio.

Srinivas Mukkamala is a senior research scientist with ICASA (Institute for Complex Additive Systems

Analysis), Adjunct Faculty of Computer Science Department of New Mexico Tech, advisor Cyber Security

Works, and co-founder/managing partner of CAaNES LLC. He received his Ph.D. from New Mexico Tech in

He is a frequent speaker on information assurance in conferences and tutorials across the world.

Muhammad Naveed completed sprers.eu degree in Electrical Engineering (with majors in communication),

University of Engineering and Technology (UET), Peshawar, Pakistan Currently a lecturer at

vi


Department of Computer Science, IQRA University, Peshawar, Pakistan. Research interests include

information security and cryptography.

Alexandru Nitu is a legal counselor at the Romanian Intelligence Service, with nine years of experience in

matters regarding human rights protection. He is involved in legal studies referring to the impact of the

intelligence activities on respecting citizens’ fundamental rights and liberties.

Rain Ottis is a scientist at the Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence. He is a graduate of the

United States Military Academy and Tallinn University of Technology (MSc, Informatics). He continues his

studies at a PhD program in Tallinn University of Technology, where he focuses on politically motivated

cyber attack campaigns by non-state actors.

Christopher Perr is currently a PhD candidate at Auburn University studying computer and network security.

He holds a B.S. in Computer Science from the Air Force Academy and a Masters of Software Engineering

from Auburn University.

David Rohret, CSC, Inc. Joint Information Operations Warfare Center (JIOWC). For over fifteen years he

has pursued network security interests to include developing and vetting exploits for use on established red

teams and adversarial research. He holds degrees in Computer Science from the University of Iowa and La

Salle University.

Shambhu Upadhyaya is Professor of Computer Science and Engineering at the State University of New

York at Buffalo. His research interests are computer security, information assurance, fault-tolerant

computing, distributed systems and reliability. His research has been funded by federal agencies such as

National Science Foundation, U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, DARPA, National Security Agency and

industries such as IBM, Intel, Cisco and Harris Corporation.

Namosha Veerasamy obtained a BSc:IT Computer Science Degree, and both a BSc: Computer Science

(Honours Degree) and MSc: Computer Science with distinction from the University of Pretoria. She is

currently employed as a researcher at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) in Pretoria.

Namosha is also qualified as a Certified Information System Security Professional (CISSP).

Natarajan Vijayarangan is a senior scientist in TCS. He obtained his Ph.D in Mathematics in from

RIASM, University of Madras. He received 'Best Research Paper Award' of Ramanujan Mathematical

Society in He has published patents, papers and books in the field of Information Security. He has

participated in NIST SHA-3 competition and received 'AIP Anchor Award'.

Jannie Zaaiman (B Comm, B Proc, HBA, MBA, PhD) is Deputy Vice Chancellor: Operations at the

University of Venda, and is the former Executive Dean, Faculty of Information and Communication

Technology at the Tshwane University of Technology (TUT). Before joining TUT, Jannie was Group

Company Secretary of Sasol, Managing Executive: Outsourcing and Divestitures at Telkom and Group

Manager at Development Bank of Southern Africa.

Tanya Zlateva completed her doctorate at the Dresden University of Technology, Germany, and

postdoctoral training at the Harvard-MIT Division for Health Sciences and Technology. Her research interests

include application level security, biometrics, and new educational technologies. She currently serves as

director of Boston University's Center for Reliable Information Systems and Cyber Security.

vii


Conference Executive:

Michael Grimaila, Center for Cyberspace Research, WPAFB, Ohio, USA

Dorothy Denning, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, USA

Doug Webster, MITRE Corporation - United States Strategic Command's Global Innovation & Strategy

Center

Kevin Streff, Dakota State University, USA

Andy Jones, Security Research Centre, British Telecom, UK and Khalifa University, UAE

William Mahoney University of Nebraska Omaha, Omaha, USA

Dan Kuehl, National Defense University, Washington DC, UK,

Corey Schou, Idaho State University, USA

Committee Members:

The conference programme committee consists of key people in the information systems, information

warfare and information security communities around the world. The following people have confirmed their

participation:

Jim Alves-Voss (University of Idaho, USA); Todd Andel (Air Force Insitute of Technology, USA); Leigh

Armistead (Edith Cowan University, Australia); Johnnes Arreymbi (University of East London, UK); Rusty

Baldwin (Air Force Insitute of Technology, USA); Richard Baskerville (Georgia State University, USA); Allan

Berg (Critical Infrastructure and Cyber Protection Center, Capitol College, USA); Sviatoslav Braynov

(University of Illinois, USA); Blaine Burnham (University of Nebraska, Omaha, USA); Catharina Candolin

(Finnish Defence Forces, Helsinki, Finland); Rodney Clare (EDS and the Open University, UK); Nathan

Clarke (University of Plymouth, UK); Geoffrey Darnton, (University of Bournemouth, UK); Dipankar Dasgupta

(Intelligent Security Systems, USA); Dorothy Denning (Navel Postgraduate School, USA); Glenn Dietrich

(University of Texas, USA); David Fahrenkrug (US Air Force, USA); Kevin Gleason (KMG Consulting, MA,

USA); Sanjay Goel (University at Albany, USA); Michael Grimaila (Air force Institute of Technology, Ohio,

USA); Daniel Grosu (Wayne State University, USA); Drew Hamilton (Auburn University, USA); Dwight

Haworth (University of Nebraska at Omaha, USA); Philip Hippensteel (Penn State University, USA); Jeffrey

Humphries (Air Force Institute of Technology, USA); Bill Hutchinson (Edith Cowan University, Australia);

Berg P Hyacinthe (Assas School of Law, Universite Paris, France); Andy Jones (British Telecom, UK);

James Joshi (University of Pittsburgh, USA); Leonard Kabeya Mukeba (Kigali Institute of Science and

Technology, Rwanda); Prashant Krishnamurthy (University of Pittsburgh, USA); Dan Kuehl (National

Defense Forces, USA); Stuart Kurkowski (Airforce Institute of Technology, USA); Takakazu Kurokawa

(National Defense Acadamy, Japan); Rauno Kuusisto (National Defence College, Finland); Tuija Kuusisto

(Internal Security ICT Agency, Finland); Arun Lakhotia (University of Louisiana Lafayette, USA); Sam Liles

(Purdue University Calumet, USA): Cherie Long (Clayton State University, Decatur, USA); Brian Lopez

(Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory); Juan Lopez (Air Force Institute of Technology, USA); Bin Lu

(West Chester University, USA); Bill Mahoney (University of Nebraska, USA); John McCarthy

(Buckinghamshire and Chiltern University College, UK); J Todd McDonald (Airforce Institute of Technology,

USA); Robert Mills (Air Force Institute of Technology, Ohio, USA); Don Milne (Buckinghamshire and Chiltern

University College, UK); Srinivas Mukkamala (New Mexico Tech, Socorro, USA); Barry Mullins (Air Force

Institute of Technology, USA); Andrea Perego (Università degli Studi dell’Insubria, Italy); Gilbert Patterson

(Air Force Institute of Technology, USA): Richard Raines (Airforce Institute of Technology, USA); Ken Revett

(University of Westminster, UK); Neil Rowe (US Naval Postgraduate School, USA); Julie Ryan (George

Washington University, USA); Corey Schou (Idaho State University, USA); Dan Shoemaker (Univesity of

Detroit Mercy, USA); William Sousan (University of Nebraska, Omaha, USA); Kevin Streff (Dakota State

University, USA); Dennis Strouble (Air Force Institute of Technology, USA); Eric Trias (Air Force Institute of

Technology, USA); Doug Twitchell (Illinois State University, USA); Renier van Heerden (CSIR, Pretoria,

South Africa); Stylianos Vidalis (Newport Business School, UK); Fahad Waseem (Unviersity of Northumbria,

UK); Kenneth Webb, Edith Cowan University, Australia); Douglas Webster (USSTRATCOM Global

Innovation & Strategy Center, USA); Zehai Zhou (Dakota State University, USA).

viii


Using the Longest Common Substring on Dynamic Traces

of Malware to Automatically Identify Common Behaviors

Jaime Acosta

Army Research Laboratory, White Sands, NM, USA

[email protected]

