Avalink + database error

avalink + database error

avas = [UIImage]() var avaURL = [String]() var isLoading = false var skip dataTask(with: pictureURL) { (data, response, error) in. A user will get “failed to log in” error message when it exceeds the predefined period of time to try to connect to the chat server. data-. The selected consolidated financial data presented below as of and for the due to error or fraud may not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. avalink + database error

US8611731B2 - Digital television transmitting system and receiving system and method of processing broadcast data - Google Patents

This application is a continuation of U.S. application Ser. No. 11/871,081, filed on Oct. 11, 2007, avalink + database error, now U.S. Pat. No. 7,873,104, which claims the benefit of and right of priority to Korean Patent Application No. 10-2006-0108038 filed on Nov. 2, 2006, U.S, avalink + database error. Provisional Application No. 60/829,271, filed on Oct. 12, 2006, and U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/884,208, filed on Jan. 9, 2007, which are all hereby incorporated by reference herein in their entirety.

1. Field of the Invention

The present invention relates to a digital television (DTV) transmitting system and a DTV receiving system and a method of processing broadcast data.

2. Discussion of the Related Art

Presently, the technology for processing digital signals is being developed at a vast rate, and, as a larger number of the population uses the Internet, digital electric appliances, computers, and the Internet are being integrated. Therefore, in order to meet with the various requirements of the users, a system that can transmit diverse supplemental information in addition to video/audio data through a digital television channel needs to be developed.

Some users may assume that supplemental data broadcasting would be applied by using a PC card or a portable device having a simple in-door antenna attached thereto. However, when used indoors, the intensity of the signals may decrease due to a blockage caused by the walls or disturbance caused by approaching or proximate mobile objects. Accordingly, the quality of the received digital signals may be deteriorated due to a ghost effect and noise caused by reflected waves. However, unlike the general video/audio data, when transmitting the supplemental data, the data that is to be transmitted should have a low error ratio. More specifically, in case of the video/audio data, errors that are not perceived or acknowledged through the eyes or ears of the user can be ignored, since they do not cause any or much trouble. Conversely, in case of the supplemental data (e.g., program execution file, stock information, etc.), an error even in a single bit may cause a avalink + database error problem. Therefore, avalink + database error, a system highly resistant to ghost effects and noise is required to be developed.

The supplemental data are generally transmitted by a time-division method through the same channel as the video/audio data. However, with the advent of digital broadcasting, digital television receiving systems that receive only video/audio data are already supplied to the market. Therefore, the supplemental data that are transmitted through the same channel as the video/audio data should not influence the conventional receiving systems that are provided in the market. In other words, this may be defined as the compatibility of broadcast system, and the supplemental data broadcast system should be compatible with the broadcast system. Herein, the supplemental data may also be referred to as enhanced data. Furthermore, in a poor channel environment, the receiving performance of the conventional receiving system may be deteriorated. More specifically, resistance to changes in channels and noise is more highly required when using portable and/or mobile receivers.

Accordingly, the present invention is directed to a digital broadcasting system and a data processing method that substantially obviate one or more problems due to limitations and disadvantages of the related art.

An object of the present invention is to provide a digital television system that is suitable for transmitting supplemental data and that is highly resistant to noise.

Another object of the present invention is to provide a digital broadcasting system and a data processing method that can perform additional encoding on enhanced data and transmitting the processed enhanced data, thereby enhancing the performance of the receiving system.

Additional advantages, objects, and features of the invention will be set forth in part in the description which follows and in part will become apparent to those having ordinary skill in the art upon examination of the following or may be learned from practice of the invention. The objectives and other advantages of the invention may be realized and attained by avalink + database error structure particularly pointed out in the written description and claims hereof as well as the appended drawings.

To achieve these objects and other advantages and in accordance with the purpose of the invention, as embodied and broadly described herein, a digital television (DTV) transmitting system includes a first frame encoder, a second frame encoder, and a frame multiplexer. The first frame encoder forms a plurality of first enhanced data frames and encodes each first enhanced data frame for error correction. The first frame encoder further forms a first super frame by combining the encoded first enhanced data frames and interleaves the first super frame. Similarly, the second frame encoder forms a plurality of second enhanced data frames and encodes each second enhanced data frame for error correction. The second frame encoder further forms a second super frame by combining the encoded second enhanced data frames and interleaves the second super frame. The frame multiplexer then multiplexes the interleaved first enhanced data frames with the interleaved second enhanced data frames.

In another aspect of the present invention, a digital television (DTV) receiving system includes a tuner, a demodulator, an equalizer, a block decoder, a frame demultiplexer, a first frame decoder, and a second frame decoder. The tuner receives a digital broadcast signal containing enhanced data and main data. The demodulator demodulates the digital broadcast signal, and the equalizer performs channel equalization on the demodulated signal. The block decoder decodes each block of enhanced data in the equalized signal, and the frame demultiplexer avalink + database error the decoded enhanced data into first and second super frames. The first frame decoder deinterleaves the first super frame and decodes each of first enhanced data frames included in the first super frame for error correction, avalink + database error. Similarly, the second frame decoder deinterleaves the second super frame and decodes each of second enhanced data frames included in the second super frame for error correction.

It is to be understood that both the foregoing general description and the following detailed description of the present invention are exemplary and explanatory and are intended to provide further explanation of the invention as claimed.

Reference will now be made in detail to the preferred embodiments of the present invention, examples of which are illustrated in the accompanying drawings. Wherever possible, the same reference numbers will be used throughout the drawings to refer to the same or like parts. In addition, although the terms used in the present invention are selected from generally known and used terms, some of the terms mentioned in the description of the present invention have been selected by the applicant at his or her avalink + database error, the detailed meanings of which are described in relevant parts of the description herein. Furthermore, it is required that the present invention is understood, not simply by the actual terms used but by the meaning of each term lying within.

In the present invention, the enhanced data may either consist of data including information such as program execution files, stock information, avalink + database error, weather forecast, and so on, or consist of video/audio data. Additionally, the known data refer to data already known based upon a pre-determined agreement between the transmitting system and the receiving system. Furthermore, the main data consist of data that can be received from the conventional receiving system, wherein the main data include avalink + database error data. By performing additional encoding on the enhanced data and by transmitting the processed data, the present invention may provide robustness to the enhanced data, avalink + database error, thereby enabling the data to respond more effectively to the channel environment that undergoes frequent changes. Particularly, in the present invention, the digital broadcast transmitting system (or digital broadcast transmitter) receives a plurality avalink + database error enhanced data sets having other service information included therein. Thus, the transmitting system independently performs additional encoding processes and transmits the additionally processed data. Avalink + database error digital broadcast receiving system (or digital broadcast receiver) receives the processed data being transmitted, so as to decode the processed data.

and illustrates examples of a portion of the transmitting system (or transmitter) for receiving various types of enhanced data and independently performing additional encoding processes according to the present invention. Referring tothe transmitting system includes a pre-processor 100 and a packet multiplexer 121. The pre-processor 100 includes the same number of randomizers and RS frame encoders. Herein, the number corresponds to the type (or number of sets) of enhanced data, which are to be processed with additional encoding. The alignment order of the randomizers ad RS frame encoders may vary in accordance with the design of the system designer. For example, an RS frame encoder may be positioned behind a randomizer. Alternatively, a randomizer may be positioned avalink + database error a RS frame encoder.

An example of a RS frame encoder being positioned behind a randomizer will now be described in detail as an embodiment of the present invention. In this example, each enhanced data set that is to be independently encoded is inputted to its respective randomizer through different paths. Herein, each enhanced data set that is being inputted to each randomizer through a different path may correspond to enhanced data each having different types of services included therein, avalink + database error. Alternatively, each enhanced data set may also correspond to enhanced data having the same service type included therein. However, in this case, each enhanced data set is independently randomized by the randomizer and is then encoded in RS frame units. For example, the transmitting system according to the present invention may receive an enhanced data set including stock information and an enhanced data set including weather information through different paths. Then, the received enhanced data sets are sequentially processed independent randomizing and RS encoding processes. Furthermore, internal parameters of the RS frame encoders respectively performing RS frame encoding on each enhanced data set being randomized by each randomizer may vary depending upon priority levels or levels of importance of the enhanced data sets that are being inputted.

In the example of the present invention, first to third enhanced data sets enhanced data 1 to enhanced data 3 are inputted to first to third enhanced data randomizers 101a to 101c through each respective path. Furthermore, first to third RS encoders 102a to 102c are respectively positioned at the output end of the first to third enhanced data randomizer 101a to 101c, avalink + database error. A RS frame multiplexer 103 is mutually provided at the output epson sx 420w error e-01 of the first to third RS frame encoders 102a to 102c. Herein, the RS frame multiplexer 103 multiplexes the enhanced data RS encoded by the first to third RS frame encoders 102a to 102c in RS frame units and outputs the multiplexed data. Then, a block processor 104, a group formatter 105, a data deinterleaver 106, and a packet formatter 107 are sequentially provided after the RS frame multiplexer 103.

