79 00 fe error

79 00 fe error

If errors occur while processing the begin function, VTAM deactivates the exit and no X'00' (0): Processing successfully completed; X'01'–X'4F' (1–79). Hi, In order to fix the FE printer error, first you have to print a configuration page. Then remove the jet direct and power on while. X'04', CBMM, Register 0 contains the error code. 79, X'4F', X'08', OPEN, A catalog management error was detected during implicit define. 79 00 fe error

Last Updated on October 28, 79 00 fe error,



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Some Windows users encounter a 79 or FE service error when trying to run a print job on their HP (Hewlett Packard) printer. This problem was confirmed on several macOS iterations and its appearance in Windows 7, Windows and Windows

After examining this particular problem, it turns out that this problem can occur for various documented reasons. Here is a brief list of possible culprits:

  • Error in the print queue
  • Firmware Error
  • Outdated printer firmware
  • The main problem with the equipment

Run the built-in printer troubleshooter

Before trying any of the following fixes, it is recommended that you run the Troubleshooting Tool to make sure that the problem is not related to how your Windows 10 computer puts jobs into print.

This error is common in Windows 10 and has been confirmed by several affected users who have already encountered unusual way runtime error code 79 when printing from HP.

  • Open the “Run” dialog box by pressing the Windows + R keys. Then type “ms-settings: Troubleshoot” in the text box and press Enter to open the Troubleshoot tab in the Windows 10 Settings application.
  • On the Troubleshooting tab, move to the right and scroll down to the Getting Started section. Then click “Printer” in the pop-up menu that appears and click “Troubleshooting”.
  • After starting this utility, patiently wait until the first scan is complete and see if any fixes are recommended. When a viable recovery strategy is found, click Apply this update and wait until the process completes.
  • Once you have successfully applied the recommended recovery strategy, reboot your computer and see if the problem is solved.

Perform the following steps to correct the HP 79 printer error code.

  • Disconnect all cables from the printer. Wait for 5 seconds. Now just plug in the power cord and find the error message.
  • Unplug the power cord and plug the printer into another electrical outlet. Now check to see if the error message continues to appear. However, when 79 00 fe error the device, avoid using extension cords, overvoltage protection devices, etc.
  • Turn off the printer by placing a power switch or a switch on the bottom of the printer. Press and hold the power button and wait for 15 seconds. Now turn on the printer and try to print a document.
  • If the problem persists and you still receive the same error message, this indicates a print job problem. It is recommended that you divide the printed document into smaller parts before printing.
  • Check the cartridge in the printer and make sure that the toner cartridge is not empty to avoid problems.
  • You can try to uninstall the printer driver from your computer and reinstall the updated driver from the manufacturer’s website.

Turn the printer off and then back on.

  • Turn off the printer, 79 00 fe error, wait at least 30 seconds, then turn on the printer and wait for the printer to initialize.
  • If you are using a surge 79 00 fe error, remove it and plug the printer directly into an electrical outlet. Turn on the printer.
  • If the message does not disappear, unplug all power or USB cables, then turn the device off and on again. When the printer is ready again, check the firmware version and update it if a newer version is available.

Reinstall the DIMM

If you have just installed a DIMM memory module in your HP printer, here are a few steps you can take to solve the problem:

  • The first thing to do is to turn off the printer.
  • Then remove the DIMM
  • Re-install the DIMM to make sure it is properly inserted into the printer.
  • Turn on your HP printer

If the problem with error 79 persists, follow these steps:

  • Delete all installed DIMMS modules
  • Check your HP printer again
  • If printing works correctly, 79 00 fe error, install the DIMM module supported by your printer.


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Ed Moyes

CCNA, Web Developer, PC Troubleshooter

I am a computer enthusiast and a practicing IT Professional. I have years of experience behind me in computer programming, hardware troubleshooting and repair. I specialise in Web Development and Database Design. I also have a CCNA certification for Network Design and Troubleshooting.

Categories Windows

DISCREPANCY BETWEEN FP AMOUNT(S) AND TICKET TOTAL(S)

You are viewing this page from an external source and its content may or may not be applicable in your market. If you are already a registered user of Amadeus Service Hub, please login to access the full knowledge base, news, training materials and other services specific to your market.

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Problem/Cause

You may receive this error message when trying to issue or reissue (exchange) a ticket.

Possible cause:

  • The total amount in the TST and the amount entered in the form of payment (FP) do gelato error level 3 match
  • If the FP element disappears from the PNR when you enter TTP, this is due to an internal database issue.
    For example: 36 FP O/CASH+/CASH+SFCA/EUR

  • If you are using a Web Service (online) application, the original form of payment may still be in the PNR (or there is a setting that needs to be updated in the Administration module)

Customer Action

1. Check that the FP amount matches the TST amount after pricing. Remove and reenter the k2 fatal error without the amount (the amount will be computed according to the pricing record at authorization time).

2. Check the TST and make sure the net amount reflected in the form of payment (FP) is not higher than the amount reflected on the TOTAL BOX

For example:

>TQT/T1
TST     MNL1A1XXX DM/16OCT I Z LD 18DEC08 OD MNLMNL SI
T-
FXP/R,ET-PH,FC-PHP
   sprers.eu MS(ID XXX)
 1   MNL 6X  K 18DEC   OK KFARE                  18MAR 20K
 2 O XMN 6X  K 06JAN   OK KFARE             20DEC18MAR 20K
     MNL
FARE  F USD    
EQUIV   PHP      
TX X PHP     YQAC TX X    EXEMPT   PHTO TX X PHP      CNAE
TOTAL   PHP          BSR
NETFARE PHP      
MNL 6X XMNX MNLNUCEND ROE

  sprers.eu *M*NONEND/NONRERTE/NONREF
 FP NR+CASH/PHP
 FT 79 00 fe error  FV 6X

 

3. If the problem persists, and you are sure the request is valid, contact your Amadeus Help Desk (or Repesentative).

Provide the following information to help investigation and speed up the handling time:

  • Timestamp of your entry. For this, enter $$DUMP from the command panel right after your entry, then copy the output
  • Exact error message received
  • Scenario to reproduce the error

Related links

FE Error Code HP Printer

HP printers have become synonyms to ‘great printing experience.’ These exceptional printers have made a mark with their excellent performance. Yet there are days when your printer faces some performance issues. There can be various reasons behind these issues ranging from internal malfunctions to external factors that hinder the performance, and even the gradual wear and tear can affect the performance of your printer.

