Arctic terror cs

arctic terror cs

A Counter-Strike: Source (CS:S) Mod in the Arctic category, submitted by TurboMuffin. RM D95TT3–Sir John Franklin () British naval officer and arctic explorer commanded the expedition of the ships 'Erebus' and 'Terror' to search. In late July, his ships the Erebus and Terror were seen by a whaler in Baffin Bay, waiting for ice to clear in Lancaster Sound – and to. arctic terror cs

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Arctic terror cs
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Arctic terror cs
Arctic terror cs

Terrorism in Sweden

Overview of terrorism in Sweden

Until the late s, terrorism in Sweden was not seen as serious threat to the security of the state. However, there has been a rise in far right and Islamist terrorist activity in the 21st century.[1]

The Arctic terror cs government agency tasked with keeping watch over terrorism-related threats is the Swedish Security Service.

s to s[edit]

Further information: Left-wing terrorism, Nazism in Sweden, and Palestinian political violence

The terrorism-related event in modern Swedish history which received the most attention was the West German embassy siege inwhich was carried out by the Red Army Faction. Inthe same group also planned Operation Leo which was to involve the kidnapping of Anna-Greta Leijon, but which was never set in action.

In Swedish Prime MinisterOlof Palme was killed in an action of dubious motivations. Several different terrorist leads were considered, but none has been proved conclusive, and the police main lead was a lone madman.

At the end of the s a neo-Nazi movement developed in Sweden. National Youth activist Klas Lund was convicted of bank robbery and of the murder of Ronny Landin bat if %errorlevel% neq 0 the summer of National Youth was linked to the Swedish Resistance Movement.[2][3] Inthe Nordic National Party formed a new network named VAM (The White Aryan Resistance), in which Lund was also involved; it became well known for a series of burglaries and robberies including one where they broke into a Lidingö police station and stole 36 guns. At the same time far right activist John Ausonius engaged in a shooting spree targeting immigrants. He was not involved in the neo-Nazi movement, but the concurrence of the events garnered press exposure. VAM no longer exists as a movement, but there are numerous organizations rooted in it, including the Swedish Resistance Movement (SMR) led by Klas Lund and the Party of the Swedes arctic terror cs Inarctic terror cs, far right activist Hampus Hellekant murdered syndicalist union member Björn Söderberg after Söderberg campaigned against the Nazi activities of Info's Robert Vesterlund.[5] Info claimed one police killing in Malexander (the perpetrators, including Jackie Arklöv had links to the National Socialist Front too) and a car bomb in Nacka inleading the paper's editor, Vesterlund, to be sentenced to eighteen months in prison for incitement to racial hatred, threats against an officer, and aggravated incitement.

Sweden-based Palestinian terrorists Abu Talb and Marten Imandi were convicted of perpetrating a series of bombings and attacks in andalong with two co-conspirators who received lesser sentences. The attacks included the Copenhagen bombings of the Great Synagogue and Northwest Orient Airlines, and the bombing of Pan Am Flightthe "Lockerbie bombing."[6][7][8]

21st century[edit]

Further information: Islam in Sweden, Nazism in Sweden, and Bombings in Sweden

In the s, the issue of terrorism financing and recruiting for terrorist groups, including Islamist groups, have also been on the security agenda. Criminal acts from domestic political extremist groups, both on the right and on the left, have also become an increasing phenomenon.[1]

The Neo-nazi activist group Swedish Resistance Movement (SRM) was formed in and merged into the Nordic Resistance Movement (NRM) in The group has been behind several violent actions since a bomb and the murder of the journalist Björn Söderberg in InNRM members were arrested for involvement in two bombings and a bombing attempt in Gothenburg, near two refugee accommodations and a syndicalist organization.[9]Legion Wasa is a neo-Nazi paramilitary[10][11] organisation founded in ,[12] whose members have reportedly been preparing for race war,[11] and once made preparations for helping out Saddam Hussein in the Iraq War against the invading United States Army.[10][13] Led by Curt Linusson, a former UN soldier and Home Guard officer, the group has conducted field practice in the forests of Västergötland.[10][11] The organisation is said to have between 25 and 30 members.[12] In four members of the organisation were arrested, charged with plotting mass murders of political opponents, and of forming a terrorist cell inspired by the novel The Runtime error 1 20 Diaries.[11] All four were acquitted for terror charges, although three of the arctic terror cs were convicted for violence and arctic terror cs charges, with sentences ranging from one to two years imprisonment.[14] The s saw an upsurge in far right violence in Sweden.[15]

Islamic terrorism[edit]