Abstract: A large amount of research is focused on identifying malware. Once identified, the behavior of the

malware must be analyzed to determine its effects on a system. This can be done by tracing through a malware

binary using a disassembler or logging its dynamic behavior using a sandbox (virtual machines that execute a

binary and log all dynamic events such as network, registry, and file manipulations). However, even with these

tools, analyzing malware behavior is very time consuming for an analyst. In order to alleviate this, recent work

has identified methods to categorize malware into “clusters” or types based on common dynamic behavior. This

allows a human analyst to look at only a fraction of malware instances–those most dissimilar. Still missing are

techniques that identify similar behaviors among malware of different types. Also missing is a way to

automatically identify differences among same-type malware instances to determine whether the differences are

benign or are the key malicious behavior. The research presented here shows that a wide collection of malware

instances have common dynamic behavior regardless of their type. This is a first step toward enabling an analyst

to more efficiently identify malware instances’ effects on systems by reducing the need for redundant analysis

and allowing filtration of common benign behavior. This research uses the publicly available Reference Data Set

that was collected over a period of three years. Malware instances were identified and assigned a type by six

anti-malware scanners. The dataset consists of dynamic trace events of malware instances generated by

CWSandbox. For this research, the dataset is separated into two sets: small and large. The small set contains

instances of malware that are less than KB in size. The large set contains instances of malware

that are between KB and MB in size. In order to measure the common behavior between the small and

large sets, common sequential event sequences within each malware instance in the small set are identified

using a modified version of the longest common substring algorithm. Once identified, all appearances of these

common event sequences are removed from the large set to determine shared behavior. Most common

sequences are between length 2 and 60 events. Results indicate that when using length 2 event sequences and

higher, on average, the large set instances share 96% of event sequences, with length 6 and higher event

sequences–66%, and with length 12 and higher event sequences–50%. This indicates that an analyst’s workload

can be largely reduced by removing common behavior sequences. Furthermore, it shows that malware instances

may not always fall into exclusive categories. It may be more beneficial to instead identify behaviors and map

them to malware instances, for example, as with the Malware Attribute Enumeration and Characterization

(MAEC). Future efforts may look into attaching semantic labels on long sequences that are common to many

malware instances in order to aid the analyst further.

Keywords: malware, similarity, dynamic, analysis, substring

1. Introduction

As the number of malware instances grows each year, there is a need for automated methods that

can efficiently identify, classify, and reduce the amount of data that an analyst has to review pertaining

to malware. This paper focuses on identifying similarities among known malware instances in order to

reduce an analyst’s workload.

Automatic malware detection has been researched extensively in the past (Vinod et al., ). When

malware is identified, it is assigned a type or name. The malware binary behavior is analyzed in detail

in order to provide alerts, recover data, and assess damage among others. Recently, there have been

two main approaches to accomplish this: static and dynamic analysis. In static analysis, the malware

binary is reverse engineered using a disassembler. This method can be very time consuming,

especially due to obfuscation techniques such as polymorphism (Kasina et al., ), metamorphism

(Lee et al., ), memory packing (Han et al., ), and virtualization (Sharif et al., ). Dynamic

analysis, on the other hand involves running the malware binary in a controlled environment known as

a sandbox, e.g., Norman (Norman Solutions, ), Anubis (Bayer et al., ), CWSandbox

(Willems et al., ), where every event during the malware’s execution is logged to an event trace.

State-of-the-art sandboxes have the ability to fast-forward time to elicit delayed malware execution

and can even simulate user interaction. Current techniques, e.g., (Rieck et al., ), use clustering

methods in order to group similar malware based on their events during runtime, but still require

manual analysis to identify specific similarities and differences.

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Jaime Acosta

The research presented here uses a dataset that consists of sandbox event traces of malware

instances. Manual observation of the dataset revealed many behavior patterns that were shared

across many instances such as file replacements (which involve a series of system calls), that at first

glance seem complex and overwhelming, but were made simple by replacing these common

behaviors with short annotations. This paper is a step in automating this process.

The following are the contributions resulting from the work described in this paper.

This research provides a methodology shows how the longest common substring algorithm can

be modified to conduct similarity analysis on malware using dynamic event traces. This similarity

may be due to code reuse, which arises from legitimate third-party libraries and also by reusing

infected or malicious code.

Use of this algorithm shows that in this dataset of malware, even though the instances are of

different types (assigned by anti-virus programs), there are a large number of common behaviors.

This means that it is the case that malware authors reuse code, and that an analyst could use this

to eliminate duplicate processing.

This research shows that the common behaviors identified are not limited to short trivial event

sequences; there are many large sequences. This indicates that it may be possible to replace

semantically rich events with natural language annotations to facilitate analysis.

2. Related work

Because of the large growth of malware instances being introduced each year, there has been a large

amount of work to aid in each stage of the malware analysis workflow.

The first step in analysis is data collection. Tools that aid in this collection include Nepenthes

(Baecher et al., ), Amun (Göbel, ), and HoneyPots (Provos, ). After collection, the

malware instances are analyzed using static (source code) or dynamic (event traces) techniques. In

the past decade there have been a wide variety of techniques used for static and dynamic analysis of

legitimate source code, with the goal of exploiting program semantics in an efficient way (Cornelissen,

). Related to malware, there have been many techniques that exploit characteristics unique to

malware, including malicious behavior, small program size, and code reuse among instances.

In both static and dynamic analysis techniques, one method that has had recent attention is using

machine learning to cluster similar malware instances. Clustering methods are useful because they

generalize large sets of malware into categories with limited need for manual human intervention.

Jang and Brumley () perform static analysis by identifying areas of code reuse by clustering

malware binaries. His clustering method uses bloom filters, which identify similarity of malware

instances by applying hashing techniques to fixed size chunks of the malware executable code.

On the other hand, Bayer et al. () use machine learning algorithms to identify similarities in

malware instances by comparing their dynamic event traces, which include system calls, their

dependencies, and network behavior. Next, the malware instances are clustered based on their

dynamic behavior. A limitation of this approach is that the algorithm is trained with a fixed set of

malware. It does not allow retraining with additional malware samples during the clustering phase.

Rieck extends this with his Malheur (Rieck et al., ) system by establishing an iterative

mechanism that consists of clustering and then classifying new instances into existing clusters. In his

work, similarity is determined by the presence of shared fixed-length instruction sequences. In

addition, Rieck also uses a dynamic trace representation format called MIST (Trinius et al., ) that

allows prioritization of event parameters (e.g., an openfile system call may have the file name, file

type, and the file path as parameters). This is meant to allow more efficient processing for machine

learning algorithms by reducing the input file size by leaving out less-critical parameters. MIST also

provides a common file format to which many of the available sandbox output can be converted.

After the instances are clustered, an analyst may have to conduct deeper investigation, such as exact

differences and similarities in the binaries. It may be the case that malware in different clusters share

common behaviors. This results in redundant analysis by a human analyst. Another issue is that

instances in a cluster are not exactly the same. There may be malicious behavior that is unique to one

instance within a cluster. One way to alleviate these issues is to, instead of determining similarity by

using fixed size sequences as in previous work, develop techniques that are not tied to sequence

length and automatically detect varied sized semantically-representative sequences.

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Jaime Acosta

Some techniques that use semantic structure for finding similarity are in code-clone detection

research. These techniques have been used to identify redundancy to reduce program size or to

identify plagiarism in legitimate software (Roy and Cody, ). The problem with using these

techniques for identifying similarity and differences in malware is that the source code of malware is

not available. Some attempts have been made to analyze the sequences of instructions of

disassembled binaries to determine whether they are malicious. One method compared the

disassembled code against behavior templates that are known to exist in malware. These templates

are able to capture malicious behavior, even if the malware has small variation (Christodorescu et al.,

). Another method (Ye et al., ) uses the Intelligent Malware Detection System (IMDS), to

identify malware instances by checking if certain sequences of Application Programming Interface

(API) calls exist in a binary Portable Exchange (PE) file. A limitation of both of these examples is that

they assume the binary file is not packed and is not virtualized.

In this paper the longest common substring algorithm is modified and used to identify common event

sequences of varying size among a set of malware. Also, the algorithm works on the dynamic traces

of malware, which are evident even if the malware is packed or virtualized.

3. Dataset

Sandbox environment

The dataset used for this research was obtained from the Malheur website (sprers.eu)

and was collected over a period of three years. In particular, the Reference

dataset is used, which consists of the dynamic trace events of malware instances that are

grouped into 24 types, as assigned by six anti-virus scanners. The dynamic traces of the malware

instances were generated by CWSandbox. The event traces range in size from B to MB. The

traces are encoded in the Malheur instruction set (MIST) format and are in sequential order.

Furthermore, the traces are separated by thread behaviors of the executable.