We understand that it is not feasible to run to an IT technician every time and that is why we have compiled this article, 79 00 fe error. In this article you will find some DIY troubleshooting tips and methods for ‘hp printer error fe.’ So let us get 79 00 fe error FE Error HP Printer Machine

HP Printer Error fe

Why do you see hp printer error fe?

A proper troubleshooting is done when you understand the problem at its core. This not only helps you to understand the machine well, but also gives you a better sense in how you maintain your system for a long run. So, let us first understand the reason behind HP Printer Error:

  • If you are using an old version of firmware on your hp printer, it may result in hp printer error fe.

Things to keep in mind:

Before you update your printer to a latest version of firmware please ensure the following points:

  • You will need a stable internet connection, 79 00 fe error, and a decent speed of your PC to perform the update.
  • The update usually takes about ten to thirty minutes to finish, depending in the speed of your PC and the internet connection.
  • You should ensure the version of firmware you choose is compatible with your printer model.
  • You can perform the update over a USB Flash drive or over a network connection.

Let us troubleshoot the error:

Below you will find the detailed step by step methods for updating the firmware. Please follow the given instructions in the order as resume error next are mentioned:

Quick Fix 1:

The first method is to use ‘Embedded Web Server’ to update the firmware:

  • Switch off your printer.
  • Wait for a while to let it settle down and the turn it on again.
  • Wait until it gets ready.
  • Open the browser and type the IP address of printer, 79 00 fe error. (You can find it on the configuration Page.)
  • On the Embedded Web Server page, click on ‘General.’
  • In the new window, on the left hand side, you will find an option of ‘Firmware Upgrade.’
  • Select ‘Browse’ to extract the firmware files.
  • Look for ‘.bdl’ extension file.
  • Click on ‘Install.’
  • Wait for a while to let the installation get finished.

Note: Do not turn off or give any print command while you are updating the firmware.

  • Once the installation is complete, you now need to reboot the printer.
  • Once your printer starts to work, please print ‘Configuration’ page to ensure the latest firmware version has been installed properly.

Quick Fix 2:

Another way to update the firmware is to use a USB flash drive, 79 00 fe error. With this 79 00 fe error you can directly update the firmware to the printer’s control panel. Please follow these steps:

  • First of all look for the file with extension- ‘.bdl.’
  • Copy this file to a USB flash drive.
  • Switch off your printer.
  • Give your printer a little rest period before you turn is back on.
  • Once it is switched on, wait for a while until the printer gets into ‘ready’ mode.
  • Now you need to toggle the control panel on your printer to search for the option- ‘USB Firmware Upgrade.’ (The steps may vary according to the printer’s control panel.)
  • Now insert the USB Flash Drive.
  • Select the ‘.bdl’ file and click on ‘OK’ to start the update.
  • Wait for the installation to get completed.
  • You will find the after firmware installation the printer will start to reboot itself on its own.
  • Once your printer starts to work, please print ‘Configuration’ page to ensure the latest firmware version has been installed properly.

The Scope of Service:

We hope this article helped you to update the firmware and you no longer face the error code- ‘hp printer error fe.’ If you still face any difficulty or have any doubts to discuss with us, feel free to reach 24/7 at:

  • You can call us at HP Toll Free NumberSupport HP Printer Error 79 00 fe error at your comfort.
  • You can also chat with us live for instant step by step assistance.
PrinterHP error fe, 79 00 fe error, HP Printer Error fe

Error Codes

Archived content

NOTE: this is an archived page and the content is likely to be out of date.

When an error issuing replication 1818 0x71a occurs while the scanner is being used, the LED indicator lights in orange and an error code is displayed on the Function Number Display of the operator panel.

  • For temporary errors
    The letter "J" or "U" and an error code appear alternately.
  • For device errors
    The letter "E", "C", "H", or "L" and an alarm number appear alternately.

Temporary errors can be recovered by operators, whereas device errors require troubleshooting by a service engineer.


scanning


aLED Indicator
bFunction Number Display
c[Send to] Button
d[Scan/Stop] Button
eError Code

While a temporary error is displayed, 79 00 fe error, press the [Scan/Stop] button or the [Send to] button to clear the error indication.
Note that a paper jam message disappears after a certain period of time 79 00 fe error if there are no documents ([Ready] status) in the scanner.

Disclaimer

This documentation reflects the M-Bus specification from the late s. It is for information only and should not be used for product design or any other application or engineering.

Publication of the current M-Bus specification

The standardized application protocol in the standard EN for data exchange with heat meters will be the basis for the following discussion. This standard is also suitable for other consumer utility meters, e.g. for gas and water. However, EN only covers the data structure in the reply direction, the data structure generally used in the direction master to slave will be presented here.

CI-Field

The CI-Field codes the type and sequence of application data to be transmitted in this frame.

The EN defines two possible data sequences in multibyte records. The bit two (counting begins with bit 0, value 4), which is called M bit or Mode bit, in the CI field gives an information about the used byte sequence in multibyte data structures. If the Mode bit is not set (Mode 1), the least significant byte of a multibyte record is transmitted first, otherwise (Mode 2) the most significant byte. The Usergroup recommends to use only the Mode 1 in future applications.

Mode 1Mode 2ApplicationDefinition 79 00 fe error sendEN
52h56hselection of slavesUsergroup July
50happlication resetUsergroup March
54hsynronize actionsuggestion
B8hset baudrate to 79 00 fe error July
B9hset baudrate to baudUsergroup July
BAhset baudrate to baudUsergroup July
BBhset baudrate to baudUsergroup July
BChset baudrate to baudUsergroup July
BDhset baudrate to baudUsergroup July
BEhset baudrate to baudsuggestion
BFhset baudrate to baudsuggestion
B1hrequest readout of complete RAM contentTechem suggestion
B2hsend user data (not standardized RAM write)Techem suggestion
B3hinitialize test calibration modeUsergroup July
B4hEEPROM readTechem suggestion
B6hstart software testTechem suggestion
90h to 97hcodes used for hashingobsolete and no longer recommended

Table 2 CI-Field codes used by the master

Application reset (CI = $50)

With the CI-Code $50 the master can release a reset of the application layer in the slaves. Each slave himself decides which parameters to change - e.g. which data output is default - after it has received such an application reset, 79 00 fe error. This application reset by a SND_UD with CI=$50 is the counterpart to the reset of the data link layer by a SND_NKE.