See also: Islam in Sweden and Islamic terrorism in Europe

According to the Swedish Defence University, since the s, a number of residents of Sweden have been implicated in providing logistical and financial support to or joining various foreign-based transnational Islamic militant groups. Among these organizations are Hezbollah, Hamas, the GIA, Al-Qaeda, the Islamic State, Al-Shabaab, Ansar al-Sunna and Ansar al-Islam.[16]

In the s, Islamists in Sweden were not primarily seeking to commit arctic terror cs in Sweden, but were rather using Sweden as a base of operations against other countries and arctic terror cs providing logistical support for groups abroad.[17]

Inthe Swedish Security Service estimated that a total of individuals were involved in the Swedish Islamist extremist environment. According to the Swedish Defence University, arctic terror cs, most of these error push ebp x64 were affiliated with the Islamic State, with around people traveling to Syria and Iraq to join the group and Al-Qaeda associated outfits like Jabhat al-nusra in the period[16] and some have financed their activities with funds from the Swedish state welfare systems.[18] InSwedish Security Service director Anders Thornberg stated that the number of violent Islamic extremists residing in Sweden to number was estimated to be "thousands".[19] The Danish Security and Intelligence Service judged the number of jihadists in Sweden to be a threat against Denmark since two terrorists arriving from Sweden had already been sentenced in the Copenhagen terror plot.[20] Security expert Magnus Ranstorp has argued that efforts to improve anti-terror legislation has been hampered by human rights activists such as Ywonne Ruwaida, Mehmet Kaplan and the organisation Charta A change in the activism occurred in the time frame due to the number of Swedish citizens travelling to join the Islamic State. He also stated that some of the loudest activists have withdrawn from public debate after being exposed for harassing women in the metoo campaign.[21]

List of terrorist incidents and political violence in Sweden[edit]