MIST

The dynamic trace of the malware instances in the dataset are logs of the events that occurred as the

result of the execution of the malware binary. The logs contain details about each event that may be

of different levels of interest to an analyst, or to analysis software. MIST encodes events in a format

that will prioritize log details, e.g., filenames, sleep delay times and memory addresses associated

with each event trace. In total there are system calls that fall into 13 more general categories

(e.g., winsock_op, file_open system calls are both in the winsock category). An extensive description

and examples of MIST are presented in (Trinius et al., ).

4. The common substrings algorithm

The algorithm developed to identify shared behaviors in malware instance event traces is a modified

version of the well-known longest common substring algorithm (Cormen et al., ). The main

difference is that in the modified version, all common substrings of a minimum length are identified,

instead of only the longest.

There are two main procedures that are executed to find the amount of shared behavior in the

malware instances. Figure 1 is the reduction procedure that calculates the amount of common

behavior in the event traces. In line 2, all common substrings are stored in the commonSubstrings

variable. In order to efficiently process the files, this step was first run on instances that were labeled

in the same malware class, i.e., all event traces within the ALLAPLE malware instances (as assigned

by anti-virus software) were compared first, then all EJIK traces, etc.

In lines , the commonSubstrings are sorted in descending order and output to a file. This allows

the commonsSubstrings to be used to find commonality with other datasets. In lines , the

occurrences of all strings in commonSubstrings of at least size min are identified in the largeFileSet.

They are then counted and removed. Removing the occurrences in the largeFileSet allows calculating

the amount of common behavior that exists in these malware instances (line 10).

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Figure 1: The reduction procedure

Jaime Acosta

The CommonSubstring procedure (Figure 2) starts by reading the event traces from two input files

(lines ). In the case that the next event sequences match in the two files, a temporary string,

currSubstring, keeps track of the matching sequences (lines ). When the event sequence is

dissimilar in the two files, the current common substring, currSubstring, is stored if it is unique ()

and finally cleared (11). For this research, a hash table was used to ensure that only unique instances

are stored. Lastly, all common substrings found are returned to the calling procedure in line

Figure 2: The CommonSubstring procedure

In practice, because the malware instances share a high amount of common behaviors, the storage

space required to save the unique common substrings is small (less than 50 MB using substrings

greater than or equal to 2).

5. Experimental setup

In order to determine whether common behavior exists in the malware instances, the Reference

dataset was separated into two sets: small and large. The small set contained instances of

malware that are less than KB in size. The large set contained instances of malware that

were between KB and 4 MB in size. For this research, only the malware size, not the type as

4


Jaime Acosta

assigned by an anti-virus scanner, were used when separating the dataset. For the most part, the

malware types for small and large sets are different. Table 1 shows more details on the dataset and

how it was partitioned.

Table 1: Details on small and large sets

Small Set Large Set

Total # event trace files 2, 1,

Total # events 1,, 17,,

Total size of event trace files 44 MB MB

The smaller dataset was used for capturing the set of common substrings in the hopes that large

complex malware instances may be broken down into behaviors that exist in small malware. For

example, it may be the case that part of a malware instance exhibits the behavior of a trojan to collect

data and may also self-replicate like a worm virus.

The level of detail needed when finding common behavior among malware instances was based on

Rieck et al.’s () work. In their experiment, they found that the best configuration for clustering

malware instances was realized when using MIST level 1. This means that only the event names, not

any other details such as parameters, from the traces were used when searching for common

behaviors. Although his method compared fixed size event q-grams, the methods in this experiment

are similar; therefore MIST level 1 was used.

The Reduction algorithm presented in Figure 1 was first run on the small set. In order to more

efficiently process the data, the input was split into four equal size chunks and was processed

concurrently on four computers. After the common substrings from the small set were captured, the

next step was to determine the common behavior that occurs in the large file set.

6. Results

The results show that there is much common behavior among the malware instances. From an

analyst’s point of view, the preferred case is that longer substrings are prevalent among the malware

because these longer substrings most likely capture more semantically rich behavior blocks. If the

substrings are all too short, the effect would be less interesting because it would take almost the same

amount of effort to analyze event traces.

In order to help investigate what is actually happening in the data, the experiment was run several

times using different allowable minimum lengths to identify common substrings. For example, if the

allowed minimum length is six event sequences, all common substrings less than size six are ignored

and are not removed from the large set. Therefore, the reduction percentage, in this example, would

only be based on substrings size six and greater. Figure 3 shows the results for minimum lengths

ranging from 2 to

The graph shows that when only considering substrings of length at least 12, half of the large dataset

can be accounted for using the common substrings in the small set. This indicates that by starting on

small traces, an analyst can break down a large complex trace by removing common behaviors.

When using a minimum length of 24, it seems the restriction is too great; only 30% is accounted for in

the large set, but this also signifies that the dataset represents a reasonable distribution of dissimilar

malware. If the malware all showed high level of similar behavior with many long sequences, it may

be the case that the collected malware is not a good representation of different types of malware. For

example, when looking at some of the longest common substrings found within the small set, it was

sometimes the case that two malware differed only by a few events. Further investigation revealed

that these two malware instances were of the same type and only differed probably to confuse a

hash-based virus scanner.

When using a minimum size of two, 96% of the large dataset is accounted for, but this is not practical

because most of the shared sequences are short. This is evident because the percentage of shared

behavior drops as the sequence minimum increases.

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Jaime Acosta

Figure 3: Average percentage of the large set that is accounted for by common substrings of the

small set

7. Conclusions and future work

This paper has provided a technique that can be used for similarity analysis on malware, based on

dynamic behavior that was captured using CWSandbox. The results show that the similarities are not

restricted to small sequences; many large sequences are shared among the malware instances,

which mean that there are in fact many shared behaviors present that could be identified and possibly

labeled using natural language to reduce an analyst’s workload, matching the intentions of Kirillov et

al. ().

Future work will test the methods described in this paper with a larger dataset. In addition, instead of

limiting the process to sequential instructions, it may be useful to instead identify templates of

behavior, as Christodorescu et al. () did for static malware analysis. For example, there may be a

trace that contains a sequence of five wait events and another with ten. Semantically, these are

almost equivalent, but the common substring algorithm presented here does not capture this; a

template method could. Tailoring to malware some techniques used in identifying code clones, such

as in (Roy and Cody, ) may also prove useful.

The work described here is an initial step for a tool that can be used to semantically label portions of

files to allow for more efficient identification of both redundancy (use of legitimate 3 rd party libraries)

and overlap (reuse of malware code) in malware instances.

Acknowledgments

I would like to thank Victor Mena, Ken Fabela, and Michael Shaughnessy for their valuable comments

and suggestions that led to the maturation of this work. Also, I would like to thank Konrad Rieck and

colleagues for the dataset and feedback.

References

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approach to collect malware”, Recent Advances in Intrusion Detection, No. , pp –

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Christodorescu, M., Jha, S., Seshia, S. A., Song, D. and Bryant, R.E. () “Semantics-Aware Malware

Detection”, IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, pp 32–

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Jaime Acosta

Cormen, T.H., Leiserson, C.E., Rivest, R.L., Stein, C. () Introduction to Algorithms, The MIT press.

Cornelissen, B. () “Evaluating Dynamic Analysis Techniques for Program Comprehension”, Delft University

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Conference on Computer Science and its Applications (CSA), pp 1–7.

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pp 28–

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on Applied Computing, pp –

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Rieck, K., Trinius, P., Willems, C. and Holz, T. “Automatic Analysis of Malware Behavior using Machine

Learning”, Journal of Computer Security (JCS), to appear

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TR, Vol. , pg

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Symposium on Security and Privacy, pp 94–

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Sicherheit , pp –

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Security and Privacy, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp 32–

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7


Modeling and Justification of the Store and Forward

Protocol: Covert Channel Analysis

Hind Al Falasi and Liren Zhang

United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates

[email protected]

[email protected]

Abstract: In an environment where two networks with different security levels are allowed to communicate, a

covert channel is created. The paper aims at calculating the probability of establishing a covert channel between

the high security network and the low security network using Markov Chain Model. The communication between

the networks follows the Bell-LaPadula (BLP) security model. The BLP model is a “No read up, No write down”

model where up indicates an entity with a high security level and down indicates an entity with a low security

level. In networking, the only way to enforce the BLP model is to divide a network into separate entities, networks

with a low security level, and others with a high security level. This paper discusses our analysis of the Store and

Forward Protocol that enforces the BLP security model. The Store and Forward Protocol (SAFP) is a gateway

that forwards all data from a low security network to a high security network, and it sends acknowledgments to

the low security network as if they were sent from the high security network; thereby achieving reliability of the

communication in this secure environment. A timing covert channel can be established between the two networks

by using the times of the acknowledgments to signal a message from the high security network to the low

security network. A high security network may send acknowledgments immediately or with some delay where the

time of the acknowledgments arrival is used to convey the message. The covert channel probability is found to be

equal to the blocking probability of the SAFP buffer when analyzing the problem using Markov Chain Model.