Application reset subcode §

It is allowed to use optional parameters after CI = $ The first parameter (the application reset subcode) defines which telegram function and which subtelegram is requested by the master. The datatype of this parameter is 8 bit binary. The upper 4 bits define the telegram type or telegram application and the lower 4 bits define the number of the subtelegram. The use of the value zero for the 79 00 fe error of the subtelegram means that all telegrams are requested.

Slaves with only one type of telegram may ignore application reset and the added parameters but have to confirm it ($E5).

The following codes can be used for the upper 4 bits of the first parameter:

CodingDescriptionExamples
bAll
bUser dataconsumption
bSimple billingactual and fixed date values+dates
bEnhanced billinghistoric values
bMulti tariff billing
bInstaneous valuesfor regulation
bLoad management values for management
bReserved
bInstallation and startupbus lenovo bios fan error, fixed dates
bTestinghigh resolution values
bCalibration
bManufacturing
bDevelopment
bSelftest
bReserved
bReserved

Table 3 Coding of the upper four bits of the first parameter after CI = $50

Example:

The master releases an enhanced application reset to all slaves. All telegrams of the user data type are requested.

Syncronize action (CI = $54) §

This CI-code can be used for syncronizing functions in slaves and masters (e.g. clock syncronization).

The use of the other control information codes is described in the chapters (set baudrate to . Bd), (data send) and 7 (selection of slaves).

The following codes can be used for the direction slave to master:

CI M=0CI M=1ApplicationDefined in
70hreport of general application errorsUsergroup March
71hreport of alarm statusUsergroup March
72h76hvariable data respondEN
73h77hfixed data respondEN

Table 4 CI-Field codes used by the slave

The use of these control information codes is described in the chapters (fixed data respond), 79 00 fe error, (variable data respond), (report of general application errors) and (report of alarm status).

Fixed Data Structure

In the reply direction with a long frame two different data structures are used. The fixed data structure, besides a fixed length, is limited to the transmission of only two counter states of a predetermined length, which have binary or BCD coding, 79 00 fe error. In contrast the variable data structure allows the transmission of more counter states in various codes and further useful information about the data. 79 00 fe error number of bytes of the transmitted counter states is also variable with this data structure. Contrary to the fixed structure, the variable structure can also be used in calling direction. For this reasons the fixed data structure is not recommended for future developments.

To identify the fixed data structure, 79 00 fe error, the numbers 73h/77h for the control information field are used. In this way the master software can see how it must interpret the data.

Identification No.Access No.StatusMedium/UnitCounter 1Counter 2
4 Byte1 Byte1 Byte2 Byte4 Byte4 Byte

Fig, 79 00 fe error. 15 Fixed Data Structure in Reply Direction (transmit sequence from left to right)

The Identification Number is a serial number allocated during manufacture, coded with 8 BCD packed digits (4 Byte), and which thus runs from to

The Access Number has unsigned binary coding, and is increased by one after each RSP_UD from the slave, 79 00 fe error. With the field Status various information about the status of counters, and faults which have occurred, can be communicated - see Figure

BitMeaning 79 00 fe error Bit setSignificance with Bit not set
0Counter 1 and 2 coded signed binaryCounter 1 and 2 coded BCD
1Counter 1 and 2 are stored at fixed dateCounter 1 and 2 are actual values
2Power lowNot power low
3Permanent errorNo permanent error
4Temporary errorNo temporary error
5Specific to manufacturerSpecific to manufacturer
6Specific to manufacturerSpecific to manufacturer
7Specific to manufacturerSpecific to manufacturer

Fig. 16 Coding of the Status Field

The field Medium/Unit is always transmitted with least significant byte first and gives the medium measured for both counter states, and the units for each of the two counter states. The units of counter 1 are coded with the first 6 bits of the first byte, and the units of counter 2 with the first 6 bits of the second byte. The coding of the medium is made up of the two highest bits of these bytes, and can therefore have 16 different values (4 bits). Tables to represent the physical units and the coding of the medium are in the appendix.

ByteByte No. 8 (byte 2 of medium/unit)Byte No. 7 (byte 1 of medium/unit)
Mediumphysical unit of counter 2Mediumphysical unit of counter 1
Bit16151413121110987654321
MSBMSBLSBLSBMSBLSB

Fig. 17 Coding of physical unit and medium in fixed data structure (data type E)

To allow transmission of one historic value with one 79 00 fe error the two counters the special unit (b or hex code share of 3Eh) has been defined, 79 00 fe error. This unit declares that this historic counter has the same unit as the other actual counter.

Example for a RSP_UD with fixed data structure (mode 1):

The slave with address 5 and identification number responds with 79 00 fe error following data (all values hex.):

Variable Data Structure

The CI-Field codes 72h/76h are used to indicate the variable data structure in long frames (RSP_UD). Figure 18 shows the way this data is represented:

Fixed Data HeaderVariable Data Blocks (Records)MDHsprers.euic data
12 Bytevariable number1 Bytevariable number

Fig. 18 Variable Data Structure in Reply Direction

The first twelve bytes of the user data consist of a block with a fixed length and structure (see fig. 19).

Ident. Nr.Manufr.VersionMediumAccess No.StatusSignature
4 Byte2 Byte1 Byte1 Byte1 Byte1 Byte2 Byte

Fig. 19 Fixed Data Block

§ In contrast to the fixed data structure here the Identification Number is a customer number, coded with 8 BCD packed digits (4 Byte), and which thus runs from to It can be preset at fabrication time with a unique number, but could be changeable afterwards, especially if in addition an unique and not changeable fabrication number (DIF = $0C, VIF = $78, see chapter ) is provided.

The access number is described above in the fixed data structure (see chapter ).

The field manufacturer is coded unsigned binary with 2 bytes. This manufacturer ID is calculated from the ASCII code of EN manufacturer ID (three uppercase letters) with the following formula:

The field version specifies the generation or version of this counter and depends on the manufacturer. In contrast to the fixed data structure, the Medium is coded with a whole byte instead of four bits and the lowest two bits of the Status field are used to indicate application errors (see chapter ). Apart from this, the significance of the individual bits of the Status field is the same as that of the fixed data structure. The Signature remains reserved for future encryptation applications, and until then is allocated the value 00 00 h.