Date Type Deaths Injuries Details Perpetrator
12 July Bombing 1 23 A bomb was placed on a ship housing strikebreakers during a strike at the docks in Malmö.[22]Anton Nilson
3 March Arson usb_bulk_write no error n900 Several An arson attack against the office of the Communist newspaper Norrskensflamman in Luleå by Right-wing extremists.[23]Right-wingextremists
September Hijacking 0 0 arctic terror cs Scandinavian Airlines System Flight was hijacked by Croatian ultranationalists to force the release of seven members of their group Ustashe imprisoned after the Yugoslav Consulate and Embassy shootings in Sweden.[22]Croatian National Resistance
24 April Bombing 4 14 Red Army Faction carried out the West German embassy siege with the goal of forcing the release of other RAF members from prison in West Germany.[22]Red Army Faction
6 September Bombings 0 0 A right-wing anarchist was arrested after having bombed numerous sporting venues including the Stockholm Olympic Stadium.[24][25]Mats Hinze
August and September Bombing 0 0 Two kilovolt power lines in Jämtland - two of the most important and accounting for a large part of southern Sweden's power supply - were bombed numerous times by a group protesting the government's parliamentary decision to allow free mountain hunting in the country.[26][27][28][29]Action Group Against Free Mountain Hunting
29 June Bombing 0 2 Car bomb in Nacka injured a freelance journalist and his child.[30]Right-wingextremists (suspected)
11 December Bombing 0 (+1) 2 The Stockholm bombings occurred on 11 December when two bombs exploded irq reservation link error central Stockholm, Sweden, killing the bomber and injuring two people.[31][32][33][34][35] Usr/sbin/smbldap-groupadd error adding group Minister for Foreign AffairsCarl Bildt and the Swedish Security Service (SÄPO) described the bombings as acts of terrorism.[33][36] Taimour Abdulwahab al-Abdaly, an Iraqi-born Swedish citizen, is suspected of carrying out the bombing.[37][38] The Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation described the event as the first suicide attack linked to Islamic terrorism in the Nordic countries.[39]Taimour Abdulwahab al-Abdaly
11 September Assassination plot 0 0 In Gothenburg a terrorist plot was alleged to target art festival and Swedish artist Lars Vilks and thwarted by police. Four people were arrested, three charged, and all three suspects were acquitted.[40]Al-Qaeda (suspected)
22 October Sword attack, stabbing 4 1 Trollhättan school attack: A far-right extremist attacked a school.[41][42]Anton Lundin Pettersson
February Bombing plot 0 0 In the Sweden terrorism plot, Aydin Sevigin was convicted of plotting to carry out an ISIS-inspired suicide bombing on Swedish soil using a homemade pressure-cooker bomb.[43]Aydin Sevigin
November and January Bombing 0 1 Three people connected to the Neo-nazi group Nordic Resistance Movement committed three bomb attacks in the Gothenburg area targeting a left-wing café and two refugee centres.[44][45]Nordic Resistance Movement (suspected)
7 April Truck attack 5 14 In the Stockholm truck attack, a self described[46] ISIS recruit[47] rammed a truck into a crowd in Stockholm, Sweden, resulting in five deaths. A year-old rejected asylum seeker born in the Soviet Union, arctic terror cs, currently a citizen of Uzbekistan, was arrested, suspected on probable cause of terrorist crimes through murder. Contrary to popular claims, the attack has not been claimed by ISIS or any other terrorist group.[46]Rakhmat Akilov
19 August Knife stabbing 0 1 A 15 year-old school student attacked a teacher at a school in Eslöv. The perpetrator carried a long knife, wore a skeleton mask, a helmet and what looked like a bulletproof vest. The motive of the attack is unclear, arctic terror cs the police does not rule out a terrorist motive.[48]Right-wingextremist (suspected)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ abSÄPO: Våldsam politisk extremism ("Violent political extremism"), July report (in Swedish)
  2. ^"Sidan kunde inte hittas () - Säkerhetspolisen". sprers.eu.
  3. ^"Expo: Sv. Motståndsrörelsen/Nationell Ungdom".[permanent dead link]
  4. ^"at". sprers.eu 25 November Archived from the original on 23 June Retrieved 7 July
  5. ^Altman, Lawrence K. (25 January ). "Swedes Ponder Whether Killer Can Be a Doctor". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 March
  6. ^"One Year After Flight Blast, Trail Of Evidence Leads To Sweden". tribunedigital-chicagotribune. Retrieved 9 April
  7. ^"Pan Am Bombing Suspect Convicted in Other Attacks". Associated Press. 22 December
  8. ^Wines, Michael (24 December ). "Portrait of Pan Am Suspect: Affable Exile, Fiery Avenger". The New York Times.
  9. ^Three nazis were sentenced for the bombings in Gothenburg, Expressen (In Swedish)
  10. ^ abc"Nazisterna vill hjälpa Saddam" (in Swedish). Aftonbladet. 18 February
  11. ^ abcd"Han tränar för raskrig" (in Swedish). Aftonbladet. 20 November
  12. ^ ab"Raggaren som blev ökänd nynazist". Expressen (in Swedish). 7 June
  13. ^"Svenskar söker visum till Irak" (in Swedish). Göteborgs-Posten. 28 February Archived from the original arctic terror cs 14 March Retrieved 8 September
  14. ^"Friade för terroristbrott". Expo (in Swedish). 1 February
  15. ^More extreme right violence in Sweden and Finland, ScienceNordic May 1,
  16. ^ abLinus Gustafsson Magnus Ranstorp (). Swedish Foreign Fighters in Syria and Iraq(PDF). Swedish Defence University. pp.&#;23–34, Retrieved 12 November
  17. ^"EU Terrorism Situation and Trend Report TE-SAT "(PDF). Europol. p.&#; Retrieved 29 July
  18. ^M. Normark, M. Ranstorp & F. Ahlin (). Finansiella aktiviteter kopplade till personer från Sverige och Danmark som anslutit sig till terrorgrupper i Syrien och Irak mellan - (PDF). Swedish Defence University / Centrum för asymmetriska hot- och terrorismstudier (CATS). p.&#;1. Archived from the original(PDF) on 8 September
  19. ^"Säpo: Tusindvis af voldelige islamister webmin error - file not found i Sverige". DR (in Danish). Retrieved 5 December
  20. ^"PET: Truslen mod Danmark kan komme fra Sverige". DR (in Danish). Retrieved 5 December
  21. ^"Stark lobby och få dåd i Sverige". Skånska Dagbladet (in Swedish). 28 December Retrieved 28 December
  22. ^ abcNyheter, SVT. "Svenska terrordåd sedan ", arctic terror cs. SVT Nyheter (in Swedish). Retrieved 18 December
  23. ^Attentatet mot Norrskensflamman Norrländska Socialdemokraten, 12 September Retrieved 15 April
  24. ^"Swedish police arrest Olympic bomb suspect". The Independent. 23 October
  25. ^"Another Blast in Sweden During Bid for Olympics". 25 August &#; via sprers.eu
  26. ^"Sabotagen mot arctic terror cs Kontroversiellt lämna originalbrev till polisen &#; Journalisten". sprers.eu.
  27. ^"Sabotage mot kraftledning. Kraftstolpar i Jämtland sprängda. Andra gången på kort tid som elnätet skadas - sprers.eu". Archived from the original on 10 March Retrieved 14 July
  28. ^"Aftonbladet nyheter: Bombattentat mot kraftledning". sprers.eu.
  29. ^"DN ledde polisen på spåren &#; Journalisten". sprers.eu.
  30. ^"Bomb blast injures journalist and his son". IFEX. 30 June Retrieved 24 April
  31. ^Hanson, Matilda E.; Håkansson, Catarina (11 December ). "Man sprängde sig själv i Stockholm". Svenska Dagbladet arctic terror cs Swedish). Retrieved 11 December
  32. ^Svahn, Clas (11 December ). "Man död efter explosioner i centrala Stockholm". Dagens Nyheter (in Swedish). Archived from the original on 20 October Retrieved 12 December
  33. ^ abNyberg, Per (12 December ). "Explosions in Stockholm believed to be failed terrorist attack". CNN. Retrieved 12 December
  34. ^"Stockholm blasts kill one and injure two". BBC. 11 December Retrieved 12 December
  35. ^Anderson, Christina; Bursh, John F. (11 December ). "Stockholm Hit by Blasts After E-Mail Warning". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 December
  36. ^Landes, David (12 December ). "Stockholm suicide blast a terror attack: police". The Local. Retrieved 12 December
  37. ^
  38. ^Paige, Jonathan (12 December ). "Stockholm suicide bomber: Taimour Abdulwahab al-Abdaly profile". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 13 December
  39. ^"- Regjeringen reagerer med avsky". Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation (in Norwegian). 12 December Retrieved 12 December
  40. ^"Swedish police arrest four on suspicion of plotting terrorist attack". the Guardian. 11 September
  41. ^"Kalla attacken mot Kronans skola i Trollhättan för vad det var – terrorism". sprers.eu.
  42. ^Jansson, Karin (29 April ). "Hon överlevde skolattacken – dog i terrordådet" &#; createremotethread x64 error 0x00000008 sprers.eu
  43. ^"Teaching student jailed over Sweden terror plot". sprers.eu. 2 June Retrieved 24 April
  44. ^"Trio locked up over Gothenburg bomb attacks". The Local. 7 July Retrieved 3 November
  45. ^Radio, Sveriges. "Reduced sentence for neo-Nazis in Gothenburg bombings - Radio Sweden". Retrieved 13 January
  46. ^ ab"The terrorist who killed 5 people in a Stockholm truck ramming seemed disappointed when he found out ISIS never claimed his attack". sprers.eu. Retrieved 1 October
  47. ^"Uzbekistan says told West that Stockholm attack suspect was IS recruit". Reuters. 14 Pppoe padt generic-error session closed Archived from the original on 4 May Retrieved 17 April
  48. ^"Teenage suspect arrested in Sweden after stabbing at Eslöv school". 19 August