Increasing the size of the buffer at the SAFP decreases the covert channel probability. Carefully determining the

size of the buffer of the SAFP ensures minimizing the covert channel probability.

Keywords: covert channel, access model, Markov Chain Model, store and forward protocol

1. Introduction

Covert channels may be introduced to secure networks both intentionally and unintentionally.

Consider a computer system were two networks with different security levels are communicating; the

existence of covert channels can compromise the efforts exerted to prevent access to higher security

level information by a lower security level network. Security procedures should be established to

prevent the lower network from reading the higher network files, and ensure that the higher network

cannot write to the lower network files. We are referring to a multilevel secure setting where different

networks have different security levels. The notion of having rules that state “No read up", and "No

write down” is in accordance with the BLP security model (Bell and LaPadula ). The model's

security procedures make it mandatory for information to flow from the low security network to the

high security network only.

In this paper we are interested in one type of covert channel, a timing channel. In timing channels,

information is transmitted by the timings of events (Wray ). This channel is established whenever

the higher network is able to hold up the SAFP (Kang and Moskowitz ) response time to signal

an input to the lower network. An acknowledgement sent by the SAFP to the lower network without

delay means no message; however, if the acknowledgment is sent with delay, the value of the delay

is translated by the lower network as an alphabet. Therefore, a communication channel is established

between the two networks with the output constructed from the different delay time values. The

medium in which the covert channel exists is the network environment in our channel i.e. network

covert channel (Cabuk et al., ). The channel manages to control the timing of legitimate network

traffic to allow the leaking of confidential data. The purpose of the covert channel analysis is to

calculate the best size buffer for the SAFP to minimize the probability of the covert channel

establishment.

2. Background and motivation

Information flow between two networks with different security levels should not only be governed by

the rules of the BLP security model. An integral part of implementing the BLP security model is

ensuring that any weaknesses of the system implementing the model do not defeat the purpose

behind it. Being able to identify the circumstances that lead to establishing a covert channel between

the two communicating networks is the first step towards eliminating the covert channel. The

importance of identifying the existence of covert channels stems from the fact that they are used to

8


Hind Al Falasi and Liren Zhang

transfer information secretly, where the ultimate goal of covert channels is to conceal the very

existence of the communication (Zander et al., ).

The capacity of the covert channel was analyzed as a function of buffer size and moving average size

by Kang and Moskowitz (Kang and Moskowitz, ; ). The analysis was performed on a Pump

that used randomized acknowledgments which are also used to control the input rate of a source. In

addition, several protocols were reviewed and implemented (Kang and Moskowitz, ), and the

proposed protocols in their work were designed to reduce the bandwidth of covert channels.

3. Store and Forward Protocol (SAFP)

The Store and Forward protocol is a simple protocol used for reliable communication between two

networks. The protocol effectiveness is limited in minimizing the existence of covert channels.

However, we use it in this paper as a benchmark to calculate the probability of a timing covert channel

as the advantage of the protocol is in its simplicity to analyze.

The idea behind this protocol is simple: There are two networks communicating, one network has a

low security level, and the other has a high security level. There is a gateway between the two

networks. The gateway does the following job: it receives a packet from the low security network,

stores it in a buffer, and then sends an acknowledgment to the low security network indicating the

successful receipt of that packet. The gateway then forwards the packet to the high security network

and waits for an acknowledgment of receipt. If no such acknowledgment is received, the gateway

retransmits the packet to the high security network. Only after the receipt of the acknowledgment

does the gateway delete that packet from its buffer.

All traffic from the high security network is ignored except for the acknowledgments. This notion is in

accordance with the BLP security model which is a “No read up, No write down” model where up

indicates an entity with high security level and down indicates an entity with low security level. The

gateway forwards all data from the low security network to the high security network, and it does not

forward acknowledgments from the high security network to the low security network; however, it

achieves reliability of the communication by sending acknowledgments to the low security network

(Figure 1).

Figure 1: Store and Forward Protocol (SAFP)

The covert channel

The problem with the store and forward protocol is that it permits covert channels to exist between the

high security network and the low security network through the acknowledgments. A timing covert

channel can be established between the two networks by using the time values of the

acknowledgments to signal a message from the high security network to the low security network. A

high security network may send acknowledgments immediately or with some delay where the value of

the delay is used to convey the message.

TCP sliding window effect

The SAFP notifies the low security network of the number of bytes it is willing to receive, which then

becomes the low security network send window. On the other side, the high security network notifies

the SAFP of the number of bytes it is willing to receive, which then becomes the SAFP send window.

At first glance, the use of TCP's sliding window appears to reduce the probability of the covert channel

by minimizing the number of acknowledgments. The low security network can send several packets

without waiting for acknowledgments. Similarly, the high security network can acknowledge several

9


Hind Al Falasi and Liren Zhang

packets at once. Therefore, for every sequence of packets sent, only one piece of useful information

is sent via one acknowledgment. However, the high security network can set the size of the sliding

window to one which requires that every packet is acknowledged before the next one is sent, sending

us back to square one.

4. The covert channel analysis

Notations

The following acronyms are used in the paper: LSN stands for Low Security Network, and HSN

stands for High Security Network.

Table 1: The table contains the notations we will use throughout the paper, and in the illustration

figures

Assumptions

LSN SAFP: λ 1

SAFP LSN:µ1

LSN SAFP = T1

LSN SAFP = α1

RL: Ack rate from SAFP LSN

Arrival Rate = λ

Service Rate = µ

Packet Size = Ri

Queuing Delay = q

Transmission delay = Tx

Propagation Delay:

Acknowledgement Rate (Ack/sec):

SAFP HSN: λ 2

HSN SAFP: µ2

SAFP HSN = T2

SAFP HSN = α2

RH: Ack rate from HSN SAFP

T1 and T2 of the acknowledgment packets are ignored because the packet size is small. In addition,

the processing (service) time at SAFP is negligible.

Discussion

In this section, we investigate the time it takes one packet to travel from the low security network to

the high security network. In addition, we investigate the time it takes an acknowledgement of the

packet to reach the SAFP; as well as the time an acknowledgment from the SAFP to low security

network takes to reach its destination. Calculating the time from the SAFP point of view; the i th packet

is received at α1 + T1. Moreover, the i th packet is deleted from the buffer at α1 + T1 + 2α2 + T2 + 1/ µ2,

where α1 represents the propagation delay of the packets sent between the low security network and

the SAFP. Similarly, α2 represents the propagation delay of the packets sent between the SAFP and

the high security network. T1 and T2 represent the transmission delay from the low security network to

the SAFP, and the SAFP and the high security network, respectively. Finally, 1/ µ2 is the service time

at the high security network.

When we take the distance between the SAFP gateway and the high security network into

consideration, the time a packet stays in the SAFP buffer changes. For example, if the distance is

very large, then we can ignore T2 and 1/ µ2. Therefore, the i th packet is deleted from the buffer at α1 +

T1 + 2α2. As a result, the ability of the high security network to control the acknowledgment rates;

10


Hind Al Falasi and Liren Zhang

therefore, creating a covert channel diminishes. The service time at the high security network is the

only factor under the control of the high security network. The other elements are controlled by the

physical environment of the network. On the other hand, if the distance between them is small, we

estimate that the i th packet is deleted from the buffer at α1 + T1 + T2 + 1/ µ2.

Another element to consider is the high security network service time, which affects the SAFP

queuing time. We are considering this element because it leads to the establishment of a timing

covert channel between the high security network and the low security network. A slow service time

eventually leads to a full buffer at the SAFP. In other words, packets from the low security network are

lost; therefore, no acknowledgments are sent from the SAFP to the low security network. From there,

the high security network can control the SAFP buffer; subsequently, it can control the rate of the

acknowledgments from the SAFP to the low security network. Therefore, it can use the delays to

signal messages to the low security network. The SAFP buffer is modeled using the M/M/1/K model

as it has a finite capacity where the maximum number of packets in the buffer is K. A packet enters

the queue if it finds fewer than K packets in the buffer and is lost otherwise. The probability of a full

buffer = blocking probability = probability of a covert channel. An illustration of the above scenario is

presented in Figure 2.