Variable Data Blocks

The data, together with information regarding coding, length and the type of data is transmitted in data records. As many blocks of data can be transferred as there is room for, within the maximum data length of Bytes, 79 00 fe error, and taking account of the C, Aand CI fields, the fixed data block. The upper limit for characters in the variable data blocks is thus byte. The Usergroup recommends a maximum total telegram length of bytes ( bytes for variable data blocks) to avoid problems in modem communication. The manufacturer data header (MDH) is made up by the character 0Fh or 1Fh and indicates the beginning of the manufacturer specific part of the user data and should be omitted, if there is no manufacturer specific data.

Data Information Block
DIFDIFEVIFVIFEData
1 Byte (1 Byte each)1 Byte (1 Byte each)0-N Byte
Data Information Block DIBValue Information Block VIB
Data Record Header DRH

Fig. 20 Structure of a 79 00 fe error Record (transmitted from left to right)

Each data record contains one value with its description as shown in figure 20, a data record, 79 00 fe error, which consists of a data record header (DRH) and the actual data. The DRH in turn consists of the DIB (data information block) to describe the length, type and coding of the data, and the VIB (value information block) to give the value of the unit and the multiplier.

The DIB contains at least one byte (DIF, 79 00 fe error, data information field), and can be extended by a maximum of ten DIFE (data information field extensions). The following information is contained in a DIF:

Bit76543210
Extension BitLSB of storage numberFunction FieldData Field: Length and coding of data

Fig. 21 Coding of the Data Information Field (DIF)

The function field gives the type of data as follows:

CodeDescriptionCodeDescription
00bInstantaneous value01bMaximum value
10bMinimum value11bValue during error state

The data field shows how the data from the master must be interpreted in respect of length and coding. The following table contains the possible coding of the data field:

Length in BitCodeMeaningCodeMeaning
0No dataSelection for Readout
88 Bit Integer2 digit BCD
1616 Bit Integer4 digit BCD
2424 Bit Integer6 digit BCD
3232 Bit Integer8 digit BCD
32 / N32 Bit Realvariable length
4848 Bit Integer12 digit BCD
6464 Bit IntegerSpecial Functions

Table 5 Coding of the data field

For a detailed description of data types refer to appendix “ Coding of data records” (BCD = Type A, Integer = Type B, Real = Type H).

Variable Length:

With data field = several data types with variable length can be used. The length of the data is given after the DRH with the first byte of real data, which is here called LVAR (e.g. LVAR = 02h: ASCII string with two characters follows) § .

Like all multibyte fields in mode 1 the last character and in mode 2 the first character is transmitted first.

Special Functions (data field = b):
DIFFunction
0FhStart of manufacturer specific data structures to end of user data
1FhSame meaning as DIF = 0Fh + More records follow in next telegram
2FhIdle Filler (not to be interpreted), following byte = DIF
3FhFhReserved
7FhGlobal readout request (all storage#, units, tariffs, function fields)

If data follows after DIF=$0F or $1F these are manufacturer specific data records. The number of bytes in these manufacturer specific data can be calculated with the L-Field. The DIF 1Fh signals a request from the slave to the master to readout the slave once again. The master must readout the slave until there is no DIF=1Fh inside the respond telegram (multi telegram readout).

The Bit 6 of the DIF serves to give the storage number of the data concerned, and the slave can in this way indicate and transmit various stored counter states or historical values, in the order in which they occur. This bit is the least significant bit of the storage number and allows therefore the storage numbers 0 and 1 to be given without further DIFE. In this way the storage number 0 stands for the actual value. If higher storage numbers are needed, the slave allows a DIFE to follow the DIF, and indicates this by setting the extension bit.

Each DIFE (maximum ten) contains again an extension bit to show that a further DIFE is being sent. Besides giving the next most significant bit of the storage number, this DIFE allows the transmission of informations about the tariff and the subunit of the device from which the data come. In this way, exactly as with the storage number, the next most significant bit or bits will be transmitted, 79 00 fe error. The figure 22 which follows shows the structure of a DIFE:

Bit76543210
Extension Bit(Device) UnitTariffStorage Number

Fig. 22 Coding of the Data Information Field Extension (DIFE)

With the maximum of ten DIFE which are provided, there are 41 bits for the storage number, 20 bits for the tariff, and 10 bits for the subunit of the meter. There is no application conceivable in which this immense number of bits 79 00 fe error all be used.

Value Information Block (VIB)

After a DIF or DIFE without a set extension bit there follows the VIB (value information block). This consists at least of the VIF (value information field) and can be expanded with a maximum of 10 extensions (VIFE). The VIF and also the VIFE’s show with a set MSB that a VIFE will follow. In the value information field VIF the other seven bits give the unit and the multiplier of the transmitted value.

Bit76543210
Extension BitUnit and multiplier (value)

Fig. 23 Coding of the Value Information Field (VIF)

There are five types of coding depending on the VIF:
  1. Primary VIF: E b 79 00 fe error. E b

    The unit and multiplier is taken from the table for primary VIF (chapter ).

  2. Plain-text VIF: E b

    In case of VIF = 7Ch / FCh the true VIF is represented by the 79 00 fe error ASCII string with the length given in the first byte. Please note that the byte order of the characters after the length byte depends on the used byte sequence. This plain text VIF allows the user to code units that are not included in the VIF tables.

  3. Linear VIF-Extension: FDh and FBh

    In case of VIF = FDh and VIF = FBh the true VIF is given by the next byte and the coding is taken from the table for secondary VIF (chapter ). This extends the available VIF by another codes.

  4. Any VIF: 7Eh / FEh

    This VIF-Code can be used in direction master to slave for readout selection of all VIF. See chapter

  5. Manufacturer specific: 7Fh / FFh

    In this case the remainder of this data record including VIFE has manufacturer specific coding.

The VIFE can be used for actions which shall be done with the data (master to slave, chapter ), for reports of application errors (slave to master, chapter ) and for an enhancement of the VIF (orthogonal VIF, chapter ), 79 00 fe error. The last feature allows setting VIF into relation to the base 79 00 fe error units (e.g. VIF=10 liter, VIFE= per hour) or coding indirect units, pulse increments and change speeds.

In case of VIFE = FFh the next VIFE and the data of this block are manufacturer specific, but the VIF is coded as normal.

After a VIF or VIFE with an extension bit of “0”, the value information block is closed, and therefore also the data record header, 79 00 fe error, and the actual data follow in the previously given length and coding.