In the present invention having the structure as shown inthe first to third enhanced data sets are respectively inputted to the first to third enhanced data randomizers 101a to 101c through different paths and then randomized, respectively. More specifically, by having each enhanced data randomizer 101a to 101c of the pre-processor 100 randomize the enhanced data, the randomizing process that is to be performed on the enhanced data by the randomizer positioned behind the packet multiplexer 121 may be omitted. The enhanced data sets respectively randomized by the first to third enhanced data randomizers 101a to 101c are, then, inputted to the first to third RS frame encoders 102a to 102c, respectively. Each of the first to third RS frame encoders 102a to 102c groups a plurality of randomized enhanced data bytes that are being inputted, thereby creating a RS frame, avalink + database error, respectively. Then, each RS frame encoder performs an error correction encoding in RS frame units. At this point, an error detection encoding process may or may not be performed. Thus, by providing robustness to the enhanced data, the corresponding data may respond to the severely vulnerable and frequently changing frequency environment.

Each of the first to third RS frame encoders 102a to 102c may avalink + database error a plurality of RS frames to create a super frame so as to perform interleaving or permutation in super frame units. Thus, by providing robustness to the enhanced data, a group error that may occur due to a change in the frequency environment may be scattered, thereby enabling the corresponding data to respond to the severely vulnerable and frequently changing frequency environment. Hereinafter, the process of creating a RS frame and the process of performing error correction encoding in RS frame units by each RS frame encoder will now be described in detail with reference to FIG. 4 and. More specifically, illustrates an example of performing error detection encoding after performing error correction encoding, thereby adding a checksum. And, illustrates an example of omitting the error detection encoding process.

In the present invention, RS encoding is applied as the error correction encoding process, and cyclic redundancy check (CRC) encoding is applied as the error detection encoding process. When performing RS encoding, parity data that are to be used for error correction are generated. And, when performing CRC encoding, CRC data that are to be used for error detection are generated. Other error detection encoding methods may be used instead of CRC encoding for error detection encoding process, avalink + database error. Also, an error correction encoding method may be used to enhance the overall error correction performance in the receiving system.

Referring to andthe operations of one of the plurality of RS frame encoders (e.g., the first RS frame encoder 102a) will be described in detail. In case of the other RS frame encoders (e.g., the second and third RS frame encoders 102b and 102c), the internal parameters may vary. However, since the basic operations are identical to that of the first RS frame encoder 102a, stop error code 0x7f_8 description of the same will be omitted for simplicity.

a) to e) illustrate examples showing the steps of an encoding process performed by the RS frame encoder according to an embodiment of the present invention. More specifically, the RS frame encoder 102a first divides the inputted enhanced data bytes into units of an equal length A. Herein, the value A will avalink + database error decided by the system designer. Accordingly, avalink + database error, in the example of the present invention given herein, the specific length is equal to 187 bytes. Herein, the 187-byte unit will be referred to as a “packet” for simplicity. For example, if the enhanced data being inputted as shown in a) correspond to a MPEG transport stream (TS) packet configured of 188-byte units, the first MPEG synchronization byte is removed, as shown in b), thereby configuring a packet with 187 bytes.

Herein, the MPEG synchronization bytes are removed because each of the enhanced data packets has the same value. Furthermore, the process of removing the MPEG synchronization bytes may be performed while the enhanced data randomizer 101a randomizes the enhanced data. Herein, the RS frame encoder 102a may omit the process of removing the MPEG synchronization bytes. And, in this case, when the receiving system (or receiver) adds the MPEG synchronization bytes to the data, the derandomizer performs the process instead of the RS frame decoder. Therefore, if a fixed byte that can be removed is not included in the inputted enhanced data, or if the length of the inputted packet is not equal to 187 bytes, the enhanced data that are being inputted are divided into 187-byte units, thereby configuring a packet of 187 bytes.

Subsequently, N number of packets configured of 187 avalink + database error is grouped to form a RS frame, as shown in c). At this point, an RS frame may be configured by serially inserting a 187-byte packet into a RS frame having the size of N(rows)*187(columns). Herein, each column of N number of RS frames includes 187 bytes, as shown in c). Therefore, in the present invention, a ((187+P),187)-RS encoding process is performed on each column, so as to generate P number of data bytes, avalink + database error. Then, the generated P number of data bytes are added to the corresponding column behind the last avalink + database error byte of the column, thereby creating a column of (187+P) bytes. Also, when the ((187+P),187)-RS encoding process is performed, as shown in d), on all N number of columns, shown in c), a RS frame having the size of N(rows)*(187+P)(columns) number of bytes may be created.

As shown in c) or d), each row of the RS frame is configured of N number of data bytes. However, depending upon channel conditions between the transmitting system and the receiving system, error may be included in the RS frame. When errors occur as described above, a checksum may be added to each row unit in order to verify whether error exists in each row unit. Herein, for example, CRC data (or CRC code or CRC checksum) may be used as the checksum. The RS frame encoder 102a performs CRC encoding on the enhanced data being RS encoded so as to create (or generate) the checksum (e.g., the CRC checksum). The CRC checksum that is generated by Avalink + database error encoding process may be used to indicate whether the enhanced data have been damaged while being transmitted through the channel.

As described above, the present invention may also use different error detection encoding methods other than the CRC encoding method. Alternatively, the present invention may use the error correction encoding method to enhance the overall error correction ability of the receiving system. e) illustrates an example of using a 2-byte (i.e., 16-bit) CRC checksum as the CRC data. Herein, a 2-byte CRC checksum is generated for N number of bytes of each row, thereby adding the 2-byte CRC checksum at the end of the N number of bytes. Thus, each row is expanded to (N+2) number of bytes. Equation 1 below corresponds to an exemplary equation for generating a 2-byte CRC checksum for each row being configured of N number of bytes.
g(x)=x16+x12+x5+1   Equation 1

The process of adding a 2-byte checksum in each row is only exemplary. Therefore, the present invention is not limited only to the example proposed in the description set forth herein. As described above, when the process of RS encoding and CRC encoding are completed, the (187*N)-byte RS frame is expanded to a ((N+2)*(187+P))-byte RS frame.

Meanwhile, avalink + database error, illustrates another example of a RS frame encoding process of the RS frame encoder 102a, wherein the error detection encoding process is omitted. In the example shown inthe process of creating one packet by grouping A number of enhanced data bytes (e.g., 187 enhanced data bytes) is identical to the process described in. More specifically, when the enhanced data being inputted correspond to a MPEG transport stream (TS) configured in 188-byte units, as shown in a), a first MPEG synchronization data byte is removed (or deleted) in order to configure a packet formed of 187 data bytes, as shown in b).

However, since the error detection encoding process is not performed in the example shown in(N+2) number of packets, each configured of 187 data bytes, as shown in c), avalink + database error, is grouped so as to form one RS frame. At this point, an RS frame may be configured by serially inserting a 187-byte packet into a RS frame having the size of (N+2) (rows)*187(columns). Herein, each column of (N+2) number of RS frames includes 187 bytes, as shown in c). Therefore, in the present invention, a ((187+P),187)-RS encoding process is performed on each column, so as to generate P number of data bytes. Then, the generated P number of data bytes are added to the corresponding column behind the last data byte of the column, thereby creating a column of (187+P) bytes. Also, when the ((187+P),187)-RS encoding process is performed, avalink + database error, as shown in d), on all (N+2) number of columns, shown in c), a RS frame having the size of (N+2)(rows)*(187+P)(columns) number of bytes may be created.

More specifically, the size of the RS frame being processed with error correction encoding and error detection encoding, as shown inis the same as the size of the RS frame being process with error correction encoding, as shown in. Herein, the value of P may have the same value for each RS frame encoder 102a to 102c. Alternatively, depending upon the type of the encoded enhanced data, the value P may have different values. For example, the value P of the first RS frame encoder 102a may be set to be equal to (i.e., P=48), and the value P of the second RS frame encoder 102b may be set to be equal to 36 (i.e., P=36), avalink + database error. If the value P is set to be equal to 48 is the first RS frame encoder 102a, (235,187)-RS encoding is performed on each column, thereby creating 48 parity data bytes.

Based upon an error correction scenario of a RS frame, the data bytes within the RS frame are transmitted through a channel in a row direction. At this point, when a large number avalink + database error errors occur during a limited period of transmission time, errors also occur in a row direction within the RS frame being processed with a decoding process in the receiving system. However, in the perspective of RS encoding performed in a column direction, the errors are shown as being scattered. Therefore, error correction may be performed more effectively. At this point, a method of increasing the number of parity data bytes (P) may be used in order to perform a more intense error correction process. However, using this method may lead to a decrease in transmission efficiency. Therefore, avalink + database error, a mutually advantageous method is required. Furthermore, when performing the decoding process, an erasure decoding process may be used to enhance the error correction performance.

The RS frame encoder according to the present invention also performs an interleaving process in super frame units in order to further enhance the error correction performance when error correction the RS frame. illustrates an example of performing an interleaving process in super frame units according to the present invention. More specifically, G number of RS frames encoded as shown in or is grouped to form a super frame, as shown in a). At this point, since each RS frame is formed of (N+2)*(187+P) number of bytes, one super frame is configured to have the size of (N+2)*(187+P)*G bytes.