Figure 2: Communication representation between low security network, SAFP and high security

network

5. Analysis of the system using Markov chain model

Using the state transition diagram (see Figure 3), we found the blocking probability of the SAFP buffer

(PK):

Solving the equations in terms of P0:

p

p

p

(

1

2

k

1

2

p

1

0

p

K

1

2

1

2

1

2

2

p

0

2

k

2

) p

1

p

p

k

p

1

p

0

0

K 1

1

p

k 1

k

k

P

K

0

1

2

p

1

2

k 1

K

p

0

k

1

k

0

k

K

K

1

11

(1)

(2)

(3)


Solving for PK:

K

Pk

p0

K

1

k 0 k 0 2

p

k

1

2

k

p

0

k

1

p

p

0

k

Hind Al Falasi and Liren Zhang

k

k

K

K

1

0 2

1

2

1

1

0 2

k

k

k

*Where PK = PB = Probability an arriving packet is turned away due to full buffer = Probability of a

covert channel.

Figure 3: Markov chain model of the SAFP queue

6. Results

Figure 4 provides an overview of the relationship between the blocking probability and the size of the

SAFP buffer. We are assuming the simplest possible scenario, where the arrival rate is twice as fast

as the service rate. Starting with a buffer with size 0, the blocking probability is 1.

Figure 4: Pk vs. K

This is understandable, as at this point the SAFP is turning away every packet, due to lack of storage

place. When the size of the buffer is 2, we calculate a probability of a covert channel which is more

than 50%. While the probability slightly decreases as we increase the size of the buffer, we find that

12

(4)

(5)


Hind Al Falasi and Liren Zhang

the value stabilizes at where the change in the blocking probability value is negligible. When the

buffer size exceeds 10, one packet will be serviced and one will be blocked no matter what. As long

as the arrival rate is twice the service rate, whenever a packet from the buffer is accepted to be

serviced, room is made for one packet to enter the buffer. This explains the blocking probability.

The blocking probability decreases as the buffer size increases because fewer packets are turned

away, due to a full buffer. When a packet enters the SAFP queue, an acknowledgment of receipt is

sent from the SAFP to the low security network, which means there is no delay that can interpreted as

a message from the high security network. If we desire a blocking probability of , then we need a

buffer capable of holding at least 10 packets.

7. Conclusion

We examined the SAFP protocol, which is used to provide reliability of communication between two

networks with different security levels. We argued that a timing covert channel can exist between the

two networks, given the possibility that malicious users are able to control the acknowledgments

arrival time. We analyzed the timing of the packets flowing between the two networks and the SAFP,

and the probability of the covert channel between the low security and high security network. The

purpose of our covert channel analysis was to calculate the best size buffer for the SAFP to keep the

probability of the covert channel to minimum which we found dependent on the arrival rate of LSN

packets and the service rate at the HSN. We have created a mathematical model to calculate the

covert channel probability and define the factors that affect the probability with increase or decrease.

One of our future plans includes building a mathematical model for a Data Pump (Kang and

Moskowitz, ; ).

References

Bell, D. and LaPadula, L. () Secure Computer Systems: Mathematical Foundation. ESD-TR , Vol.1,

Mitre Corp.

Bolch, G., Greiner, S., DeMeer, H. and Trivedi, K.S. () Queueing Networks and Markov Chains: Modeling

and Performance Evaluation with Computer Science Applications. Second Edition, Wiley Interscience,

Hoboken, NJ.

Cabuk, S., Brodley, C., and Shields, C. IP Covert Channel Detection. ACM Transactions on Information

System Security, Volume 12, Issue 4 (Apr. ), pp.

Kang, M. and Moskowitz, I. () A Data Pump for Communication. NRL Memo Report

Kang M. and Moskowitz, I. () A Pump for Rapid, Reliable, Secure Communication. Proceedings ACM Conf.

Computer and Comm. Security '93, Fairfax, VA, pp

Ogurtsov, N., Orman, H., Schroeppel, R., O’Malley, S., and Spatscheck, O. () Covert Channel Elimination

Protocols. Technical Reports TR Department of Computer Science, University of Arizona.

Wray, J. C. () An Analysis of Covert Timing Channels. Research in Security and Privacy. Pages

Zander S., Armitage, G. and Branch, P. () Covert Channels and Countermeasures in Computer Network

Protocols. Communications Magazine, IEEE. Vol Pages

13


The Evolution of Information Assurance (IA) and

Information Operations (IO) Contracts across the DoD:

Growth Opportunities for Academic Research – an Update

Edwin Leigh Armistead 1 and Thomas Murphy 2

1 Goldbelt Hawk LLC and Norwich University, USA

2 NorthLight Technologies, USA

[email protected]

[email protected]

[email protected]

Abstract: Four years ago, the authors presented a paper at the ICIW conference in Monterey, CA (Armistead &

Murphy, ) that outlined opportunities for academics and researchers with regard to IO (Information

Operations), IW (Information Warfare) and IA (Information Assurance) contracts across the Department of

Defense (DoD) and Federal government (USG). The original paper highlighted a differential in contracts available

and the current opportunities were at that time. Specifically, that paper predicted what the future may hold for

further growth in these areas and how growth of IO, IA and IW contract vehicles can benefit universities and

academics from a funding aspect. Finally, the original paper also suggested future areas of research that

academics may be interested in exploring, to best optimize their ability to secure grants and contracts over the

next few years. This paper is not only an update to the original research, to review the original hypothesis and

determine if the predictions from four years ago were correct, but it also mines new data sources to take a fresh

look at current contracts. In this research, the authors analyze the growing new opportunities in cyber warfare,

strategic communications, psychological operations and cyber security. The scope of IO / IA is also expanding

farther into areas of diplomacy, economics, and homeland security, while growing even more central to complex

unconventional and conventional warfare applications. In addition, organizational change is accompanying these

doctrinal and application area changes, which has led to a subsequent revision of the contract opportunities

available. Likewise, new revisions of policy and documentation are also expected to arrive in the foreseeable

future, which could lead to a deeper understanding and appreciation of cultural values and psychological roles

among the multiple political players. In this review, we explore what new and promising opportunities for

collaboration exist for academics, and we hope that this paper can alert researchers to alternate opportunities for

funding in the IO and IA arena that they may not have considered previously.

Keywords: information assurance, information operations, Department of Defense, contracts, proposals

1. Introduction

For many academics, funding is always a constant pursuit. With the current recession, grants and

other non-profit opportunities may have become more limited than in previous time periods. In this era

of fiscal constraint, this paper examines another method of obtaining funds for academics that should

be considered. Specifically, the authors are interested in the opportunities that lay within the realm of

DoD and Federal contracting, where academics can act as consultants to the companies that are

supporting these entities. In some cases, this can be quite a lucrative venture, and if offers other

avenues besides grants and academic scholarships, to offset the financial needs of the tenured

scholar. Therefore, this paper reviews the types of research areas that have experienced the most

growth, as well as areas that will experience future growth. We identify the DoD and Federal

contractors that have the best success in obtaining contracts in the IA and IO areas. We give

extensive details of the global and United States Government (USG) environment, which drive the

security business as well. The authors also discuss how the USG and interagency interactions

influence contracting policies and awards. Understanding all of the forgoing factors and strategies will

allow the academic researcher to formulate targeted business plans to employ in their search for

additional funding.

2. IA and IO business growth areas – players, relationships and influences

The Federal IA segment is characterized by agency management that is policy, doctrine and

reputation motivated.

Civilian agencies IT security directives are driven by the magnitude, not by the quantity of events.

Overriding political priorities mitigate new government-wide IT security legislation. Trade-offs of

efficiency and effectiveness with security-privacy differs with department.

14


Edwin Leigh Armistead and Thomas Murphy

Agency Corporate Information Security Officers struggle with choosing to simply use a

compliance scorecard or going farther to secure their enterprise. It is easier to say you are

compliant than to prove you are secure. Both are necessary to deliver cost effective solutions.

Department level initiatives drive security agendas. Each USG department has separate

initiatives, which in turn drive their emphasis or lack of emphasis on IA.

Trends in security focus following the path of Perimeter security, then Data security and most

recently Coding security. This end-to-end focus on secure design, development and

implementation is becoming common in all market segments.

Information Systems Security Lines of Business is not expected to cannibalize short term vendor

sales

Demand for Integrated Security Services is growing. Standalone (Point) security opportunities are

on the decline.

Federal agencies still separate IT and physical services. Merger of IT and physical security is

impeded by silos of excellence. Successful contract teams will be able to assist in integrating total

security services.