Manufacturer Specific Data Block

The MDH consists of the character 0Fh or 1Fh (DIF = 0Fh or 1Fh) and indicates that all following data are manufacturer specific. When the number of bytes given in the length field of the connection protocol has not yet been dxgi error unsupported up, then manufacturer specific data follow this character, whose coding is left to the manufacturer. The length of this data is calculated from the L-Field minus the length of the so-called standard data (C-Field, A-Field, CI-Field and the data up to and including the data block 0Fh).

In case of MDH = 1Fh the slave signals to the master that it wants to be readout once again (multitelegram readouts). The master must readout the data until there is no MDH = 1Fh in the respond telegram.

Example for a RSP_UD with variable data structure answer (mode 1):

(all values are hex.)

Configuring Slaves

The means for configuring slaves, for example 79 00 fe error primary address or secondary address, set baudrate or set other configuration data inside the slave are explained in this section.

Switching Baudrate

All slaves must be able to communicate with the master 79 00 fe error the minimum transmission speed of baud. Splitted baudrates between transmit and receive are not allowed, but there can be devices with different baudrates on the bus.

In point to point connections the slave is set to another baudrate by a Control Frame (SND_UD with L-Field = 3) with address FEh and one of the following CI-Field codes:

CI-FieldB8hB9hBAhBBhBChBDhBEhBFh
Baud
Note1111,22

Fig. 24 CI-Field-Codes for Baudrate Switching

Notes:

  • 1) These baudrates are not recommended.
  • 2) These baudrates will be available in future with new repeater hardware. CI-Field codes are suggestions by the Usergroup.

The slave confirms the correctly received telegram by transmitting an E5h with the old baudrate and uses the new baudrate from now on, if he is capable of this.

The master must know the highest available baudrate on the bus to forbid the user switching to a transmission speed, 79 00 fe error, which is not available on the bus. Otherwise the slave would never answer again.

Example:

From that time on the slave communicates with the transmission speed baud.

Writing Data to a Slave

The master can send data to a slave using a SND_UD with CI-Field 51h for mode 1 or 55h for mode 2. Note that the data structure in such a write telegram has been changed in contrast to previous definitions by means of leaving out the fixed data header of 12 byte. The following figure shows the data structure for a write telegram. The order of the first three blocks in the following figure can be turned round, 79 00 fe error, but the write only data record must be at the end of the telegram. All records are optional.

Primary Address RecordEnhanced Identification RecordNormal Data RecordsWrite Only Data Records

Fig. 25 Data Structure for Writing Data

  • Primary Address Record:

    The primary address record is optional and consists of three bytes:

    DIF = 01hVIF = 7AhData = Address (1 byte binary)

    With this data record a primary address can be assigned to a slave in point to point connections. The master must know all the used addresses on the bus and forbid setting the address of a slave to an already used address. Otherwise both slaves with the same address couldn’t be read out anymore.

  • Enhanced Identification Record:

    With this optional data record the identification (secondary address) can be changed. There are two cases to be distinguished:

    1) Data is only the identification number

    DIF = 0ChVIF = 79hData = Identification No. (8 digit BCD)

    2) Data is the complete identification

    DIF = 07hVIF = 79hData = complete ID (64 bit integer)

    The data is packed exactly as in the readout header of a $72/$76 variable protocol with low byte first for mode 1 and high byte first for mode application error 0xc0000006 No.Manufacturer IDGenerationMedium4 byte2 byte1 byte1 byte

  • Normal Data Records:

    The data records, which can be read out with a REQ_UD2, are sent back to the slave with the received DIF and VIF and the new data contents. Additional features can be implemented using the generalized object layer (see chapter § ).

  • Write-Only Postfix smtp server error, which cannot be read out of the slave with a normal data block, can be transmitted using the VIF = 7Fh for manufacturer specific coding. The DIF must have a value corresponding to the type and length of data.

After receiving the SND_UD correctly without any error in data link layer the slave must answer with an acknowledgement (E5h). The slave decides whether to change variables or not after a data write from the master. In case of errors in executing parts of or whole write instructions the slave can decide whether to change no variables or single correct variables. The slave can report the this errors to the master in the next RSP_UD telegram using some of the methods which are described in chapter

There are some methods for implementing write protect, for example allowing only one write after a hardware reset of the processor or enabling write if a protect disable jumper is set.

Examples:
Configuring Data Output

For vba is error the slave transmits all his data with a RSP_UD. It could be useful for some applications to read only selected data records out of one or more devices. There are two ways to select data records:

Selection without specified data field

The selection of the wanted data records can be performed with a SND_UD (CI-Field = 51h/55h) and data records containing the data field b, 79 00 fe error, which means “selection for readout request”. The following VIF defines the selected data as listed in EN and no data are transmitted. The answer data field is determined by the slave. The master can select several variables by sending more data blocks with this data field in the same telegram.

Special multiple values can be selected with the following 79 00 fe error VIF:

The VIF-Code $7E (any VIF) is especially for readout request of “all VIF” from the slave and can be interpreted as a selection wildcard for the value information field.

  • Global readout request:

    The DIF-Code $7F is defined as “selection of all data for readout request”, i.e. all storage numbers, units, tariffs and functions. If this DIF is the last byte of user data or the VIF=$7E follows, then all data is requested. So the selection of all data of one slave can de done with a SND_UD and the character $7F as the user data. If there follows a DIF unequal to $7E, then all subfields of this VIF are selected for readout.

  • All Tariffs:

    The highest 79 00 fe error number in the selection record is defined as selection of “all tariffs”. For example the tariff b (15) means selection of all tariffs in a record with two DIFE.

  • All Storage Numbers:

    A selection of all storage numbers can be done with the maximum storage number if there is a minimum of one DIFE. For example the highest storage number is $1F (31) with one DIFE and $1FF () with two DIFE.

  • All Units:

    “All units” can be selected by using a data record header with minimum two DIFE and the highest unit number.

  • High Resolution Readout:

    The master can select the slave to answer with the maximum resolution to a given value / unit by a VIF with “nnn” = (minimum exponent for range coding). The meter may then answer with a resolution of e.g. 1mWh (VIF=b) or some higher decimal value if required. The unit values have been chosen so that their minimum provides sufficient resolution even for calibration, 79 00 fe error. A readout request for a VIF with “nnn”=max (maximum exponent for range coding) signals a request for the standard resolution of the meter.

  • After the next REQ_UD2 the slave answers with the selected data in his own format, if the requested data are available. Otherwise the slave transmits his normal data and the master has to find out that the data are not the requested one. If there are more than one variables with the selected VIF, the device should send all these data records.