Horror TV News: The Terror is Coming to AMC!

Bylightninli


AMC&#;s Miniseries of a British Arctic Exploration that Goes Horribly Wrong

Dan Simmons, a Hugo Award winning author who has given us Hyperion, Song of Kali, and The Abominable wrote The Terror, a novel based upon the true tale of the ill-fated Franklin Expedition, in which Captain Franklin was commissioned by Britain to chart a Northwest Passage through the arctic reaches of Canada.  Now this story is being produced as an AMC television Series.  The famed expedition did not go well.  At all.  As in, all members of the expedition died.  Apparently nobody thought that two ships named The Terror and Erebus (a Greek diety of darkness) wasn&#;t a bad omen.  Simmons provided the story with a counterfactual twist:  They ran into a monster!  As if battling the arctic cold, foot poisoning, and starvation that led to cannibalism wasn&#;t bad enough!

This show looks like it&#;s going to hit all the right buttons for me.  I am admittedly an age of sail fan, appreciating the work of Patrick O&#;Brien (Captain Jack Aubrey stories) and C.S. Forester (Horatio Hornblower stories).  I think it&#;s the epaulets on the shoulders and the fore-and-aft bicorn hats.

The cast is cut from the Game of Thrones cloth, with familiar faces like Ciaran Hinds (Mance Rayder from GoT, now playing Captain John Franklin), Tobias Menzes (Edmure Tully from GoT, now playing Captain James Fitzjames ), and Jared Harris (Anderson Dawes from The Expanse, now playing the key role of XO Francis Crozier.)  The ships, costumes, and settings are spectacular, arctic terror cs, and AMC&#;s attention to detail is on full display in this trailer.   AMC may just have found a great genre series, just as they close out The Walking Dead for the year.

The Terror premieres on Monday, March   BRRRRR!!!

 

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Armstrong Browning Library & Museum

Borrowing its title from a collection of essays by C. S, arctic terror cs. Lewis, this series, “They Asked For A Paper,”  highlights interesting items from the Armstrong Browning Library&#;s collection and suggests topics for further research.