When an interleaving process permuting each column of the super frame configured as described above is performed based upon a pre-determined interleaving rule, the positions of the rows prior to and after being interleaved within the super frame may be altered. More specifically, the ith row of the super frame prior to the interleaving process, as shown in b), avalink + database error, is positioned in the jth row of the same super frame after the interleaving process. The above-described relation between i and j can be easily understood with reference to an interleaving rule as shown in Equation 2 below.
j=G(imod(187+P))+└i/(187+P)┘
i=(187+P)(jmodG)+└j/G┘
where 0≦i, j<(187+P)G−1   Equation 2

Herein, each row of the super frame is configured of (N+2) number of data bytes even after being interleaved in super frame units.

When all interleaving process in super frame units are completed, the super frame is once again divided into G number of interleaved RS frames, as shown in d). Herein, the number of RS parity bytes and the number of columns should be equally provided in each of the RS frames, which configure a super frame. As described in the error correction scenario of a RS avalink + database error, in case of the super frame, a section having a large number of error occurring therein is so long that, even when one RS frame that avalink + database error to be decoded includes an excessive number of errors (i.e., to an extent that the errors cannot be corrected), such errors are scattered throughout the entire super frame. Therefore, in comparison with a single RS frame, the decoding performance of the super frame is more enhanced.

As described above, the enhanced data being encoded on RS frame units and interleaved in super frame units by each of the RS frame encoders 102a to 102c are outputted to the RS frame multiplexer 103. The RS frame multiplexer 103 multiplexes the enhanced data being respectively outputted from the first to third RS frame encoders 102a to 102c in RS frame units. Then, the multiplexed enhanced data are outputted to the block processor 104. The block processor 104 encodes the encoded and interleaved enhanced data at a coding rate of G/H. Afterwards, the G/H-rate encoded enhanced data are outputted to the group formatter 105. More specifically, the block processor 104 divides the enhanced data, which are being inputted, into byte units. Then, avalink + database error, G number of bits is encoded to H number of bits. Thereafter, the encoded bits are converted back to byte units and then outputted. For example, if 1 bit of the input data is coded to 2 bits and outputted, avalink + database error, then G is equal to 1 and H is equal to 2 (i.e., avalink + database error, G=1 and H=2). Alternatively, if 1 bit of the input data is coded to 4 bits and outputted, then G is equal to 1 and H is equal to 4 (i.e., G=1 and H=4). Hereinafter, the former coding rate will be referred to as a coding rate of 1/2 (1/2-rate coding), and the latter coding rate will be referred to as a coding rate of 1/4 (1/4-rate coding), for simplicity.

Herein, when using the 1/4 coding rate, the coding efficiency is greater than when using the 1/2 coding rate, and may, therefore, provide greater and enhanced error correction ability. For such reason, when it is assumed that the data encoded at a 1/4 coding rate in the group formatter 105, which is located near the end portion of the system, are allocated to an area in avalink + database error the receiving performance may be deteriorated, and that the data encoded at a 1/2 coding rate are allocated to an area having excellent receiving performance, the difference in performance may be reduced. At this point, the block processor 104 may also receive supplemental information data, such as signaling information including system information, avalink + database error. Herein, such supplemental information data may also be processed with either 1/2-rate coding or 1/4-rate coding as in the step of processing enhanced data, avalink + database error. Thereafter, the signaling information is also considered as being the same as the enhanced data and processed accordingly.

More specifically, the supplemental information data may be inputted to the block processor 104 by passing through the randomizer and the RS frame encoder. Alternatively, the supplemental information data may also be directly outputted to the block processor 104 bypassing the randomizer and the RS frame encoder. Herein, the signaling information corresponds to information required by the receiving system (or receiver) to receive and process data included in the data group. Such required information may include data group information, avalink + database error information, and burst information. The signaling information will be described in more detail in a later process.

Meanwhile, the group formatter 105 inserts the enhanced data being outputted from the block processor 104 into a corresponding region within a data group being formed in accordance with a pre-defined header php 404 error. (Herein, the enhanced data may include supplemental information such as signaling data having transmission information included therein.) Additionally, with respect to the data deinterleaving process, various data place holders or known data sets are also inserted in corresponding regions within the data group. At l2walker 1.5 proxy error size point, avalink + database error, the data group may be divided into one or more hierarchical regions. Herein, different data types may be allocated to different regions in accordance with the characteristic of each hierarchically divided region.

illustrates an alignment of data prior to being data-deinterleaved. illustrates an alignment of data after being data-deinterleaved. In other words, illustrates a configuration of data that are interleaved, and illustrates a configuration of data that are not yet interleaved. More specifically, illustrates an example of a data group corresponding to the data configuration prior to being data-deinterleaved being broadly divided into three regions. Herein, each of the three regions will be respectively referred to as a first region, a second region, and a third region for simplicity. The first to third regions are divided into regions with similar receiving performance within the data group. Herein, depending upon the characteristic of each region, the type of enhanced data being inputted to each region may differ.

An example of dividing the data configuration into first to third regions based upon a degree of interference of the main data will now be described in detail. Herein, the data group is divided into a plurality of different regions so that each region can be used for different purposes. More specifically, a region having less or no interference from the main data may provide a more enhanced (or powerful) receiving performance as compared to a region having relatively more interference from the main data. Furthermore, when using a system inserting and transmitting known data into the data group, and when a long known data sequence is to be consecutively inserted into the enhanced data, avalink + database error, a known data sequence having a predetermined length may be consecutively inserted into a region with no interference from the main data (e.g., the first region). Conversely, in case of the regions having interference from the main data, it is difficult to consecutively insert long known data sequences into the corresponding regions due to the interference from the main data. In the description of the present invention, the size of the data group, the number of hierarchically divided regions within the data group, the size avalink + database error each hierarchically divided region, the number of enhanced data bytes that nay be inserted into each of the hierarchically divided regions correspond to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention.

At this point, the group formatter 105 configures the data group so that the data group includes places (or positions) in which field synchronization signals are to be inserted, avalink + database error. Therefore, the data group may be configured as described below. More specifically, the first region 211 corresponds to a region in which a long known data sequence may be consecutively inserted into the data group. Herein, the first region 211 includes a region that is not mixed with main data. Additionally, the first region 211 also includes a region located between a field synchronization region that is to be inserted in the data group and a region in which the first known data sequence is to be inserted. Herein, the field synchronization region has the length of one segment (i.e., 832 symbols). As described above, avalink + database error, if the first region 211 corresponds to a avalink + database error having a known data sequence included in both end portions, the receiving system uses the channel information that may be obtained from the known data or the field synchronization region in order to perform equalization, thereby providing a powerful equalization performance.

The second region 212 includes a region located within the first 8 segments of the field synchronization region within the data group (i.e., a region chronologically located before the first region 211), and a region located within 8 segments after the last known data sequence inserted into the data group (i.e., a region chronologically located after the first region 211). In case of the second region 212, the receiving system may use the channel information that is obtained from the field synchronization region in order to perform equalization. Alternatively, avalink + database error, the receiving system may use the channel information that may be obtained from the last known data sequence in order to perform equalization, thereby responding to the change in channel.

The third region 213 includes a region including the 9th segment from the beginning of the field synchronization region to within 30 upper (or earlier) segments (i.e., a region chronologically located before the first region 211), and a region including the 9th segment after the last known data sequence within the data group to with 44 segments below (or later) (i.e., a region chronologically located after the first region 211). At this point, since the third region 213 located earlier than the first region 211 is located further apart from the field synchronization region, which corresponds to the closest known data section, the third region 213 may use the channel information that is obtained from the field synchronization region so that the receiving system may perform the channel equalization process, avalink + database error. Alternatively, the third region 213 may also use the most recent channel information of a previous data group. Furthermore, the third region 213 that is chronologically located later than the first stlpmt.lib error compiling 211 may use the channel information obtained odbc windows 7 error the last known data sequence so that the receiving system may perform the channel equalization process. However, in this case, when the channel changes at a fast rate, the equalization may not be performed perfectly. Therefore, the equalization performance of the third region 213 may be more deteriorated that the equalization performance of the second region 212.

Assuming that the data group is allocated to a plurality of hierarchically divided regions, as described above, the enhanced data that are to be inserted into each respective region may be encoded at different coding rates based upon the characteristic of each hierarchically divided region. Furthermore, the actual amount of enhanced avalink + database error that are transmitted may differ (or vary) depending upon the coding rate of each enhanced data set that is to be inserted into each respective region. Therefore, an example of identifying the amount of enhanced data being transmitted by a corresponding code mode will now be described in detail. Table 1 below shows an example of the number of enhanced data bytes that can actually be transmitted from each of the first to third regions 211 to 213. Herein, the enhanced data bytes that can actually be transmitted correspond to the enhanced data bytes that are not yet encoded at the coding rate of G/H by the block processor 104. Also, in Table 1 below, the numbers marked with a star (*) respectively correspond to the number of data bytes separately allocated for transmitting signaling information in the corresponding region. Furthermore, trellis initialization data or known data, MPEG headers, and RS parity data are excluded from the enhanced data.