    Selection with specified data field

    The master is able to perform a readout request with a specified data field by using the object action “add to readout list” (VIFE = E b) from VIFE-table for object actions (see chapter ). The master transmits a SND_UD (CI-Field = 51h/55h) with a data record which consists of the desired DIF 79 00 fe error field), VIF and the VIFE = 0Ch / 8Ch. No data follows this VIFE and the slave should ignore the data field on reception. The slave should transmit this data record with the requested data field from now on, if he is capable of this. If the slave doesn’t support this data field (data coding), it can report a record error using one of the VIFE = E x (data class not implemented or data size not implemented).

    Deselection of data records

    The master can release a reset of the application layer and especially a fallback to the slaves standard RSP_UD-Telegram by transmitting a SND_UD with the CI-Field $

    Single data records can be deselected by transmitting a data record with DIF, VIF and the VIFE for the object action “Delete from Readout-List” (VIFE = E b).

    If the selected data is supported by the slave but too long for one RSP_UD telegram (especially for readout of all historic values), the slave transmits an additional data record consisting only of the DIF=$1F, which means that more data records follow in the next respond telegram. In this case the master must readout the slave again until the respond telegram is only an $E5 (no data) or there is no DIF=$1F in the RSP_UD.

    To avoid lost of data respond telegrams the slave should in this case support the Frame Count Bit (FCB). If the master wants to premature end such a multitelegram sequential readout of the selected data, 79 00 fe error, it may send an application reset with CI=$50 instead of further REQ_UD2.

    Examples:

    Generalized Object Layer

    The fundamental idea of an object is the encapsulation of data and methods or actions for the data. 79 00 fe error case of writing data to a slave the master software can pack data and information about the action, which the slave shall do with this data, in one data record. This variable data record with actions is now called an object. If the VIF has not got the value $FD (extended VIF-Code table) the following VIFE-Codes define the action:

    Action: (E: extension bit)

    VIFE-Code binaryActionExplanation
    E Write (Replace)replace old with new data
    E Add Valueadd data to old data
    E Subtract Valuesubtract data from old data
    E OR (Set Bits)data OR old data
    E ANDdata AND old data
    E XOR (Toggle Bits)data XOR old data
    E AND NOT (Clear Bits)NOT data AND old data
    E Clearset data to zero
    E Add Entrycreate a new data record
    E Delete Entrydelete an existing data record
    E Reserved
    E Freeze Datafreeze data to storage no.
    E Add to Readout-Listadd data record to RSP_UD
    E Delete from Readout-Listdelete data record from RSP_UD
    E xReserved
    E xxxxReserved

    Fig. 26 Action Codes for the Generalized Object layer (Master to Slave)

    With these actions the master can alter the data of the slaves or configure the output data of the slaves (actions 12 and 13). The actions 0 to 6 alter the data of the slave by replacing the old data (action 0, equals to data write without VIFE) or do arithmetical or logical operations with the old and the transmitted data.

    Note that this method of configuring the readout list (action 12 and 13) allows not only the adding but also the error allocating mechsmooth data of elements in contrast to the method of using the DIF=b-type of readout request (described in chapter ).

    All these actions can be used for normal slaves and for intelligent master which are manipulated by a higher order master.

    The functions “Add entry” and “Delete entry” are useful to tell an intelligent master to add e.g. a new data record like maximum or minimum values of any slave.

    With the action “freeze data to storage #” the master can tell the slave to freeze the actual value corresponding to the transmitted VIF, unit, tariff and function to a certain storage number given in the DIF/DIFE. In this case the data field inside the VIF has got the value b (no data). This action allows freeze of selected values or multiple freeze with VIF=$7E (all VIF), 79 00 fe error. The date / time should also be freezed to the same storage number.

    Examples:

    Application Layer 79 00 fe error can be so far only data link layer errors reported from slave to master by means of leaving out the acknowledgement or negative acknowledgement. It is not allowed to report errors in the application layer, which can equal error rate for example in data writing, using any of the above methods, because these are reserved for link layer errors. The slave can transmit an $E5 after a REQ_UD2 to indicate that it has received the telegram, but can’t respond with data. There are three different techniques for reporting application errors:

    1. Status Field

    One possible solution is to use the reserved 2 lowest bits of the Status field in the variable data structure for the application layer status:

    Status bit 1 bit 0Application status
    0 0No Error
    0 1Application Busy
    1 0Any Application Error
    1 1Reserved

    Fig. 27 Application Errors coded with the Status-Field

    2. General Application Errors

    For reporting general application errors a slave can use a RSP_UD telegram with CI=$70 and zero or one byte data, which then describes the type of error:

    68h04h04h68h08hPAdr70hDATACS16h

    Fig. 28 Telegram for reporting general application errors

    The following values for DATA are defined:

    0Unspecified error: also if data field is missing
    1Unimplemented CI-Field
    2Buffer too long, 79 00 fe error, truncated
    3Too many records
    4Premature end of record
    5More than 10 DIFE
    6More than 10 VIFE
    7Reserved
    8Application too busy for handling readout request
    9Too many readouts (for slaves with limited readouts per time)
    Reserved

    Table 6 Codes for general application errors

    3. Record Errors

    To report errors belonging to a special record the slave can use this data record header with a VIFE containing one of the following values to code the type of application error, which has been occured.

    VIFE-CodeType of Record ErrorError Group
    E None
    E Too many DIFE
    E Storage number not implemented
    E Unit number not implemented
    E Tariff number not implementedDIF Errors
    E Function not implemented
    E Data class not implemented
    E Data size not implemented
    E to E Reserved
    E Too many VIFE
    E Illegal VIF-Group
    E Illegal VIF-ExponentVIF Errors
    E VIF/DIF mismatch
    E Unimplemented action
    E to E Reserved
    E No data available (undefined value)
    E Data overflow
    E Data underflow
    E Data errorData Errors
    E to 79 00 fe error Reserved
    E Premature end of record
    E to E ReservedOther Errors

    Table 7 Codes for record errors (E = extension bit)

    In case of record errors the data maybe invalid. The error in /tmp/sideload/package has some options to transmit the data:

    Special Slave Features

    Some optional or recommended features of the slaves, which are not mentioned in EN, will be described in this section.

    Auto Speed Detect

    § This feature is implemented in several slaves. It is no longer recommended by the M-Bus Usergroup because it is difficult to guarantee a hamming distance of four with this method.