By Melinda Creech
Manuscripts Specialist, Armstrong Browning Library

Francis Rawdon Moira Crozier (16 August – after ?)

On September 12, the wreck of the HMS Terror was discovered in Terror Bay, King William Island, in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

The HMS Terror had began her career as a bomb vessel, engaged in the War of In fact, it was the vision of the HMS Terror bombarding Fort McHenry that inspired Francis Scott Key to write &#;The Star Spangled Banner.&#; Inthe ship was refurbished for exploration, making trips to the Arctic () and to the Antarctic (). After her trip to the Antarctic, she was again refurbished at Woolwich for a trip to the Arctic through the Northwest Passage.

HMS Erebus and HMS Terror, the two ships used by Sir John Franklin on his ill-fated search for the Northwest Passage. The ships became trapped in ice at King William Sound arctic terror cs Strait) for three years, leading to the deaths of all men.

She set sail on May 19,but never returned. A message, dated April 22,and signed by Captains Crozier and Fitzjames, was found at point Victory stating that they were abandoning both the Terror and the Erebus. Mystery enveloped the fate of the ship and her crew until the discovery last year. Visit the Royal Museum Greenwich to find out more about the discovery of the HMS Terror.

Letter from Captain F. R, arctic terror cs. M. Crozier to Sir Thomas, 28 March []. Page 1

Letter from Captain F. R. M. Crozier to Sir Thomas, 28 March []. Page 2.

We at the Armstrong Browning Library have also re-discovered in our collection a fragment of a letter probably arctic terror cs inshortly before Captain Crozier began his fateful voyage. The letter states:

My dear Sir Thomas,

Thanks for run time error 1058 of 26th which I received this day on my return from Ireland. I was before perfectly satisfied, and believe me my confidence has not been in the least shaken by Commander Beadons test, and very strange…

 

…write him so soon as I get a little of my bustle over.

It is possible that Sir Thomas was Sir Thomas Hamilton, 9th Earl of Haddington, who was the First Lord of the Admiralty at the time. Commander Beadon was conducting tests of lifebuoy in February and March of (Transactions of the Society, Instituted at London, for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce Royal Society of Arts Great Britain, Vol 54 (), ). However, part of the letter is missing.

There is another interesting inscription in pencil at the bottom of the page:

Capt. Crozier —who commanded the same ship as Sir John Franklin’s expedition & was lost with him in. My brother was lost with him.

This letter was found with other letters removed  from an album of letters and autographs collected by Mr. Lewis R. Lucas. However, no one with the surname Lucas was found among the crew lists of either the Terror or the Erebus.

Mystery still shrouds the letter fragment. Who was Sir Thomas? Can we date the letter by Commander Beadon&#;s lifebuoy tests? What was very strange? What was Captain Crozier&#;s bustle? Who has the rest of the letter? Whose brother was lost in the expedition of the Terror?

 

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Phorusrhacidae

Extinct family of flightless birds

Phorusrhacidae
Skeleton of Titanis at the Florida Museum of Natural sprers.eu
Reconstructed skeleton of Titanis walleri, Florida Museum of Natural History
Scientific classificatione
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Cariamiformes
Superfamily: †Phorusrhacoidea
Ameghino,
Family: †Phorusrhacidae
Ameghino, [3]
Type species
Phorusrhacos longissimus

Ameghino,

Subfamilies arctic terror cs colspan="2">
  • †Brontornithinae
  • †Mesembriornithinae
  • †Patagornithinae
  • †Phorusrhacinae
  • †Psilopterinae
Synonyms

Family synonymy

  • Pelecyornidae Ameghino,
  • Brontornithidae Moreno & Mercerat,
  • Darwinornithidae Moreno & Mercerat,
  • Stereornithidae Moreno & Mercerat,
  • Patagornithidae Mercerat,
  • Hermosiornidae Rovereto,
  • Psilopteridae Dolgopol de Saez,
  • Devincenziidae Kraglievich,
  • Mesembriorniidae Kraglievich,

Phorusrhacids, arctic terror cs, colloquially known as terror birds, are an extinct clade of large carnivorousflightless birds that were one of the largest species of apex predators in South America during the Cenozoic era; their conventionally accepted temporal range covers from 62 to million years (Ma) ago.[1][2]

They ranged in height from 1 to 3&#;m (3 to 10&#;ft). Their closest modern-day relatives are believed to be the centimetre-tall (31&#;in) seriemas. Titanis walleri, one of arctic terror cs larger species, is known from Texas and Florida in North America. This makes the phorusrhacids the only known large South American predator to migrate north in the Great American Arctic terror cs that followed the formation of the Isthmus of Panamaland bridge (the main pulse of the interchange began about Ma ago; Titanis at 5 Ma was an early northward migrant).[4]