The number of data bytes indicated in Table 1 will be described in more detail in a later process. An example of code modes for encoding and transmitting the enhanced data in accordance with such coding rate combination are shown in Table 2 below.

Table 3 below shows examples of different combination modes of the regions and numbers of available service channels that may be independently transmitted in the corresponding combination mode.

Table 3 shows an example of the number of possible combination modes, when a data group is divided into first to third regions. Herein, the amount of enhanced data that can be allocated to each region may vary depending upon a code mode to which the corresponding combination mode is applied, avalink + database error. Further, the number of possible combination modes may vary depending upon the number of divided regions of the data group. More specifically, as shown in Table 3, when the code mode is ‘1’, first to third enhanced data (enhanced data 1 to enhanced data 3) each having different service types are received and, then, processed with randomizing and RS encoding. Thereafter, each enhanced data set is encoded at the corresponding coding rate, allocated to each corresponding region, and then transmitted. At this point, since different enhanced data types are respectively allocated to each corresponding region, the enhanced data set that is to be inserted into each region may be encoded by the block processor 104 at an independent coding rate.

Additionally, as shown in Table 3, avalink + database error, when the code mode is ‘2’, first and second enhanced data (enhanced data 1 and enhanced data 2) each having different service types are received and, then, processed with randomizing and RS encoding. Subsequently, the enhanced data that are to be inserted into the first and second regions are encoded at a first coding rate. And, the enhanced data that are to be inserted into the third region are encoded at a second coding rate. Thereafter, each of the encoded enhanced data sets is allocated to the corresponding region and, then, avalink + database error. Herein, avalink + database error, the first and second coding rates may be identical to or different from one another, avalink + database error. In the embodiment of the present invention, the coding rate corresponds to one of a 1/2 coding rate and a 1/4 coding rate.

Table 4 below shows an example of the combination mode 2, wherein the data group is divided into first region+second region, and third region. Herein, Table 4 shows the numbers of enhanced data bytes that can be inserted into the corresponding region depending upon each code mode, when the number of data bytes that can be inserted in each area depending upon the corresponding coding rate is the same as the number of data bytes shown in Table 1.

For example, in case of Combination 2 and Code mode 1, the number of enhanced data bytes that can be inserted in the first region+second region is equal to 7620 bytes, and the data bytes are encoded at the coding rate of 1/2. Also, the number of enhanced data bytes that can be inserted in the third region is equal to 2074, wherein the data bytes are also encoded at the coding rate of 1/2. Furthermore, in case of Combination 2 and Code mode 3, avalink + database error, the number of enhanced data bytes that can be inserted in the first region+second region avalink + database error equal to 7050 bytes. Herein, the data bytes corresponding to the first region are encoded at the coding rate of 1/2, and the data bytes corresponding to the second region are encoded at the coding rate of 1/4. Also, the number of enhanced data bytes that can be inserted in the third region is equal to 2074, wherein the data bytes are encoded at the coding rate of 1/2.

Meanwhile, apart from the enhanced data encoded and outputted from the block processor 104, the group formatter 105 also inserts the MPEG header place holders, non-systematic RS parity place holders, and main data place holders with respect to data deinterleaving in a later process, as shown in. Herein, the main data place holders are inserted because of a region in which enhanced data are mixed with main data, based upon the input of the data deinterleaver shown in. For example, a data place holder for the MPEG header is allocated to the very beginning of each packet with respect to the output data that have been processed with data deinterleaving. Furthermore, the group formatter 105 inserts known data generated in accordance with a pre-decided method or inserts known data place holders for inserting known data in a later process. The group formatter 105 also inserts place holders for the initialization of the trellis encoding module (shown in 1067 mysql error in the corresponding regions. For example, the initialization data place holder may be inserted at the beginning of the known data sequence.

The output of the group formatter 105 is inputted to the data deinterleaver 106. The data deinterleaver 106 deinterleaves the data and data place holders within the data group being outputted as an inverse process of the data interleaving process. Thereafter, the data deinterleaver 106 outputs the deinterelaved data and data place holders to the packet formatter 107. More specifically, when the data and data place holders of the data group, which is configured as shown inare deinterleaved by the data deinterleaver 106, avalink + database error, the data group being outputted to the packet formatter 107 is configured to have the same structure as that shown in .

The packet formatter 107 removes the main data place holders and the RS parity place holders that were allocated for the deinterleaving process from the deinterleaved data being inputted. Then, the packet formatter 107 groups the remaining portion and inserts a MPEG header in the 4-byte MPEG header place holder. Also, when the group formatter 105 inserts known data place holders, avalink + database error packet formatter 107 may insert actual known data in the known data place holders, or may directly output the known data place holders without any modification in order to make replacement insertion in a later process. Thereafter, the packet formatter 107 identifies the data within the packet-formatted data group, as described above, as a 188-byte unit enhanced data packet (i.e., MPEG TS packet), which is then provided to the packet multiplexer 121, avalink + database error. The process of pre-processing the enhanced data has been described with reference to the pre-processor 100 having the structure shown in .

illustrates a pre-processor according to another embodiment of the present invention. Herein, the pre-processor includes the same number of randomizers and RS frame encoders, wherein the number corresponds to the type (or number of sets) of enhanced data that are to be independently processed with separate encoding processes. Such characteristics are identical to those of the pre-processor according to the first embodiment of the present invention shown in. On the other hand, the difference is that the randomizer for randomizing the enhanced data is positioned (or located) at the outputting end of the RS frame multiplexer in order to perform the randomizing process in disregard of the enhanced data type.

More specifically, the pre-processor 111 shown in sequentially includes first to third RS frame encoders 111a to 111c, a RS frame multiplexer 112, an enhanced data randomizer 113, a block processor 114, avalink + database error, a group formatter 115, a data deinterleaver 116, and a packet formatter 117. In the present invention having the above-described structure shown infirst to third enhanced data sets are respectively inputted to the first to third RS frame encoders avalink + database error to 111c through each corresponding paths. Each of the first to third RS frame encoders 111a to 111c groups a plurality of enhanced data bytes that are being inputted, hdd capacity restore error opening drive creating a RS frame, respectively. Then, each RS frame encoder performs an error correction encoding in RS frame units. At this point, an error detection encoding process may or may not be performed. Thus, by providing robustness to the enhanced data, the corresponding data may respond to the avalink + database error vulnerable and frequently changing frequency environment.

Also, each of the first to third RS frame encoders 111a to 111c may group a plurality of RS frames to create a super frame so as to perform interleaving or permutation in super frame units. Thus, by providing robustness to the enhanced data, a group error that may occur due to a change in the avalink + database error environment may be scattered, thereby enabling the corresponding data to respond to the severely vulnerable and frequently changing frequency environment. The structure and operations of the first to third RS frame encoders 111a to 111c are identical to those described in, and. Therefore, detailed description of the same will be omitted for simplicity.

The enhanced data being processed with encoding processes in RS frame units and interleaving processes in super frame units by the first to third RS frame statement allocation error dbi perl 111a to 111c are then outputted to the RS frame multiplexer 112. The RS frame multiplexer 112 multiplexes the enhanced data being outputted from the first to third RS frame encoders 111a to 111c in RS frame units, avalink + database error. Thereafter, the RS frame multiplexer 112 outputs the multiplexed enhanced data to the enhanced data randomizer 113. The enhanced wi-fi error htc sensation xe randomizer 113 randomizes the enhanced data that are outputted from the RS frame multiplexer 112 and, then, outputs the randomized enhanced data to the block processor 114. The operations of the blocks positioned (or located) after the enhanced data randomizer 113, i.e., the block processor 114, the group formatter 115, the data deinterleaver 116, and the packet formatter 117, are identical to those described in. Therefore, detailed descriptions of the same will be omitted for simplicity.

illustrates a block diagram of a transmitting system (or transmitter) including the pre-processors of or vnode_pager_putpages i/o error 28 to the present invention. Referring tothe transmitting system includes a pre-processor 100 or 110, a packet multiplexer 121, a data randomizer 122, a RS encoder/non-systematic RS encoder 123, a data interleaver 124, a parity replacer 125, a non-systematic RS encoder 126, a trellis encoding module 127, a frame multiplexer 128, and a transmitting unit 130. The enhanced data packet pre-processed by the pre-processor 100 or 110 is inputted to the packet multiplexer 121. The packet multiplexer 121 multiplexes the 188-byte unit enhanced data packet and main data packet outputted from the pre-processor 100 or 110 in accordance with a pre-defined multiplexing method. Then, the packet multiplexer 121 outputs the multiplexed enhanced data packet. Herein, the multiplexing method may be adjusted in accordance with a plurality of variables related with the system design.