The Commercial IA segment of the security industry is characterized by an upper management that is

litigation and profit motivated. Major trends are similar to the Federal segment. Secondly, there is a

very rapid consolidation of best industry players. Cyber security firms are motivated to rapidly develop

and offer full suites of integrated and managed services to meet the demand for full services. Large IT

and network organizations can successfully merge with smaller IA firms if the ingenuity of the “pureplay”

or point (individual security component supplier) IA firm is not lost. This is a particularly

advantageous route to speed up the number and scope of offerings and to acquire experienced IA

and Information Security (InfoSec) personnel who are in short supply. It is reasonable to expect

similar motivation and actions in the Federal IA market for the same reasons. Thirdly, there are

external factors, including a continuing rise in cybercrime, which follows the earlier increase in

terrorism. Significant increases (greater than %) in cyber crimes occurred over the last two years.

Over million data records have been lost or stolen. The average cost of each data record loss is

about $/record giving a total estimate of $18 Billion lost over the period of two years, high

motivation to client and criminal alike. There is also a modest trend toward offering cyber and physical

security in packages of offerings.

Agencies and firms increasingly outsource more security activities each year. They determine that

they can achieve cost savings or a higher level of security at the same cost and tend to increase their

outsourcing budgets over time. The firms that do outsource all or part of their IT security activities will

see an increase in their level of security per dollar of investment. Surprisingly, although they don’t

realize it, agencies and firms that outsource Security Services are also likely to benefit from each

other’s decisions to outsource. IT security outsourcing has been shown to result in a reduction in the

firms production costs and a freeing up of other resources. (Outsourcing refers to the relationship

between a firm and another firm it pays to conduct security activities on its behalf). However, without

careful planning and due diligence, the clients return on investment in outsourcing IT security could be

reduced or become negative as a result of a variety of potential costs including both strategic risks

(e.g., principal-agent problems), interoperability issues and other transactions costs.

There are several emerging areas involving the “social” and risk management aspects of IA/IO.

Clearly, “social” is used here to mean relationships among groups of agents, individual or

organizations that involve proprietary information. At the firm level, there is a need to assure individual

firms that their partners, suppliers, or any organization they communicate with over the Internet are

trustworthy to a defined level acceptable to upper management. The economic benefit of securing all

members of the business group is significant. At the individual level there is growing demand to

secure interpersonal communications involving proprietary information (marketing, strategy and

planning, budgets or financial), email, data and image exchanges, instant messaging, etc. This is also

an area of vital national interest to DoD and other Federal agencies.

In addition, the global environment influencing customers as well as the Federal and Commercial IA

segments is characterized by significant stress. Negative pressure from the environment that Federal

and Commercial organizations must perform under has increased significantly since The United

States government (USG) and the global international community, nation states, state-sponsored

nongovernment organizations (NGOs), organizations, groups, and individuals have rapidly moved into

15


Edwin Leigh Armistead and Thomas Murphy

a new and more unstable situation. The Diplomatic, Intelligence, Military, Economic, Cultural/Social

and Environmental factors (includes medical, earthquake, fire, wind and flood, etc) [DIMES-E] are

considerably more powerful. That transition from a relatively steady state into an economically harsh

state is bad enough. A new, transient and poorly understood unsteady state makes prediction of

expected local and global situations uncertain and thus even more stressful. Together, the DIMES-E

factors above mean three things for the future:

Bad actors can be expected to act even worse and previously good actors may act badly

Predicting the actor’s actions and timing will be too complex and uncertain to analyze in

adequate, precise and satisfactory detail

Better analysis and planning for steadily moving to a more stable and less uncertain future is of

paramount importance.

Consistent with this global situation, a shift towards IA and Cyber security is evident in the contracts

data. Defending and assuring ones data, information and knowledge is the first basic step to

managing both the DIMES-E transitions and the bad actors that resulting social stress a rapid

transition brings out.

IO, IW and IA are sometimes also grouped as network and information components of “Cyber War”

(Carr, ). Like IO and IA, Cyber War is a term, which includes threats from:

Cyber Attacks,

Cyber Crime,

Cyber Espionage,

Informatized War,

Information War, and

Computer Network Operations

Defending against these threats can potentially save billions of dollars to the USG, business and

international organizations and thus serve to greatly reduce the stresses forcing the three dire

expectations above. The bad actors involved are State, State-sponsored, and Non-State actors who

use the Internet to attack and disrupt both military and civilian organizations. These actors: commit

acts of espionage against Department of Defense and DoD contractor networks. This accelerates

other nation states’ race to achieve parity or near-parity with superior U.S. military technology. They

commit acts of network intrusion into U.S. critical infrastructure, remaining dormant until needed to

delay or stop an imminent U.S. military action against an adversary state. They further commit

espionage against U.S. corporations stealing millions in intellectual property. They also disrupt

national economies and rob banks on an unprecedented scale.

3. Analysis of IO, IW, IA and cyber contracts

As part of this research, the authors conducted a series of searches on a commercial Federal and

DoD business database known as INPUT (INPUT, ,) sprers.eu This tool is useful in

that it stores all opportunities – past, present and future in archival form and one can search in both a

functional (using multiple keywords) manner as well as an organizational one (across the federal

government). In total, for this paper, searches for types of contracts were made using 13 key words. A

general search on all keywords and separate searches on each individual keyword were run.

Keywords included:

Information Operations (IO)

Information Warfare (IW)

Information Assurance (IA)

Perception Management

Strategic Communications

Psychological Operations (PSYOPS)

Public Diplomacy

Electronic Warfare (EW)

16


Deception

Operations Security (OPSEC)

Cyber Security

Cyber Operations

Cyber Warfare

Edwin Leigh Armistead and Thomas Murphy

In addition, five different contract status categories were reviewed to include the following:

Forecast Pre-RFP (Forecast Pre-Request for Proposal)

Pre-RFP

Post-RFP

Source Selection

Award (contract awarded)

The data was pulled twice at a month period – first in September and then again in

September , as shown in Tables 1 and 2. These numbers represent the contracts in the INPUT

database either in process (in one of the pre-award states) or already awarded as of the date given in

the table heading.

Table 1: Status of all contracts by contract category as of september

September Forecast Pre-RFP Post-RFP Source Selection Award Total

Information Operations 58 35 11 15

Information Warfare 15 16 3 7


Information Assurance 79 22 45

Perception Management

2 2

Strategic Communications 15 19 1 2 48 85

Psychological Operations 6 2 3 3

37 51

Public Diplomacy 2 1 12 15

Electronic Warfare 52 58 22 39

Deception 5 7 6 7 46 71

Operations Security 12 4 2 10

48 76

Cyber Security

10 13 1 1 43 68

Cyber Operations 2 2 5 9

Cyber Warfare 1 2 2 5

75

Table 2: Status of all contracts by contract type as of september

September Forecast Pre-RFP Post-RFP Source Selection Award Total

Information Operations 16 15 3 6 76

Information Warfare 4 5 1 5

41 56

Information Assurance 46 70 7 30

Perception Management

1 1

Strategic Communications 15 10 1 5 61 92

Psychological Operations 8 4 2 3

41 58

Public Diplomacy 3 13 16

Electronic Warfare 13 12 8 9

Deception 5 7 5 6 56 79

Operations Security 8 13 4 6

62 93

Cyber Security

11 15 3 4 53 86

Cyber Operations 1 1 11 13

Cyber Warfare 1 3 3 5 12

38 77

17


Edwin Leigh Armistead and Thomas Murphy

From the set of data, we sorted by company name and counted the number of contracts in the

award state (awarded) to each company. Table 3 shows that only 29 out of companies won more

than two awards, and only eight companies won more than 10 awards out of the data reviewed in this

research.