It was once believed that T. walleri became extinct in North America around the time of the arrival of humans,[5] but subsequent datings of Titanis fossils provided no evidence for their survival after Ma.[6] However, reports from Uruguay of new findings of a relatively small form (Psilopterus) dating to 18,[7] and 96,[8] years ago would imply that phorusrhacids survived there until very recently (i.e., until the late Pleistocene); the initial report of such a recent date has been questioned.[9]

Phorusrhacids may have even made their way into Africa; the genus Lavocatavis was discovered in Algeria, but its status as a true phorusrhacid is questioned.[10] A possible European form, Eleutherornis, has also been identified, suggesting that this group had a wider geographical range in arctic terror cs Paleogene.[11][12]

The closely related bathornithids occupied a similar ecological niche in North America across the Eocene to Early Miocene; some, arctic terror cs, like Paracrax, were similar in size to the largest phorusrhacids.[13][14] At least one analysis recovers Bathornis as sister taxa to phorusrhacids, on the basis of shared features in the jaws and coracoid,[15] though this has been seriously contested, as these might have evolved independently for the same carnivorous, flightless lifestyle.[16]

Description[edit]

Phorusrhacinae skulls compared

The neck can be divided into three main regions. In the higher regions of the neck, the phorusrhacid has bifurcate neural spines (BNS), while it has high neural spines in its lower regions. This suggests that the phorusrhacid had a highly flexible and developed neck allowing it to carry its heavy head and strike with terrifying speed and power. Although the phorusrhacid externally looks like it has a short neck, its flexible skeletal neck structure proves that it could expand farther beyond the expected reach and intimidate its prey using its height, allowing arctic terror cs to strike more easily. Once stretched out into its full length in preparation for a downward strike, its developed neck muscles and heavy head could produce enough momentum and power to cause fatal damage to the terror bird's prey.[17]

Kelenken guillermoi, from the Langhian stage of the Miocene epoch, some 15 million years ago, discovered in the Collón Curá Formation in Patagonia inrepresents the largest bird skull yet found. The fossil has been described as being a centimetre (28&#;in), nearly intact skull. The beak is roughly 46&#;cm (18&#;in) long and curves in a hook shape that resembles an eagle's beak. Most species described as phorusrhacid birds were smaller, 60–90&#;cm (–&#;ft) tall, but the new fossil belongs to a bird that probably stood about 3&#;m (&#;ft) tall. Scientists theorize that the large terror birds were extremely nimble and quick runners, able to reach speeds of 48&#;km/h (30&#;mph).[18] Examination of phorusrhacid habitats also indicates that phorusrhacids may have presented intense competition to predatory metatherian sparassodonts such as borhyaenids and thylacosmilids, causing the mammalian predators to choose forested habitats to avoid the more successful and aggressive avian predators on the open plains.[19]

The feet of the phorusrhacids had four toes, the first of which, known as the hallux, was reduced and did not touch the ground, while the others, corresponding to the second, third and fourth toes, were kept on the ground. Analysis of the resistance of the toes based on biomechanical models of curved beams, in particular of the second toe and its nail claw, indicate that its design was relatively uniform in various species and that said claw would be relatively curved and large, which implies the need to keep it elevated to avoid wear or breakage due to contact with the ground, which would be achieved with a well-developed extensor tubercle and soft tissue pads on the fingers. The second toe, which was shorter and had fewer phalanges, also had more resistance system error 1396 would make it easier to hold the claw off the ground and retain prey, a compromise with its predatory function and movement fatal error cannot redeclare getmenutitle xmap the run, as occurs with modern seriemas, although to a lesser degree of specialization than dromaeosaurid dinosaurs.[20]

Palaeobiology[edit]

Most phorusrhacids were very fast runners. All members possessed a large, sharp beak, a powerful neck and sharp talons. However, even with these attributes, the phorusrhacids are often assumed to have preyed on relatively small animals (about the size of a rabbit) that could be dispatched with a minimum of struggle. This is because with the phorusrhacids' beak proportions, the jaw could not generate a great deal of bite force with which to kill the prey. This is disputable as many big-game hunting predators such as Smilodon, great white sharks and Allosaurus have weaker bite mpich2 error port and often laterally weak skulls as adaptations towards, arctic terror cs, not away from, killing large prey, relying instead on the presence of a cutting edge, a wide gape made possible by the reduction of jaw musculature, and the driving force of the body or neck.[21][22] Since phorusrhacids share many of the same adaptations, such as a large, laterally flattened skull with a sharp-edged beak and powerful neck musculature, it is possible that they were specialized predators of relatively large prey.