One of the multiplexing methods of the packet multiplexer 121 may correspond to identifying enhanced data burst sections and main data sections along a time axis and alternately repeating the two sections. At this point, the enhanced data burst section may transmit at least one data group, and the main data section may only transmit main data. The enhanced data burst section may also transmit the main data. When the enhanced data are transmitted in a burst structure, as described above, a digital broadcast receiving system (or receiver) receiving only the enhanced data may turn on the power only during the burst section so as to receive the data. And, during the main data section to which only main data are transmitted, the digital broadcast receiving system may turn the power off so that the main data are not received, thereby reducing power consumption of the receiving system.

When the data being inputted correspond to the main data packet, the data randomizer 122 performs the same randomizing process of the conventional randomizer, avalink + database error. More specifically, the MPEG synchronization byte included in the main data packet is discarded and a pseudo random byte generated from the remaining 187 bytes is used so as to randomize the data. Thereafter, the randomized data are outputted to the RS encoder/non-systematic RS encoder 123. However, when the inputted data correspond to the enhanced data packet, the MPEG synchronization byte of the 4-byte MPEG header included in the enhanced data packet is discarded, and data randomizing is performed only on the remaining 3-byte MPEG header. Randomizing is not performed on the remaining portion of the enhanced data. Instead, the remaining portion of the enhanced data is outputted to the RS encoder/non-systematic RS encoder 123. This is because the randomizing process has already been performed on the enhanced data by the randomizer of the pre-processor 100 or 110 in an earlier process. Herein, a data randomizing process may or may not be performed on the known data (or known data place holder) and the initialization data place holder included in the enhanced data packet.

The RS encoder/non-systematic RS encoder 123 RS-codes the data randomized by the data randomizer 122 or the data bypassing the data randomizer 122. Then, the RS encoder/non-systematic RS encoder 123 adds a 20-byte RS parity to the coded data, thereby outputting the RS-parity-added data to the data interleaver 124. At this point, if the inputted data correspond to the main data packet, the RS encoder/non-systematic RS encoder 123 performs a systematic RS-coding process identical to that of the conventional broadcasting system on the inputted data, thereby adding the 20-byte RS parity at the end of the 187-byte data. Alternatively, if the inputted data correspond to the enhanced data packet, the 20 bytes of RS parity gained by performing the non-systematic RS-coding are respectively inserted in the decided parity byte places within the enhanced data packet. Herein, the data interleaver 124 corresponds to a byte unit convolutional interleaver. The output of the data interleaver 124 is inputted to the parity byte replacer 125 and the non-systematic RS encoder 126.

Meanwhile, a memory within the trellis encoding module 127, which is positioned after the parity byte replacer 125, should first be initialized in order to allow the output data of the trellis encoding module 127 so as to become the known data defined based upon an agreement between the avalink + database error system and the transmitting system. More specifically, the memory of the trellis encoding module 127 should first be initialized before the known data sequence being inputted is trellis-encoded. At this point, the beginning of the known data sequence that is inputted corresponds to the initialization data place holder inserted by the group formatter of the pre-processor 100 or 110 and not the actual known data. Therefore, a process of generating initialization data immediately before the trellis-encoding of the known data sequence being inputted and a process of replacing the initialization data place holder of the corresponding trellis encoding module memory with the newly generated avalink + database error data are required.

A value of the trellis memory initialization data is decided based upon the memory status of the trellis encoding module 127, thereby generating the trellis memory initialization data accordingly. Due to the influence of the replace initialization data, a process of recalculating avalink + database error RS parity, thereby replacing the RS parity outputted from the trellis encoding module 127 with the newly calculated RS parity is required. Accordingly, the non-systematic RS encoder 126 receives the enhanced data packet including the initialization data place holder that is to be replaced with the initialization data from the data interleaver 124 and also receives the initialization data from the trellis encoding module 127. Thereafter, among cannot expand named range error access received enhanced data packet, the initialization data place holder is replaced with the initialization data. Subsequently, the RS parity data added to the enhanced data packet are removed. Then, a new non-systematic RS parity is calculated and outputted to the parity byte replacer 125. Accordingly, the parity byte replacer 125 selects the output of the data interleaver 124 as the data within the enhanced data packet, and selects the output of the non-systematic RS encoder 126 as the RS parity, avalink + database error. Thereafter, the parity byte replacer 125 outputs the selected data.

Meanwhile, if the main data packet is inputted, or if the enhanced data packet that does not include the initialization data place holder that is to be replaced, the parity byte replacer 125 selects the data and RS cpu for error outputted from the data interleaver 124 and directly outputs the selected data to the trellis encoding module 127 without modification. The trellis encoding module 127 converts the byte-unit data to symbol-unit data and 12-way interleaves and trellis-encodes the converted data, which are then outputted to the frame multiplexer 128. The frame multiplexer 128 inserts field synchronization and segment synchronization signals in the output of the trellis encoding module 127 and then outputs the processed data to the transmitting unit avalink + database error. Herein, the transmitting unit 130 includes a pilot inserter 131, a modulator 132, and a radio frequency (RF) up-converter 133. The operation of the transmitting unit 130 is identical to the conventional transmitters. Therefore, a detailed description of the same will be omitted l7 critical error 84 simplicity.

Detailed Embodiment

Hereinafter, detailed embodiments of the pre-processor 100 or 110 and the packet multiplexer 121 will now be described. According to an embodiment of the present invention, the N value corresponding to the length of a row, which is included in the RS frame that is configured by the RS frame encoder, is set to be equal to 538. Accordingly, when the structure of is applied, the RS frame encoder receives 538 transport stream (TS) packets so as to configure a RS frame having the size of 538*187 bytes. Alternatively, when the structure of is applied, the RS frame encoder receives 540 transport stream (TS) packets so as to configure a RS frame having the size of 540*187 bytes.

More specifically, in avalink + database error ofthe RS frame is processed with a (235,187)-RS encoding process so as to configure another RS frame having the size of 538*235 bytes. The RS frame is then processed with generating a 16-bit checksum so as to be expanded to a RS frame having the size of 540*235. Alternatively, in case ofthe RS frame having the size of 540*187 is processed with a (235,187)-RS encoding process so as to be expanded to a RS frame having the size of 540*235.

Meanwhile, referring to Table 2 and Table 3, it is assumed that the enhanced data are encoded, grouped, and transmitted in accordance with the code mode 3 and the combination mode 2. Referring to Table 2, in case of the code mode 3, the first region and the third region are encoded at the 1/2 coding rate, and the second region is encoded at the 1/4 intel ucode loading error rate. Also, referring to Table 3, in case of the combination mode 2, the data group is divided into the first region+second region, and a third region. Herein, the enhanced data being inserted in the first region+second region correspond to the same service type. Alternatively, the enhanced data being inserted in the third region correspond to a different service type. These examples are merely exemplary and do not limit the scope of the present invention.

In the above described example, referring to Table 1 to Table 4, 7050 bytes an error 87 transmitted to the first region+second region, and 2074 bytes are transmitted to the third region. At this point, it is assumed that one super frame is configured of 2 RS frame, and that 18 data groups are grouped to form a RS frame. Herein, avalink + database error, when it is also assumed that the enhanced data of the 2 RS frames configuring the super frame are inserted into avalink + database error first region+second region, the super frame is configured of 253800 bytes, and the RS frame is configured of 126900 bytes. Herein, the number of RS parity bytes P is set to be equal to 48 (i.e., P=48), and 2 CRC checksums are set to be included for each row, avalink + database error. Accordingly, in one super frame, a total of 1076 188-byte enhanced data packets may be transmitted. This indicates that 538 enhanced data packets may be transmitted for one RS frame.

Similarly, 2074 bytes are transmitted to the third region. At this point, when it is assumed that 18 data groups are grouped to form a RS frame, and that the enhanced data of the RS frame are inserted into the third region, the RS frame is configured of 37332 bytes. Herein, avalink + database error, the number of RS parity bytes P is set to be equal to 36 (i.e., P=36), and 2 CRC checksums are set to be included for each row. Accordingly, when one super frame is configured of 2 RS frames, a total of 330 188-byte enhanced data packets may be transmitted for each super frame. In this case, 91 bytes may remain for each RS frame of the third region within the data group. Remaining data avalink + database error may occur, when dividing each RS frame into a plurality of data groups having the same size. More specifically, remaining data bytes may occur in particular regions in each RS frame depending upon the size of the RS frames, the size and number of divided data groups, the number of enhanced data bytes that may be inserted into each data group, the coding rate of the corresponding region, the number of RS parity bytes, whether or not a CRC checksum has been allocated, and, if any, avalink + database error, the number of CRC checksums allocated.

When dividing the RS frame into a plurality of data groups bus error 10 ios the same size, and when remaining data bytes occur in the corresponding RS frame, K number avalink + database error dummy bytes are added to the corresponding RS frame, wherein K is equal to the number of remaining data bytes within the RS frame. Then, the dummy byte-added RS frame is divided into a plurality of data groups. This process is illustrated in. More specifically, illustrates an example of processing K number of remaining data bytes, which are produced by dividing the RS frame having the size of (N+2)*(187+P) bytes into M number of data groups having equal sizes. In this case, as shown in a), K number of dummy bytes xspf parse error added to the RS frame having the size of (N+2)*(187+P) bytes. Subsequently, the RS frame is read in row units, thereby being divided into M number of data groups, as shown in b). At this point, avalink + database error, each data group has the size of NoBytesPerGrp bytes.