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:it contains the following Books
anatomy and Physiology :
Anatomia Color Atlas and Textbook of Human Anatomy Volume 3 ThiemeAnatomy of the Human Body - Henry GrayAtlas Of Human Skeletal Anatomy - Juraj ArtnerColor Atlas and Textbook of Human Anatomy ,Volume I Locomotor System - Werner Platzer, Werner Kahle, M. FrotscherColor Atlas and Textbook of Human Anatomy, Volume 2 Internal Organs - Werner Platzer, Werner Kahle, M. FrotscherColor Atlas Of Cytology, Histology, And Microscopic Anatomy - Wolfgang KuhnelColor Atlas of Physiology 5th Ed. - A. DespopoulosColor Atlas of Ultrasound Anatomy - Berthold, M.D. BlockHuman Anatomy 6th ed - Kent Van De GraaffHuman Physiology - The Mechanisms of Body Function 8th ed - VanderPocket Atlas of Human Anatomy Based on the International Nomenclature - Heinz Feneis, Wolfgang DauberPocket Atlas Of Radiographic Anatomy 2d ed - Torsten B. Moller, Emil ReifReview of Medical Physiology - 21 Edition - William F. GanongSchaum's Outline of Human Anatomy and Physiology - Kent M. Van De Graaff, R. Ward RheesUnderstanding Human Anatomy and Physiology - Sylvia S. Mader
Neuroanatomy :Atlas of Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology - Frank H. NetterColor Atlas of Neuroscience Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology - Ben Greenstein, Adam GreensteinHigh-Yield Neuroanatomy - James D. FixNeuroanatomy An Atlas of Structures, Sections, and Systems - Duane E. Haines
Anthropology :A Handbook Of Economic Anthropology - James G. CarrierBiological Anthropology An Evolutionary Perspective - Barbara J KingGenetic NatureCulture Anthropology and Science beyond the Two-Culture Divide - Alan Goodman
Behavioral science :International Encyclopedia Of The Social & Behavioral SciencesMethods of Behavior Analysis in Neuroscience - Jerry J. Buccafusco
Biochemistry :An Introduction to Computational Biochemistry - Jeremy J. RamsdenAnalytical Biochemistry 3rd ed - David Holme, Hazel PeckBasic Concepts in Biochemistry A Student's Survival Guide 2d ed - Hiram F. GilbertBiochemistry 3 ed - LippincottBiochemistry 5th ed - Jeremy M. Berg, John L. Tymoczko, Lubert StryerBiochemistry of Lipids, Lipoproteins and Membranes, 4th edition - .E. Vance, J.E. VanceBiochemistry of Signal Transduction and Regulation 3d ed - Gerhard KraussBiochemistry The Chemical Reactions Of Living Cells 2d Ed Vols 1&2 - David E. MetzlerBiochemistry The Molecular Basis of Life - Trudy McKee, James R McKeeColor Atlas Of Biochemistry 2d ed - Jan Koolman, Klaus-Heinrich RohmEncyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology - Biochemistry - 3rd EdFlavonoids - Andersen, MarkhamHarper's Illustrated Biochemistry - Robert K. Murray, Darryl K. Granner, Peter A. Mayes, Victor W. RodwellInorganic Biochemistry of Iron Metabolism From Molecular Mechanisms to Clinical Consequences, 2nd Edition - Robert R. CrichtonLehninger Principles of Biochemistry, Fourth Edition - David L. Nelson, Michael M. CoxMarks&#; Basic Medical Biochemistry A Clinical Approach, 2nd Edition - Colleen SmithModern Experimental Biochemistry 3d ed - Rodney F. BoyerToxicological Chemistry and Biochemistry, Third Edition - Stanley E. Manahan
Bioethics :Encyclopedia of Bioethics, 3rd edition - Stephen G. PostGenetics and human behaviour the ethical context - Nuffield CouncilIs Human Nature Obsolete Genetics, Bioengineering, and the Future of the Human Condition.(Book review) An article from Theological Studies - Andrew Lustig
Bioinformatics :An Introduction to Genetic Algorithms - Melanie MitchellArtificial Intelligence and Molecular Biology - Lawrence HunterBeginning Perl for Bioinformatics - James TisdallBioinformatics - From Genomes to Drugs - Thomas LangauerBioinformatics A Practical Guide to the Analysis of Genes and Proteins - Andreas D. Baxevanis , B. F. Francis OuelletteBioinformatics Computing - Bryan BergeronBioinformatics Methods and Protocols Methods in Molecular Biology - Stephen Misener , Stephen A., KrawetzBioinformatics Sequence and Genome Analysis - David W. MountBioinformatics The Machine Learning Approach, Second Edition - Pierre Baldi, Soren BrunakBlast - Ian Korf, Mark Yandell, Joseph BedellCalculating the Secrets of Life Applications of the Mathematical Sciences in Molecular Biology - Eric S. Lander, Michael S. WatermanComputational Cell Biology - Christopher Fall, Eric Marland, John Wagner, John TysonComputational Molecular Biology An Algorithmic Approach - Pavel A. PevznerComputational Molecular Biology An Introduction - Peter Clote, Rolf BackofenCurrent Topics in Computational Molecular Biology - Tao Jiang , Ying Xu , Michael Q. ZhangData Analysis and Visualization in Genomics and Proteomics - Francisco AzuajeData Mining Multimedia, Soft Computing, and Bioinformatics - Sushmita Mitra, Tinku AcharyaDeveloping Bioinformatics Computer Skills - Cynthia Gibas, Per JambeckGene Regulation and Metabolism Post-Genomic Computational Approaches - Julio Collado-VidesGenetic Programming On the Programming of Computers by Means of Natural Selection - John R. KozaIntroduction to Bioinformatics - Arthur M. LeskIntroduction to Computational molecular biology - Carlos Setubal, Joao MeidanisMastering Perl for Bioinformatics - James D. TisdallMicroarrays for an Integrative Genomics Computational Molecular Biology - Isaac S. Kohane, Alvin Kho, Atul J. ButtePractical Genetic Algorithms - Randy L. Haupt, Sue Ellen HauptSequence Analysis In A Nutshell - Darryl Leon, Scott Markel
Biological Psychiatry :Psychiatry as a Neuroscience - Mario MajTextbook of Biological Psychiatry - Jaak Panksepp
Biophysics :An Introduction To Environmental Biophysics - Gaylon S. Campbell, John M. NormanBiophysics - Vasantha Pattabhi, N. Gauthambiophysics 4th ed - oland GlazerComputational Biochemistry and Biophysics - Oren M. BeckerLectures in Theoretical Biophysics - K. Schulten , I. Kosztin
Biotechnology :Biological Nanostructures and Applications of Nanostructures in Biology Electrical, Mechanical, and Optical Properties - Michael StroscioBionanotechnology Lessons from Nature - David S. GoodsellBiotech Industry - A Global, Economic and Financing Overview - B Bergeron & P ChanBiotechnology and Communication The Meta-Technologies of Information - Sandra BramanBiotechnology for Waste and Wastewater Treatment - Nicholas P. CheremisinoffBiotechnology Unzipped Promises And Realities - Eric S. GraceCarbohydrate Biotechnology Protocols - Christopher BuckeCell and Tissue Culture Laboratory Procedures - Alan DoyleCereal Biotechnology - Peter C. Morris , James H. BryceEnvironmental Biotechnology Principles and Applications - Bruce E. Rittmann, Perry L. McCartyFrom Biotechnology to Genomes The Meaning of the Double Helix - Philippe GoujonFruit and Vegetable Biotechnology - Victoriano ValpuestaGlossary of Biotechnology Terms, Third Edition - Kimball NillHistory and Trends in Bioprocessing and Biotransformation - T. Scheper, N. N. Dutta, F. HammarHistory of Modern Biotechnology I - SpringerHistory Of Modern Biotechnology II - SpringerIndustrial Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - Heinrich KlefenzMarine Biotechnology in the 21st Century - NrcModern Advances in Chromatography - SpringerPhysics And Chemistry Basis Of Biotechnology - De Cuyper & BultePlant Biotechnology and Transgenic Plants - Kirsi-Marja Oksman-Caldentey , Wolfgang H. BarzSeparation Processes In The Food & Biotechnology Industries - GRANDISONSynthetic Polymers for Biotechnology and Medicine - Ruth FreitagThe Application of Biotechnology to Industrial Sustainability - Christian Aagaard HansenThe Biotechnology of Ethanol - M RoherUnderstanding Biotechnology - Aluizio Borem, Fabricio R. Santos, David E. Bowen
botany :Aquarium Plants Their Identification Cultivation and Ecology - Karel RatajCarnivorous plants of the world - James PietropaoloGreen Plants Their Origin and Diversity - Peter R. Bell, Alan R. HemsleyHandbook of Plant & Crop Physiology Revised & Expanded - Mohammad PessarakliIntroduction to Botany - James Schooley