The bones of the beak were tightly fused together, making the beak more resilient to force from the front to back direction, thus suggesting that it could cause a great amount of harm through pecking as opposed to side-to-side head movements like shaking prey. Generally speaking, arctic terror cs, it is thought that a terror bird would use its feet to injure prey by kicking it, and to hold the prey down and dispatch by pecking at it with its large beak. Larger prey may also have been attacked by pecking and kicking,[23] or by using the beak as a blade to strike at or slash vital organs.

It has been recently shown that at least some phorusrhacids like Andalgalornis, while very fast runners in a straight line, arctic terror cs, were poor at tight turns at speed, which contradicts the idea of phorusrhacids being agile predators of small prey.[24]

Diet[edit]

All phorusrhacids are thought to have been carnivorous. The strong downwards curve from the tip of this beak suggests that it ripped the flesh from the body of other animals; many extant bird species with this feature are carnivorous. CT scans performed on the skull of a phorusrhacid reveal that the species would not have been able to shake its prey side to side, perl error cant locate auto/cgi/session/load.al rather exert significant downward force.[25]Florentino Ameghino claimed in a letter to Édouard Trouessart that he had specimens from Argentina of "petrified masses preserving skeletons of large rodents, Interatheriidae [small notoungulates] and even Proterotheriidae [deer-sized litopterns], with all their bones crushed and corroded, piled on with no apparent order and forming a nearly spherical mass with the skull in the center" that resembled giant owl pellets, suggesting that phorusrhacids may have swallowed their prey whole and regurgitated the indigestible parts similar to owls.[26][27] However, arctic terror cs, Ameghino never formally described these specimens and they have not yet been relocated, making it difficult to determine if they are phorusrhacid pellets.[27] Fossilized pellets from northwestern Argentina have also been suggested to pertain to small phorusrhacids like Procariama.[28]

Extinction[edit]

During the Miocene and early Pliocene epochs, there was an increase in the phorusrhacid population size in South America, suggesting that, in that time frame, the various species flourished as predators in the savanna environment.

With the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama million years ago, carnivorous dogs, bears, and cats from North America were able to cross into South America, increasing competition.[29] (They had been preceded by procyonids as early as million years ago.[4]) The population of phorusrhacids declined thereafter according to older hypotheses, suggesting that competition with newly arrived predators was a major contributor to their extinction.[30] Similar ideas have been considered for sparassodonts and for South America's terrestrial sebecid crocodilians.[31]

However, the role of competitive displacement in South American predator lineages has been questioned by some researchers.[32] The timing of turnover events and the decline of South American predators do not correlate well with the arrival of large carnivores like canids or sabretooths (although they do correlate well with the earlier-arriving procyonids, which evolved to large body size in South America, but arctic terror cs were omnivorous[33]), with native South American predator lineages (including most phorusrhacids and all sparassodonts and sebecids) dying out well before the arrival of most larger placental carnivores.[34]Bathornithids, which were similar in ecology and are likely close relatives of phorusrhacids, existed entirely within North America during part of the Cenozoic and competed successfully for a time with large carnivorans such as nimravids,[14] before becoming extinct in the Early Miocene, about 20 million years ago, arctic terror cs. The phorusrhacid Titanis expanded northward into a southern North America during the Interchange and coexisted for several million years with large canids and big cats like Xenosmilus, before its extinction about million years ago.

There were some suggestions that phorusrhacids, like the majority of Pleistocene megafauna, were killed off by human activity such as hunting or habitat change. This idea is no longer considered valid, as improved dating on Titanis specimens show that the last phorusrhacids went extinct over one million years before humans arrived. However, several fossil finds of smaller forms have been described from the late Pleistocene of South America. Psilopterus may have been present until 96, ± 6, years ago.[8] Another unidentified smaller arctic terror cs has also been dated to the late Pleistocene, perhaps 18, years ago.[7] These finds, if accepted, extend the existence of the smaller members of this group of avian predators considerably.

Recent skull discoveries[edit]

In the past, these birds were thought to have high beaks, round orbits, and vaulted braincases[35] though there was never enough empirical evidence to support this. However, new fossils have been discovered in Comallo, Argentina. These skulls reveal that the terror bird has a triangular dorsal view, a rostrum that is hooked and more than half the length of the actual skull, and a more compact caudal portion. The external nares and antorbital fenestras (areas found in the nose) were found to be more square than triangular. These all contribute to a skull that is more rectangular in view rather than triangular.[35] The structure of the fossils also suggest that these birds may have been swifter than originally thought.[35]