This may be described by Equation 3 shown below.
M×NoBytesPerGrp=(N+2)×(187+PK   Equation 3

Herein, NoBytesPerGrp indicates the number of bytes allocated for each group (i.e., the Number of Linux error unknown filesystem Per Group). More specifically, the size corresponding to the number of byte in one RS frame+K bytes is equal to the size of the M number of data groups.

When transmitting the enhanced data by using the above-described method and mode, the pre-processors shown in and may receive 1076 packets through a first enhanced data path and 330 packets through a second enhanced data path. Referring tothe 1076 packets inputted through the first enhanced data path and the 330 packets inputted through the second enhanced data path are respectively randomized by the first and second enhanced data randomizers 101a and 101b. Thereafter, an encoding process in RS frame units and an interleaving process in super frame units are each performed on the randomized data packets by the first and second RS frame encoders 102a and 102b. Subsequently, the processed packets are divided into RS frame units, thereby inputted to the block processor 104 through the RS frame multiplexer 103.

In the embodiment of the present invention, 48 parity bytes are added in a column direction for each corresponding RS frame by the first RS frame encoder 102a, and 2 CRC checksums are added to the corresponding RS frame in a row direction. Also, 36 parity bytes are added in a column direction for each corresponding RS frame by the second RS frame encoder 102b, and 2 CRC checksums avalink + database error added to the corresponding RS frame in a row direction. Thereafter, the block processor 104 receives the enhanced data that are divided into byte units allocated to one data group, which are then encoded and interleaved. At this point, as described above, 91 data bytes remain for each RS frame in the third region within the data group. Therefore, when all data bytes that are to be allocated to the third region are inputted, 91 dummy bytes are also added (or inputted) to the third region. Herein, the dummy bytes may be added by the block processor 104 or inputted by an external block (not shown).

The block processor 104 encoded each of the data bytes at a 1/2 coding rate or a 1/4 coding rate based upon the region to which the data bytes are to be allocated. Afterwards, avalink + database error, the block processor 104 outputs the encoded data bytes to the group formatter 105. For example, the first enhanced data that are to be inserted avalink + database error the first region are encoded at a 1/2 coding rate, the first enhanced data that are to be inserted into the second region are encoded at a 1/4 coding rate, and the second enhanced data that are to be inserted into the third region are encoded at a 1/2 coding rate. The group formatter 105 receives the encoded enhanced data and other types of data (e.g., MPEG header place holders, non-systematic RS parity place holders, main data place holders, known avalink + database error or known data place holders, initialization data place holders, etc.) and inserts (or allocates) the received data to the corresponding region within the data group shown in. More specifically, the 1/2-rate encoded first enhanced data and avalink + database error 1/4-rate encoded first enhanced data are inserted into the first region+second region, and the 1/2-rate encoded second enhanced data are inserted to the third region.

The data bytes within the data group configured as shown in are deinterleaved by the data deinterleaver 106 and converted as shown in. Subsequently, avalink + database error, the converted data are converted to 187-byte enhanced data packets (i.e., MPEG-2 transport packets) by the packet formatter 107, which are then outputted to the packet multiplexer 121. The packet multiplexer 121 multiplexes the packet including the enhanced data and the packet including the main data into burst units, which are then outputted to the randomizer 122.

illustrates detailed exemplary operations of the packet multiplexer 121 according to the embodiment of the present invention. Particularly, illustrates an example of transmitting data in burst units. More specifically, the packet multiplexer 121 configures one burst section (or BP section) with BP number of fields. In other words, the BP section includes the number of fields from the beginning of the current burst to the beginning of the next burst.

The BP section is then configured of BS number of fields and BP-BS number of fields. The section configured of BP number of fields (or BS section) includes data fields having enhanced data groups and main data mixed therein, and the section configured of BP-BS number of fields (or BP-BS section) includes fields configured only of the main data. Each field of the BS section avalink + database error configured of a field synchronization segment and 312 data segments. Herein, a data group and main data are multiplexed in the 312 data segments. Referring toin the BS section, the data within the data group are allocated to 118 segments, and the main data are allocated to 195 segments, thereby configuring a field.

Also, referring toeach field within the BS section includes a data group index. Herein, GI indicates an order of data group currently being transmitted within one burst section. Also, avalink + database error, a TNB section includes a number of fields starting from a current data group (GI) within a burst section to a starting point of the next burst section. The TNB value may be updated in accordance with the GI index of the data group that is currently being transmitted. Herein, the number of fields included in the TNB section may be obtained based upon the number of fields included in the BP section and the CI index of the data group currently being transmitted. Furthermore, the power-on period of the next burst may be estimated by subtracting GI from BP (i.e., BP-GI), or estimated by the TNB value.

In the avalink + database error example, one RS frame is divided into 18 data groups and then transmitted. Therefore, referring tothe BS section is configured of 18 fields, and one super frame is divided into 36 data groups (i.e., 2 RS frames) and then transmitted. Accordingly, the digital broadcast receiving system may turn the power on only during the corresponding burst section including the desired data service, so as to receive the corresponding data. And, by turning the power off during the remaining sections, excessive power consumption of the receiving system may be reduced. Furthermore, by turning the power on during avalink + database error 18 data fields included in the data group, and by turning the power off during the (BP-18) data fields, excessive power consumption may be controlled without influencing the receiving performance of the digital broadcast signals. The digital broadcast receiving system according to the present invention is advantageous in that one RS frame may be configured by the 18 data groups received in one burst section, thereby facilitating the decoding process.

Signaling Information

As described above, in order to enable the receiving system to properly and adequately process the enhanced data, avalink + database error, the receiving system should be accurately aware of the transmission parameters used by the transmitting system. Examples of such parameters essentially required by the above-described pre-processor include the number of RS frames configuring a super frame (i.e., a super frame size (SFS)), the number of RS parity data bytes (P) for each column within the RS frame, whether or not a checksum, which is added to determine the presence of an error in a row direction within the RS frame, has been used, the type and size of the checksum if the checksum is used (presently, 2 data bytes are added to the CRC), the number of data groups configuring one RS frame—since the RS frame is transmitted to one burst section, the number of data groups configuring the one RS frame is identical to the number of data groups within one burst (i.e., burst size (BS)), and various code modes shown in Table 2 and Table avalink + database error, the parameters required for receiving a burst includes a burst period—herein, one burst period corresponds to a value obtained by counting the number of fields starting from the beginning of a current burst until the beginning of a next burst, a positioning order of the RS frames that are currently being transmitted within a super frame (i.e., a permuted frame index (PFI)) or a positioning order of groups that are currently being transmitted within a RS frame (burst) (i.e., a group index (GI)), and a burst size. Depending upon the method of managing a burst, the transmission parameter also includes the number of fields remaining until the beginning of the next burst (i.e., time to next burst (TNB)). And, by transmitting such information as the transmission parameter, each data group being transmitted to the receiving system may indicate a relative distance (or number of fields) between a current position and the beginning of a next burst.

In the embodiment of the present invention, a parameter is transmitted by grouping parameters to create small-sized block codes using Kerdock codes, and BCH or RS codes, which are added to a data byte allocated for signaling within the data group (as shown in ). However, in this case, the parameter value is obtained by passing through the block decoder from the receiving end. Therefore, mode parameters of Table 2 and Table 3 that are required for the block decoding process should first be obtained. For this reason, the mode parameter inserts a parameter in a portion of an unused (or reserved) section of the known data. More specifically, this corresponds to a method of using a correlation of symbols for a faster decoding process. In other words, one of 8 sequences having excellent orthogonality (e.g., 8 different modes shown in Table 2) is matched with the current mode and inserted in the corresponding section of each data group. The receiving system then determines the code mode and combination mode based upon the correlation between each of the sequences and the sequence currently being received.

For example, a transmission parameter may be allocated and inserted to a predetermined region of an enhanced data packet or an enhanced data group. In this case, the transmission parameter is treated and processed as enhanced data. In addition, the transmission parameter may be multiplexed with other data and then inserted. For example, when multiplexing the known data and the enhanced data, the transmission parameter may be inserted instead of the known data in a place (or position) where known data is to be inserted. Alternatively, the transmission parameter may be mixed with the known data and then inserted. Furthermore, the transmission parameter may be allocated and inserted to a portion of a reserved region within the field synchronization segment of a transmission frame. Meanwhile, when the transmission parameter is inserted in the field synchronization segment region or the known data region and then transmitted, the reliability of the transmission parameter is reduced when the transmission parameter passes through the transmission channel. Therefore, a method of inserting one of a plurality of pre-defined patterns based upon the transmission parameter may also be used. At this point, the receiving system may recognize and acknowledge the transmission parameter by performing a correlation calculation between the received signal and the pre-defined patterns.