Cell and Molecular Biology :Advanced Molecular Biology A Concise Reference - Richard M. TwymanBasic Cell Culture Protocols Methods in Molecular Biology - Cheryl D. Helgason, Cindy L. MillerCell Biology A Short Course 2d ed - Stephen R. Bolsover, Jeremy S. HyamsCell Cycle Control Mechanisms and Protocols Methods in Molecular Biology - Tim Humphrey, Gavin BrooksCellular Biology, A Short Course 2Ed - Stephen R. BolsoverChiral Separations Methods and Protocols - Gerald GubitzData Analysis in Molecular Biology and Evolution - Xuhua XiaDictionary Of Biochemistry And Molecular Biology 2d ed - J. STENESHDNA&#;Protein Interactions Principles and Protocols Second Edition - Tom MossEmbryonic Stem Cells, Methods And Protocols - Kursad TurksenFlow Cytometry Protocols 2d ed - Teresa S. HawleyGenomic Imprinting - Andrew WardHigh-Yield Cell and Molecular Biology - Ronald W DudekHistology and Cell Biology - Abraham KierszenbaumMembrane Protein Protocols - Barry S. SelinskyMolecular Analysis Of Cancer - Carrie FidlerMolecular and Cellular Biology of Neuroprotection in the CNS - Christian AlzheimerMolecular Biology in Cellular Pathology - John Crocker , Paul G. MurrayMolecular Biology in Medicinal Chemistry - D. SteinhilberMolecular Biology of Human Cancers An Advanced Student's Textbook - Wolfgang A. SchulzMolecular Biology of the Gene, Fifth Edition - James D. WatsonMolecular Biology of the Parathyroid - Tally Naveh-ManyMolecular Cell Biology 5th ed - Lodish et alNuclear Import and Export in Plants and Animals - T. Tzfira, Vitaly CitovskyOxford Dictionary Of Biochemistry And Molecular Biology - Teresa AtwoodPcr Cloning Protocols - Harry W. Janes, Bing-Yuan ChenPCR Protocols 2d ed - John M. S. BartlettPlant Cell Biology - William V. DashekProtein Expression A Practical Approach - B. D. HamesProtein Structure Prediction, methods and protocol - David M. WebsterRt-Pcr Protocols - Joe O&#;ConnellSchaum's Easy Outline Molecular and Cell Biology - William Stansfield, Raul J Cano, jaime S. ColomeSingle Nucleotide Polymorphisms - Pui-Yan KwokStem Cell Biology - Daniel R. MarshakStem Cell Biology and Gene Therapy - Peter J. QuesenberrySteroid Receptor Methods - Benjamin A. LiebermanThe Biogenesis Of Cellular Organelles - Chris MullinsThe Encyclopedia Of Molecular Biology - CreightonTWO-HYBRID SYSTEMS - Paul N. MacDonald
Developmental biology :Developmental Biology - Scott F. Gilbertdevelopmental biology protocols - Rocky S. Tuan and Cecilia W. LoEvolutionary Developmental Biology of the Cerebral Cortex - Novartis FoundationKey Experiments in Practical Developmental Biology - Jennifer Knight
Ecology :Ecology of the Planted Aquarium A Practical Manual and Scientific Treatise for the Home Aquarist, Second Edition - Diana WalstadThe Nature Of Design Ecology Culture - Oxford University Press Plant Ecology - Erwin BeckResearch Techniques in Animal Ecology - Luigi BoitaniThe Ecology of the Cambrian Radiation - Andrey Zhuravlev
Entomology :Entomology 3rd ed - sprers.eut
Epidemiology :Basic Epidemiology - Beaglehole , Bonita
Evolution :Cooperation in Primates and Humans Mechanisms and Evolution - Peter M. KappelerHuman Evolution - An Illustrated Introduction, 5th Edition - Roger LewinMolecular population genetics and evolution - Masatoshi NeiSelective Sweep - Dmitry NurminskyThe Phenomenon of Science A cybernetic approach to human evolution - Turchin V.F
General :Biology 6th ed - Raven JohnsonBiology 7th ed - Campbell, ReeceBiology Macmillan Science Library - Richard RobinsonBiology Science for Life - Colleen Belk, Virginia BordenDiscover Biology 2nd edition - Cain, MichaelLife The Science of Biology 7th ed - Bill Purves, David SadavaModern Biology - Postlethwait , HopsonPractical approach to microarray data analysis - Daniel P. Berrar, Werner Dubitzky, Martin GranzowSchaum's Outline of Biology - Fried, George sprers.eu New Penguin Dictionary Of Biology - M. Abercrombie
Genetics :ABC of Clinical Genetics - Helen M. KingstonColor Atlas of Genetics, 2nd ed - Eberhard PassargeEvolutionary Genetics 2d ed - MAYNARD SMITHFunctional Genomics - Michael J. Brownstein , Arkady B. KhodurskyGenetics A Conceptual Approach - Pierce, B. AGenetics and the Logic of Evolution - Kenneth M. WeissGenetics Principles And Analysis - Daniel L. HartlGenetics Vol 1, A-D - Macmillan Science LibraryGenetics Vol 2, E-I - Macmillan Science LibraryGenetics Vol 3, K-P - Macmillan Science LibraryGenetics Vol 4, R-Z - Macmillan Science LibraryGenome The Autobiography of a Species in 23 Chapters - Matt RidleyGenomics and Proteomics Functional and Computational Aspects - S?ndor SuhaiGenomics Protocols - Michael P. Starkey , Ramnath ElaswarapuIntroduction To Molecular Genetics And Geonomics - heartsIntroduction to Proteomics Tools for the New Biology - Daniel C. LieblerModern Microbial Genetics 2d ed - Uldis N. StreipsPlant Genomics and Proteomics - Christopher A. CullisPopulation Genetics A Concise Guide - John H. GillespieProtein Arrays, Biochips, and Proteomics - Joanna S. AlbalaProteomics in Practice - A Laboratory Manual of Proteome Analysis - Tom NavenSchaum's Outline of Theory and Problems of Genetics - William D. StansfieldThe Behavioral Genetics of Psychopathology A Clinical Guide - Kerry L. JangThe Genetics and Biology of Sex Determination - Novartis FoundationThe Genomics Age How DNA Technology Is Transforming the Way We Live and Who We Are - Gina Smith
Histology :High-Yield Histology 2d ed - Ronald W Dudek
Mathematical Biology :Algebraic Statistics for Computational Biology - Lior Pachter and Bernd SturmfelsMathematical Biology I. An Introduction Third Edition - J.D. MurrayTutorials in Mathematical Biosciences - M. Morel, Cachan
Biostatistics :Advances in Clinical Trial Biostatistics - Nancy L. GellerBiostatistical Methods in Epidemiology - STEPHEN C. NEWMANBiostatistics A Methodology For the Health Sciences - Gerald van Belle, Patrick J. Heagerty, Lloyd D. Fisher, Thomas S. LumleyHigh-Yield Biostatistics - A. GlaserIntroductory Biostatistics - Chap T. LeIntroductory Biostatistics for the Health Sciences Modern Applications Including Bootstrap - Michael R. Chernick, Robert H. FriisPrimer of Biostatistics 5th Ed - Stanton A. Glantz
MicroBiology :Applied Dairy Microbiology, Second Edition - Elmer H. MarthBenson's Microbiological Applications Laboratory Manual in General Microbiology - Alfred E BrownFreshwater Microbiology - Biodiversity And Dynamic Interactions Of Microorganisms In The Aquatic Environment - David SigeeKaplan Medical Step 1 Microbiology - ImmunologyLaboratory Exercises in Microbiology - John P Harley, John HarleyLippincott's Illustrated Reviews Microbiology - William A StrohlMicrobiology Demystified - Tom Betsy, James KeoghModern Food Microbiology 6th ed - James M. JayThe Microbiology of Anaerobic Digesters - Michael H. GerardiWastewater Microbiology - Gabriel BittonWastewater Pathogens - Michael H. Gerardi, Mel C. ZimmermanWorld of Microbiology and Immunology Vol 1 (A-L) - K. Lee LernerWorld of Microbiology and Immunology Vol 2 (M-Z) - K. Lee Lerner
Neuroscience :Brain Facts A Primer on the Brain and Nervous System - The Society for NeuroscienceElements of Molecular Neurobiology 3d ed - C. U. M. SmithNeurological Foundations of Cognitive Neuroscience - Mark D'EspositoNeuroscience 3ed - DALE PURVESTheoretical Neuroscience Computational and Mathematical Modeling of Neural Systems - Peter Dayan, L. F. Abbott
Paleontology :GEOLOGY AND VERTEBRATE PALEONTOLOGY OF THE EARLY PLIOCENE SITE OF KANAPOI,NORTHERN KENYA - JOHN M. HARRISHistory of geology and paleontology - Zittel K.A.
Systems Biology :Foundations of Systems Biology - Hiroaki KitanoSystem Modeling in Cell Biology From Concepts to Nuts and Bolts - Zoltan Szallasi, J?rg Stelling, Vipul PeriwaSystems biology - dynamic pathway modeling - Olaf WaulkenhourSystems Biology Properties of Reconstructed Networks - Bernhard o. Palsson
Taxonomy :Key to Soil Taxonomy - Soil Survey Staff
zoology :Curious Creatures in Zoology - John AshtonDictionary of Invertebrate ZoologyIntegrated Principles of Zoology 11th ed - Hickman, Roberts, LarsonZoology 5th ed - Miller , हर&#;ल&#;

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