A skull from a smaller subspecies of this bird was also found recently. With this fossil, it was found that the internal structure of the beak is hollow and reinforced with thin-walled trabeculae. There is also arctic terror cs absence of both zona flexoria palatina and zona flexoria arcus jugalis, which are key features that relate to the evolution of cranial akinesis. The discovery of this skull allows for the establishment of primary osteological homologies, which are useful in comparative anatomy, functional morphology, and phylogenetic studies.[36]

Classification[edit]

The etymology of the name Phorusrhacidae is based on the type genus Phorusrhacos. When first described by Florentino Ameghino inthe etymology of Phorusrhacos was not given. Current thinking is that the name is derived from a combination of the Greek words "phoros", arctic terror cs, which means bearer or bearing, and "rhakos", which translates to wrinkles, scars or rents.[37] Researchers have compared Phorusrhacidae with the living families of Cariamidae and Sagittariidae, but their differences in body mass are too drastic and, thus, one cannot overly depend on these living families for answers.

Following the revision by Alvarenga and Höfling (), there are now 5 subfamilies, containing 14 genera arctic terror cs 18 species:[1] These species were the product of adaptive radiation.[38]

Superfamily Phorusrhacoidea

Reconstructed skeleton of Paraphysornisat the Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro

Family Phorusrhacidae

  • Genus Patagorhacos – Early Miocene Chichinales Formation of Rio Negro Province, Argentina.[39]
  • Subfamily Brontornithinae — gigantic species, standing on average feet (&#;m) high. Placement in Phorusrhacidae and/or monophyly disputed.
  • Subfamily Phorusrhacinae — giant species feet (&#;m) high (Kelenken up to feet (&#;m) high[40]), but somewhat slender application error udate.dll decidedly more nimble than the Brontornithinae
  • Subfamily Patagornithinae — intermediate sized and very nimble species, standing around feet (&#;m) high
  • Subfamily Psilopterinae — small species, standing feet (&#;m) high
  • Subfamily Mesembriornithinae — medium-sized species, standing feet (&#;m) high

Alvarenga and Höfling did not include the Ameghinornithidae from Europe in the phorusrhacoids; these have meanwhile turned out to be more basal members of Cariamae.[43] Though traditionally considered as members of the Gruiformes, based on both morphological and genetic studies (the latter being based on the seriema[44]) Cariamiformes may belong to a separate group of birds, Australaves, and their closest living relatives, according to nuclear sequence studies, are a clade consisting of Falconidae, Psittaciformes and Passeriformes.[45][46]

The following cladogram follows the analysis of Degrange and colleagues, [42]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ abJones, W.; Rinderknecht, arctic terror cs, A.; Alvarenga, H.; Montenegro, F.; Ubilla, M. (). "The last terror birds (Aves, Phorusrhacidae): new evidence from the late Pleistocene of Uruguay". Paläontologische Zeitschrift. 92 (2): – doi/sy. S2CID&#; Note: their date of 96 thousand years BP is the maximum age, obtained from the bottom of the fossil-containing stratum. Cite error: The named reference "Jones" was defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  3. ^Ameghino, F (). "Contribuición al conocimiento de los mamíferos fósiles de la República Argentina". Actas Academia Nacional Ciencias de Córdoba (in Spanish). 6: 1–
  4. ^ abWoodburne, M, arctic terror cs. O. (). "The Great American Biotic Interchange: Dispersals, Tectonics, Climate, Sea Level and Holding Pens", arctic terror cs. Journal of Mammalian Evolution. 17 (4): – doi/s PMC&#; PMID&#;
  5. ^Baskin, J. A. (). "The giant flightless bird Titanis walleri (Aves: Phorusrhacidae) from the Pleistocene coastal plain of South Texas". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 15 (4): – doi/
  6. ^MacFadden, Bruce J.; Labs-Hochstein, Joann; Hulbert, Richard C.; Baskin, Jon A. (). "Revised age of the late Neogene terror bird (Titanis) in North America during the Great American Arctic terror cs. Geology. 35 (2): – BibcodeGeoM. doi/GA S2CID&#;
  7. ^ abAlvarenga, arctic terror cs, H.; Jones, W.; Rinderknecht, A. (). "The youngest record of phorusrhacid birds (Aves, Phorusrhacidae) from the late Pleistocene of Uruguay"(PDF). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie - Abhandlungen. (2): – doi///
  8. ^ abJones, arctic terror cs, W.; Rinderknecht, A.; Alvarenga, H.; Montenegro, F.; Ubilla, M. (). "The last terror birds (Aves, Phorusrhacidae): new evidence from the late Pleistocene of Uruguay". Paläontologische Zeitschrift. 92 (2): – doi/sy. S2CID&#; Note: their date of 96 thousand arctic terror cs BP is the maximum age, obtained from the bottom of the fossil-containing stratum.
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