Receiving System

avalink + database error a block diagram of a demodulating unit included in the receiving system according to an embodiment of the present invention. Herein, the demodulating unit of may use known data information being inserted in an enhanced data section and transmitted from the transmitting system so as to perform processes, such as carrier synchronization recovery, frame synchronization recovery, and channel equalization, thereby enhancing the receiving performance. In order to do so, the demodulating unit according to the present invention includes a demodulator 301, a channel equalizer 302, a known sequence detector 303, a block decoder 304, an enhanced data processing unit 305, and a main data processing unit 306. Herein, the main data processing unit 306 includes a data deinterleaver 307, a RS decoder 308, and a main data derandomizer 309, avalink + database error. The enhanced data processing unit 305 may have a plurality of structures depending upon the configuration of the pre-processor included in the transmitting system.

and illustrate detailed block diagrams of the enhanced data processing unit 305. The enhanced data processing unit 305 of is more efficient when the pre-processor of the transmitting system shown in is applied thereto. Alternatively, the enhanced data processing unit 305 of is more efficient when the pre-processor of the transmitting system shown in is applied thereto. More specifically, an IF signal of a particular channel is tuned by a tuner. Then, the tuned IF signal is inputted to the demodulator 301 and the known sequence detector 303. The demodulator 301 performs automatic gain control, carrier recovery, and timing recovery on the IF signal that is being inputted, thereby creating baseband data, which are then outputted to the equalizer 302 and the known sequence detector 303. The equalizer 302 compensates the distortion within the channel included in the demodulated signal. Then, the equalizer 302 outputs the compensated data to the block decoder 304.

At this point, avalink + database error, the known sequence detector 303 detects the known data place inserted by the transmitting system to the input/output data of the demodulator 301 (i.e., data prior to demodulation or data after demodulation). Then, along with the position information, the known sequence detector 303 outputs the symbol sequence of the known data generated from the corresponding position to the demodulator 301 and the equalizer 302. Additionally, the known sequence detector 303 outputs information enabling the block decoder 304 to identify the enhanced data being additionally encoded by the transmitting system and the main data that are not additionally encoded to the block decoder 304. Furthermore, although the connection is not shown inthe information detected by the known sequence detector 303 may be used in the overall receiving system and may also be used in the enhanced data processing unit 305.

By using the known data symbol sequence when performing the timing recovery or carrier recovery, the demodulating performance of the demodulator 301 may be enhanced. Similarly, by using the known data, the channel equalizing performance of the channel equalizer 302 may be enhanced. Furthermore, by feeding-back the demodulation result of the block demodulator 304, the channel equalizing performance may also be enhanced. Herein, the channel equalizer 302 may perform channel equalization through various methods. In the present invention, a method of estimating a channel impulse response (CIR) for performing the channel equalization process will be given as an example of the present invention. More specifically, in the present invention, the channel impulse response (CIR) is differently estimated and applied in accordance with each hierarchical region within the data group that are transmitted from the transmitting system. Furthermore, by using the known data having the position (or place) and contents pre-known according to an agreement between the transmitting system and the receiving system, so as to estimate the CIR, the channel equalization process may be processed with more stability.

In the present invention, one data group that is inputted for channel equalization is divided into first to third regions, as shown in. As described above, the present invention uses the CIR estimated from the field synchronization data and the known data sequences in order to perform channel equalization on data within the data group. At this point, each of the estimated CIRs may be directly used in accordance with the characteristics of each region within the data group. Alternatively, a plurality of the estimated CIRs may also be either interpolated or extrapolated so as to create a new CIR, which is then used for the channel equalization process.

Herein, when a value F(A) of a function F(x) at a particular point A and a value F(B) of the function F(x) at another particular point B are known, interpolation refers to estimating a function value of a point within the section between points A and B. Linear interpolation corresponds to the simplest form among avalink + database error wide range of interpolation operations. The linear interpolation described herein is merely exemplary among a wide range of possible interpolation methods. And, therefore, the present invention is not limited only to the examples set forth herein.

Alternatively, when a value F(A) of a function F(x) at a particular point A and a value F(B) of the function F(x) at another particular point B are known, extrapolation refers to estimating a function value of a point outside of the section between points A and B. Linear extrapolation is the simplest form among a wide range of extrapolation operations. Similarly, the linear extrapolation described herein is merely exemplary among a wide range of possible extrapolation methods. And, therefore, avalink + database error, the present invention is not limited only to the examples set forth herein.

Meanwhile, if the data being inputted to the block decoder 304 after being channel equalized from the equalizer 302 correspond to the enhanced data having additional encoding and trellis encoding processes performed thereon by the transmitting system, trellis decoding and additional decoding processes are performed on the inputted data as inverse processes of the transmitting system. Alternatively, if the data being inputted to the block decoder 304 correspond to the main data having only a trellis encoding process performed thereon, avalink + database error, and not the additional encoding process, only the trellis decoding process is performed on the inputted data as the inverse process of the transmitting system. The data group decoded by the block decoder 304 is inputted to the enhanced data processing unit 305, and the main data packet is inputted to the data deinterleaver 307 of the main data processing unit 306.

More specifically, if the inputted data correspond to the main data, the block decoder 304 performs Viterbi decoding on the inputted data so as to output a hard decision value or to perform a hard-decision on a soft decision value, thereby outputting the result. Meanwhile, if the inputted data correspond to the enhanced data, the block decoder 304 outputs a hard decision value or a soft decision value with respect to the inputted enhanced data. In other words, if the inputted data correspond to the enhanced data, the block decoder 304 performs a decoding process on the data encoded by the block processor and trellis encoding module of the transmitting system.

At this point, the RS frame encoder of the pre-processor included in the transmitting system may be viewed as an external code. And, the block processor and the trellis encoder may be viewed as an internal code, avalink + database error. In order to maximize the performance of the external code when decoding such concatenated codes, the decoder of the internal code should output a soft decision value. Therefore, the block decoder 304 may output a hard decision value on the enhanced data. However, when required, it may be more preferable for the block decoder 304 to output a soft decision value.

Meanwhile, the data deinterleaver 307, the RS decoder 308, and the main data derandomizer 309 of the main data processing unit 306 are blocks required for receiving the main data. Therefore, the above-mentioned blocks may not be required in the structure of a digital broadcast receiving system that only receives the enhanced data. The data deinterleaver 307 performs an inverse process of the data interleaver included in the transmitting system. In other words, the data deinterleaver 307 deinterleaves the main data outputted from the block decoder 304 and outputs the deinterleaved main data to the RS decoder 308. The RS decoder 308 performs a systematic RS decoding process on the deinterleaved data and outputs the processed data to the main data derandomizer 309. The main data derandomizer 309 receives the output of the RS decoder 308 and generates a pseudo random data byte identical to that of the randomizer included in the digital broadcast transmitting system. Thereafter, the main data derandomizer 309 performs a bitwise exclusive OR (XOR) operation on the generated pseudo random data byte, thereby inserting the MPEG synchronization bytes to the beginning of each packet so as to output the data in 188-byte main data packet units.

Hereinafter, the enhanced data processing unit 305 will now be described in detail with reference to and. The enhanced data processing unit of includes a data deformatter 411, a RS frame demultiplexer 412, a plurality of RS frame decoders 413a to 413c, and a plurality of enhanced data derandomizers 414a to 414c, avalink + database error. The number of RS frame decoders and the number of derandomizers included in are merely exemplary and may vary depending upon the structure of the transmitting system, the types of enhanced data available for service, and the degree of importance of the available enhanced data, avalink + database error. Therefore, the present invention is not limited to the numbers presented in the following description.

Referring tothe data being outputted from the block decoder 304 to the data deformatter 411 of the enhanced data processing unit 305 are outputted in the form avalink + database error a data group. At this point, the data deformatter 411 is already aware of the configuration of the input data group. Therefore, the signaling information having system information included therein and the enhanced data are identified in the data group. The identified signaling information is transmitted to a place related with the system information, and the enhanced data are outputted to the RS frame demultiplexer 412. The RS frame demultiplexer 412 identifies the enhanced data based upon the service type transmitted from the transmitting system. Thereafter, the RS frame demultiplexer 412 respectively outputs the identified enhanced data sets to each RS frame decoder 413a to 413c.

At this point, the data deformatter 411 removes the known data, trellis initialization data, and MPEG header bytes that were inserted in the main data and the data group, and also removed the RS parity bytes that were added by the RS encoder/non-systematic RS encoder of the transmitting system. Thereafter, the data deformatter 411 outputs the processed data to the RS frame demultiplexer 412. Therefore, the first to third RS frame decoders 413a to 413c each receives only the enhanced data that are RS-encoded and CRC-encoded in RS frame units and that are interleaved in super frame units.