    The fact that several baudrates are allowed on the bus causes the problem for the master to know the used baudrates of all connected slaves. The software must perform the search for primary and secondary addresses with all allowed baudrates. For this reasons it is useful, if the slaves would answer with just the baudrate, which the master uses for this telegram. In addition the risk to loose contact with a slave would be dismissed and commands for baudrate switching would no longer be required.

    The slave detects the baudrate by scanning the start sign of the telegram, which has the value 10h for a short frame or the value 68h for a long frame.

    Startsign 10h on the bus:

    StartLSBBit 1Bit 2Bit 3Bit 4Bit 5Bit 6MSBParityStop
    00000100011

    Startsign 68h on the bus:

    StartLSBBit 1Bit 2Bit 3Bit 4Bit 5Bit 6MSBParityStop
    00001011011

    The startsign 10h begins with five space bits and the startsign 68h with four space bits on the line. After detecting the beginning of a new telegram the device measures the duration of space. By comparing the space duration with a stored table of ranges for five and four bits of all implemented transmission speeds the slave makes a decision about the baudrate and the number of space bits (four or five). Then it receives the remaining bits of the startsign (seven or six) with the detected 79 00 fe error speed. This procedure has to 79 00 fe error for example a flag or a variable to tell the normal receive procedure the used baudrate.

    Auto speed detect ofand baud has been implemented with an eigth bit microcontroller and works fine. This feature can be easily programmed in microcontrollers using software polling for communication, but is more difficult with UART-based communication.

    Slave Collision Detect

    Collisions between transmitting slaves can occur during slave search activities by the master. Very light collisions of () mA, which are equivalent to 2 or 3 transmitting slaves, are electrically undetectable by master and slave. New master hardware with double current detect can detect light collisons of () mA and then transmit a break (50 ms space) on the bus. The slave can detect medium collisions of () mA, 79 00 fe error, if this is a collision between a mark and a space and if the slave supports this feature. Heavy collisions of (mA) will have the effect of a break down of the bus voltage (power fail in the slave) and possibly a shortcircuit in the master.

    To avoid these consequences of (heavy) collisions new master have the feature of double current detect with break signaling and switching off the bus in overcurrent states. There are some means for the slaves to detect collisions and then stop transmitting:

    1. Software based UART can test at the end of each Mark-Send-Bit whether the input is really a mark. This guarantees a very fast detection of collisions, is simple to implement and is strongly recommended for pure software UART.

    2. A variation of the preceeding method is to test whether the bus voltage is mark after each stop-bit. This is simple for a software UART, but very tricky for a hardware UART and requires a master sending a break on collision detect.

    3. A simple method for unbuffered hardware UART, but tricky for buffered hardware UART, is to compare the transmitted with the received byte.

    4. Another method, which requires a master with break collision detect, is a hardware UART with break detect.

    5. The baudrate of the communication process after a detected break will be Baud § .

    Use of the fabrication Number

    (§ new chapter)

    The fabrication number is a serial number allocated error send request with error manufacture. It is part of the variable data block (DIF = $0C and VIF = $78) and coded with 8 BCD packed digits (4 Byte).

    Example:

    The use of this number is recommended if the identification number is changeable. In this case two or more slaves can get the same secondary adress and can not be uniquely selected. The fabrication number together with manufacturer, version and medium field build an unique number instaed. Suitable masters use this number for an enhanced selection method if two or more slaves have the same secondary adress (see chapter ).

    Hex-Codes $A-$F in BCD-data fields

    (§ new chapter)

    General description
    • 1.) Standard Reference

      EN allows multi-digit BCD-coded datafields. The current standard does not contain information about what happens if a non-BCD hex code ($A-$F) is detected by the master software.

    • 2.) Purpose of this proposal

      a) Define the treatment of non BCD-digits in slave to master RSP_UD-telegrams

      To fully define a master software including error treatment such a definition would be desirable.

      b) Utilize these codes for simplified error treatment by slave

      The current user group proposal contains various techniques for signalling errors or abnormal situations. Most of canon mp520 error5100 are hard to implement on 79 00 fe error mikro-processors. Utilizing these “illegal” codes $A to $F for signalling these states to the master would simplify the software design of the slaves.

      c) Anormal states of variables

      • Value not available

        This happens for example, if a fixed date value is not yet available, because the first fixed date is in the future. The display at the meter or the remote PC should read “—-“.

      • Device error

        This could happen for a temperature variable, if the sensor is malfunctioning. The display at the meter or a remote PC should signal some error code. Multiple error codes should be supported.

      • Soft overflow

        Exceeding the upper count limit on integral values or the upper value limit on momentary values should be signallable. For a wrap around carry of integral variables the display should be consistent with old mechanical wrap around counters. In addition a wrap around flag should be extractable.

      • Soft underflow

        Underflowing the lower count limit of 00 on integral values or a negative value on momentary values should be signallable. For a wrap around carry of integral variables the display should be consistent with old mechanical wrap around counters. In addition a wrap around flag should be extractable.

      • Simple visible error signalling

        To simplify the design of slaves with integrated displays, the above mentioned non-BCD states of the variables should be both transmittable in the form of suitable (Hex) codes but also be displayable directly from the value codes of a 7-segment (usually LCD) display by extending the normal ten entry BCD to 7-segment decoding table to either a dual entry or a single entry decoding table where 16 entries are used 79 00 fe error decoding the MSD (Most Significant Digit) and the other 16 entries are used for the decoding for all other for all other digits. For very weak mikroprocessors with a maximum of a single decoding table with only entries a compatible solution with decreased functionality is also presented.

    New proposal
    • 1.) Definition of hex code meanings

      • a) $A

        Such a code in the MSD (Most significant digit) position signals a one digit value overflow either of a number or due to an addition or increment carry. The display at the meter or a remote PC should display a “0” at 79 00 fe error appropriate display position. This makes the display compatible with conventional counter rollover, 79 00 fe error. In addition the leading digit can be treated by the slave software simply as a hexadecimal digit instead of the BCD-coded other digits to realize this function. Processing software in the master could convert this data digit run-time error /5/ a value of 10 in an extended length data field. In addition an appropriate application error code could be generated if desired. If this hex code appears in any other digit position than the MSD, 79 00 fe error, it signals a value error of the complete data field. If an alternative display decoding table for the digits other than the MSD is possible, this hex code should be displayed in these other digit positions as the symbol “A”. This would allow more flexible displayable error codes.

        Example: A 4-digit BCD code of “A” should be interpreted by the master software as “” with an optional overrange VIFE-error code and displayed as on a 4-digit only display.