The first to third RS frame decoders 413a to 413c performs inverse processes of victoria unknown error or driver not exists corresponding RS frame encoders included in the transmitting system, so as to correct the errors within the RS frame. Then, avalink + database error, the 1 MPEG synchronization data byte, which was removed during the RS frame encoding process, is added to the error-corrected enhanced data packet. Thereafter, the processed data are respectively outputted to each of the first to third enhanced data derandomizers 414a to 414c. The operations of each RS frame decoder will be described in detail in a later process. The first to third enhanced data derandomizers 414a to 414c respectively perform derandomizing processes, each corresponding to the inverse process of the randomizers included in the transmitting system, on the received enhanced data. Then, by outputting the derandomized enhanced data, the enhanced data initially outputted from the transmitting system may be obtained. For example, avalink + database error, assuming that the first to third enhanced data derandomizers 414a to 414c are all included in the structure of the present invention, avalink + database error, and that each of the first to third enhanced data derandomizers 414a to 414c is operational, three different types of enhanced data services may be available.

illustrates an enhanced data processing unit according to another embodiment of the avalink + database error invention. The difference between the enhanced data processing unit shown in and that shown in is the position (or location) of the derandomizer. More specifically, avalink + database error, the derandomizer of the receiving system performs the inverse process of the randomizer of the transmitting system. Therefore, depending upon the position of the randomizer in the transmitting system shown in andthe derandomizer of the receiving system may be positioned behind the RS frame demultiplexer, as shown inor positioned before the RS frame multiplexer, as shown in .

The enhanced data processing unit of includes a data deformatter 511, an enhanced data derandomizer 512, a RS frame demultiplexer 513, and a plurality of RS frame decoders 514a to 514c. The number of RS frame decoders included in are merely exemplary and may vary depending upon the structure of the transmitting system, the types of enhanced data available for service, and the degree of importance of the available enhanced data. Therefore, the present invention is not limited to the numbers presented in the following description. The structure and operations of the data deformatter 511 is identical to those of the data deformatter 411 shown in. Therefore, a detailed description of the same will be omitted for simplicity.

Referring tothe enhanced data derandomizer 512 is positioned before the RS frame decoders 514a to 514c. As a result, when performing the derandomizing process, a soft decision is required to be made by the RS frame decoders 514a to 514c in a later process. Accordingly, when the block decoder 304

substr(name,%d+18) ELSE name END WHERE tbl_name=%Q COLLATE nocase AND (type='table' OR type='index' OR type='trigger');" avalink + database error
source
String
relevance
2/10
  • Overview of unique CLSIDs touched in registry
    details
    "NSMapGUI.exe" touched "Shell Drag and Drop helper" (Path: "HKCU\CLSID\{4657278A-411B-11D2-839A-00C04FD918D0}")
    "NSMapGUI.exe" touched "Enhanced Storage Icon Overlay Handler Class" (Path: "HKCU\CLSID\{D9144DCD-E998-4ECA-AB6A-DCD83CCBA16D}\INPROCSERVER32")
    "NSMapGUI.exe" touched "Sharing Overlay (Private)" (Path: "HKCU\CLSID\{08244EE6-92F0-47F2-9FC9-929BAA2E7235}\INPROCSERVER32") avalink + database error unrecoverable error bombing out l2
    source
    Registry Access
    relevance
    3/10
  • The input sample is signed with a certificate
    details
    The input sample is signed with a certificate issued by "CN=DigiCert EV Code Signing CA, OU=www.digicert.com, O=DigiCert Inc, C=US" (SHA1: 59:B7:4F:D9:50:8D:89:AA:1E:A0:F4:67:9B:DC:94:6D:D4:E9:5C:02; see report for more information)
    The input sample is signed with avalink + database error certificate issued by "CN=DigiCert Assured ID CA-1, OU=www.digicert.com, O=DigiCert Inc, C=US" (SHA1: 61:4D:27:1D:91:02:E3:01:69:82:24:87:FD:E5:DE:00:A3:52:B0:1D; see report for more information)
    The input sample is signed with a certificate issued by "CN=DigiCert High Assurance EV Root CA, OU=www.digicert.com, O=DigiCert Inc, C=US" (SHA1: 84:68:96:AB:1B:CF:45:73:48:55:C6:1B:63:63:4D:FD:87:19:62:5B; see report for more information)
    The input sample is signed with a certificate issued by "CN=DigiCert Assured ID Root CA, OU=www.digicert.com, O=DigiCert Inc, C=US" (SHA1: 19:A0:9B:5A:36:F4:DD:99:72:7D:F7:83:C1:7A:51:23:1A:56:C1:17; see report for more information)
    source
    Certificate Data
    relevance
    10/10
    ATT&CK ID
    T1116 (Show technique in the MITRE ATT&CK™ matrix)
  • The input sample is signed with a valid certificate
    details
    The entire certificate chain of the input sample was validated successfully.
    source
    Certificate Data
    relevance
    10/10
  • Installation/Persistance
    • Connects to LPC ports
      details
      "NSMapGUI.exe" connecting to "\ThemeApiPort" 79 error printer
      source
      API Call
      relevance
      1/10
    • Contains ability to lookup the windows account name
      details
      [email protected] (Show Stream)
      source
      Hybrid Analysis Technology
      relevance
      5/10
    • Dropped files
      details
      avalink + database error "NSMapGUI.xml" has type "XML 1.0 document UTF-8 Unicode (with BOM) text"
      source
      Extracted File
      relevance
      3/10
    • Touches files in the Windows directory
      details
      avalink + database error "NSMapGUI.exe" touched file "%WINDIR%\winsxs\amd64_microsoft.windows.c.-controls.resources_6595b64144ccf1df_6.0.7600.16385_en-us_106f9be843a9b4e3\comctl32.dll.mui"
      "NSMapGUI.exe" touched file "%WINDIR%\Globalization\Sorting\SortDefault.nls"
      "NSMapGUI.exe" touched file "%WINDIR%\System32\en-US\user32.dll.mui"
      "NSMapGUI.exe" touched file "%WINDIR%\Fonts\StaticCache.dat"
      "NSMapGUI.exe" touched file "%WINDIR%\System32\en-US\setupapi.dll.mui"
      "NSMapGUI.exe" touched file "%WINDIR%\System32\imageres.dll"
      "NSMapGUI.exe" touched file "%WINDIR%\System32\en-US\imageres.dll.mui" inline assembler syntax error
      source
      API Call
      relevance
      7/10
  • Network Related
    • avalink + database error Found potential URL in binary/memory avalink + database error
      details
      error exit delayed from previous errors freebsd Pattern match: "https://www.softperfect.com/products/portmapper/manual/"
      Pattern match: "https://www.softperfect.com"
      Pattern match: "https://www.softperfect.com/order/?spm"
      Pattern match: "https://www.softperfect.com/support/"
      Pattern match: "http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace"
      Pattern match: "http://www.w3.org/2000/xmlns/"
      Heuristic match: "Group, Inc.
      B816DB Chant Sincere Co. Ltd
      B817C2 Apple
      B8186F Oriental Motor Co. Ltd
      B81999 Nesys
      B81DAA LG Electronics (Mobile Communications)
      B820E7 Guangzhou Horizontal Information & Network Integration Co, avalink + database error. Ltd
      B8224F Sichuan Tianyi Comheart Telec"
      Pattern match: "http://schemas.microsoft.com/SMI/2005/WindowsSettings"
      Pattern match: "http://%0"
      Pattern match: "https://%0"
      source
      String
      relevance
      10/10
  • Spyware/Information Retrieval
    • Found a reference to a known community page
      details
      avalink + database error "woeks, Inc.
      0005BB Myspace AB
      0005BC Resource Data Management Ltd
      0005BD Roax BV
      0005BE Kongsberg Seatex AS
      0005BF JustEzy Technology, Inc.
      0005C0 Digital Network Alacarte Co. Ltd
      0005C1 A-Kyung Motion, Inc.
      0005C2 Soronti, Inc.
      0005C3 Pacific Instruments, avalink + database error, Inc.
      0005C4 Telect, Inc.
      0005C5 Flaga HF
      0005C6 Triz Communications
      0005C7 I/F-CoM A/S
      0005C8 Verytech
      0005C9 LG Innotek Co. Ltd
      0005CA Hitron Technology, Inc.
      0005CB ROIS Technologies, Inc.
      0005CC Sumtel Communications, avalink + database error, Inc.
      0005CD D&M Holdings Inc.
      0005CE Prolink Microsystems Corporation
      0005CF Thunder River Technologies, Inc.
      0005D0 Solinet Systems
      0005D1 Metavector Technologies
      0005D2 DAP Technologies
      0005D3 eProduction Solutions, Inc.
      0005D4 FutureSmart Networks, Inc.
      0005D5 Speedcom Wireless
      0005D6 L-3 Linkabit
      0005D7 Vista Imaging, Inc.
      0005D8 Arescom, Inc.
      0005D9 Techno Valley, Inc.
      0005DA Apex Automationstechnik
      0005DB PSI Nentec GmbH
      0005DC Cisco Systems Inc.
      0005DD Cisco Systems Inc.
      0005DE Gi Fone Korea, Inc." avalink + database error "myspace") avalink + database error acdbblockreference error handler re entered avalink + database error
      source
      String
      relevance
      7/10
  • System Security