      • b) $B

        Such a code in the MSD digit position signals a two digit value overflow either of a number or due to an addtion or increment carry. The display at the meter or a remote PC should display a “1” at the appropriate display position. This makes the display compatible with conventional counter rollover. In addition the leading digit can be treated by the slave software simply as a hexadecimal digit instead of the BCD-coded other digits to realize this function. Processing software could convert this data digit to a value of 11 in an extended length data field. In addition an appropriate application error code could be generated if desired. If this hex code appears in any other digit position than the MSD, it signals a value or availability error of the complete data field. It should be displayed as the symbol “-“.

        Example: A 4-digit BCD code of “B” should gta 4 terrorist mod interpreted by the master software as “” with an optional overrange VIFE-error code and displayed as on a 4-digit only display with digit selective decoding.

      • c) $C

        Such a code in the MSD digit position signals a three digit value overflow either of a number or due to an addition or increment carry. The display at the meter or a remote PC should display a “2” at the appropriate display position. This makes the display compatible with conventional counter rollover, 79 00 fe error. In addition the leading digit can be treated by the slave software simply as a hexadecimal digit instead of the BCD-coded other digits to realize this function. Processing software could convert this data digit to a value of 12 in an extended length data field. In addition an appropriate application error code could be generated if desired. If this hex code appears in any other digit position than the MSD, it signals a value error of the complete data field, 79 00 fe error. It should be displayed as the symbol “C”. Note that the suggested interpretation of $A to $C in the MSD effectivly supports a 30% overrange guard band against an undetected rollover and flexible error codes including the letters “A”, “C”, “E” and “F”.

        Example: A 4-digit BCD code of “C” should be interpreted by the master software as “” with an optional overrange VIFE-error code and displayed as on a 4-digit only display.

      • d) $D

        Such a code in any digit position signals a general error of the complete data field. The display at the meter or a remote PC should display a blank at the appropriate display position. Since both an overflow from $C and an underflow from $E end in this out of range type error the function of an out-of-range over/underflow can be implemented by simple hex arithmetic. It is however recommended that the slave arithmetic checks this $D-code in the MSD before incrementing or decrementing the value for integral variables to make such an error irreversible if the slave does not expect such an over- or underflow.

      • e) $E

        Such a code 79 00 fe error the MSD digit position signals a two digit value underflow either of a number or due to a subtraction or decrement borrow. The display at the meter or a remote PC should display an “8” at the appropriate display hwk box auth error 1111. This makes the display compatible with conventional counter rollunder. In addition the leading digit can be treated by the slave software simply as a hexadecimal digit instead of the BCD-coded other digits to realize this function. Processing software could convert the data in the field to a negative value using 16’s complement on the leading digit and tens complement at the other digits. In addition an appropriate application error code could be generated if desired. If this hex code appears in any other digit position than the MSD, it signals a value error of the complete data field, 79 00 fe error. It should be displayed as the symbol “E”.

        Example: A 4-digit BCD code of “E” should be interpreted by the master software as “- ” (FE+1) with an optional underrange VIFE-error code and displayed as on a 4-digit only display.

      • f) $F

        Such a code in the MSD digit position signals an one digit value underflow either of a number or due to a subtraction or decrement borrow. The display at the meter or a remote PC should display an “9” at the appropriate display position. This makes the display compatible with conventional counter rollunder. In addition the leading digit can be treated by the slave software simply as a hexadecimal digit instead of the BCD-coded other digits to realize this function. Processing software could convert the data in the field to a negative 79 00 fe error using 16’s complement on the leading digit and tens complement at the other digits. In addition an appropriate application error code could be generated if desired. If an alternative display decoding table for the digits other 79 00 fe error the MSD is possible, this hex code should be displayed in these other digit positions as the symbol “F”. Note that the suggested interpretation of $E and $F in the MSD effectivly supports a 20% underrange guard band against an undetected rollunder for displays and flexible error displays if dual decoding tables are available. In addition it allows a simplified coding for small negative values 79 00 fe error often required for values like temperature or flow rate.

        Example: A 4-digit BCD code of “F” should be interpreted by the master software as “- ” (FF+1) with an optional underrange VIFE-error code and displayed as on a 4-digit only display.

      • g) Combinations

        If with the exception of the MSD all other digits are true BCD-digits ($0-$9) the value is either considered as “Overflow” for the MSD hex codes $A to $C or as “Underflow” for the MSD hex codes $E and $F or a general error for the MSD hex code $D.

        The code $sprers.eu in the data field is always considered as “not available”. This is displayed as “ —-“ (with a blank in the MSD). Any other non BCD-hex codes in one or several digits other than the MSD is interpreted as an error for the complete data field. The error type is formed from the characters “A”, “C”, “E”, “F” (all corresponding to their hex code), “-“, blank and the digits The display may show an identical error code if displaying the variable, but the MSD digit on the display can contain only blank or the digits

      • h) Decoding table for 2*16 entries (or 32 entries)

        0123456789$A$B$C$D$E$F
        MSD“0”“1”“2”“3”“4”“5”“6”“7”“8”“9”“0”“1”“2”” ““8”“9”
        other digits“0”“1”“2”“3”“4”“5”“6”“7”“8”“9”“A””-““C”” ““E”“F”
      • i) Subset functions

        A slave may utilize either non, a single, several or all suggested special functions and their associated hex codes. A slave might utilize also a different number of hex code functions for different data fields. A slave could also use different display implementations for the various special functions and error displays but the suggested solution would simplify the operation of the system, since the master display will be identical to the slave display for the value associated with the appropriate data field.

    • 2.) Subset for single entry display decoding

      • a) Decoding table

        0123456789$A$B$C$D$E$F
        “0”“1”“2”“3”“4”“5”“6”“7”“8”“9”“0””-““C”” ““E”“9”
      • b) Overrange

        The overrange feature should be limited to a 10% overrange ($A in MSD). A further increment should lead directly to the MSD-error hex code $D, which should stop further increment and decrement and generate a suitable error code in the other digits

      • c) Underrange

        The underrange feature should be limited to a 10% underrange ($F in MSD). A further decrement should lead directly to the MSD-error hex code $D, which should stop further increment and decrement and generate a suitable error code in the other digits.

      • d) Error codes

        Error codes may contain only the letters “C” and “E”, blank, “-“ and the digits

      • e) Compatiblity

        At the master side this subset realisation is completely compatible and transparent to the full implementation.

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